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高中英语知识串串讲加介词用法


高考英语知识串讲
一、Language Points 1.share v. 分享、合用:share sth with sb n. 一份,股份 spare a. 业余的,备用的:spare time, a spare tire v. 抽出,匀给:spare me five minutes/ spare one of sandwiches for the boy spare

no efforts:不遗余力 spare no expense:不惜工本 save v. 节省,救出 2. He felt lucky to have survived the war. 3. with sb about/over sth:和某人就某事争论 argue for/against sth:赞成/反对? Sb into/out of (doing) sth:说服某人做/不做某事 4.have/make/let/see/watch/listen to +宾+宾补(do/doing/done) get sb to do sth have+宾+宾补(to do/to be done) 5.So+同一主语+助动词 So/neither/nor+助动词+另一主语 So it is/was with+另一主语 6.should/ought to/need/could/might/would+do/have done 7.except/but/except for/except that/except wh-clause besides/in addition apart from but for=without 8.The first time+从句 For the first time:作时间状语 It’s the first time+that-clause(完成时) the first+名词+to do 9. most most of the +n.(pl)/pron. the majority of (the) mostly: 主要地(状)

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10.be equal to sth:与?相等 be equal to (doing) sth:胜任(做)某事 equal sth:与?相等 equal sb in sth:在?方面与某人匹敌 11.compare?to/with? compared to/with? 12. a great many several/two dozen/hundred +n.(pl.) (many) dozens of a great many of +the/these/those+n.(pl.) seveal/two dozen of +pron. 13.much too+adj/adv(原级) too much+n.(u.) too many+n.(pl.) 14. 没有被动态 come about(主要用于疑问句、否定句) happen(表示偶然、碰巧之意) sth+ take place(多表示有组织、有计划) break out(指战争、灾害、疾病等的爆发) occur(与 happen 通用) It occurs to sb that/to do?:某人突然想起? 15. n./pron./adj./adv./prep-phrase to do:表将来 With+宾+宾补 doing:表正在进行 Done:表过去 16. 强调句型的判断方法:如果将句子中的“it be”和“that”去掉,原句通顺则是强调句, 否则就不是强调句。例: It was in the street that I met an old friend yesterday.

二、语法专题──名词的考点 1. 考查可数名词和不可数名词,尤其是许多不可数名词在一定情况下变为可数名词。 2. 考查名词的格,即 ’s 所有格,of 所有格或双重所有格。 3. 名词作定语。 4. 名词及名词短语的辨析。 5. 名词与介词,冠词,动词的搭配。

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三、题型归纳──辨析型单项填空 1. 名词的辨析 名词的辨析首先要注意名词单复数的意义区别,如 parent 指父亲或母亲,而 parents 指父母双 亲;people 指人们,而 a people 指民族。其次注意可数与不可数时的意义区别,如: exercise 指锻炼;而 exercises 指练习题或练习操;再次,注意同义名词或近义名词的区别,如:: event 指发生的重大事件、体育项目;incident 指偶发事件;而 accident 指意外事件。最后还要注意 近形词的区别, 如: cloth 指布; cloths 指各种不同用途的布; clothes 指衣服(复数), clothing 衣服(总称)。 2. 动词的辨析 对于动词的辨析,首先要了解动词的及物与不及物,如: reply 意为“回答,答复”后面接名词 时需接介词 to, 此时为不及物动词;后接从句时,则为及物动词。其次是要弄清动词的词义区 别,如: advise 与 persuade, 前者指劝说、劝告,强调过程;而后者指说服,强调结果。最后 还要区别各种非谓语动词间的意义和用法: 动词的 v-ing 形式表示正在进行或伴随的动作; v-ed 形式表示完成或被动;to do 形式表示即将进行的动作等。 3. 形容词、副词的辨析 对于形容词、副词,一是要注意近义词间的区别,如: clever 指对问题处理的圆滑;bright 指 对问题的反应快;wise 指选择的正确等。此外,如 wide 与 broad; strong 与 powerful; interesting 与 interested; exciting 与 excited 等。 二是注意同形的形容词和副词, 如: close 作形容词时意为“亲密的”;作副词时意为“接近,靠拢”。三是注意同根副词的区别,如: hard 与 hardly, 前者指猛烈地、努力地;而后者意为几乎不。四是注意副词形式的形容词,如: friendly, lovely, lively 实际上是形容词,切不可当作副词使用。五是注意形容词的位置区 别,如: present+n.与 n.+present,前者指当前的;而后者指在场的。 4. 介词的辨析 对介词的辨析要从两方面入手,一是介词的词义,如: across, through, past, over 为动作介 词,across 强调从表面横过,越过;through 强调从空间穿过;past 强调从侧面、旁边经过; over 强调从空中越过而不接触,也可以表示越过一段距离、空间等。此外,如 above, over, on; with, by; of, to; to, for 的区别。 5. 连词的辨析 连词的区别主要在于: 一是连词的意义, 如: when, while 与 as; because, since 与 for; whether 与 if; though, as 与 although 等。 二是注意时间名词短语转化而成的连词, 如:every/each time; the first/second?time; the moment; the minute 等,它们都可作连词,连接从句。三是注 意副词转化而成的连词,如: directly, immediately, instantly 等。四是注意连词的词序, 如: only if 与 if only, 前者意为“只要”,后者意为“要是?就好了”。 6. 代词的辨析 代词的辨析包括不定代词,如: other, others, the other, the others, another 等;人称代 词, 如: one, it, that 等和关系代词, 如: which 与 that; which 与 as; whose 与 prep.+which/whom 等。

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1. Does the teacher____ you to go home this weekend? A. allow B. consent C. agree D. approve 2. After the big fire, the house was completely____. A. ruined B. destroyed C. damaged D. spoiled 3. The hunter said he was lucky to get out of the forest____. A. living B. alive C. lively D. live 4. ____ talking with his Grandma, he went away without saying a word. A. Tiring with B. Tiring of C. Tired with D. Tired of 5. It’s necessary to have some____ knowledge for this job. A. electric B. electrical C. elctron D. electricity 6. The photo____ on the wall was taken in Beijing last year. A. hang B. hanging C. hung D. hanged 7. On New Year’s Day, people, especially girls, always wear new____-new hats, new coats, new trousers and new shoes. A. clothes B. clothing C. cloth D. cloths 8. He stays up____ in the evenings to go online to get the____ information. A. late, latest B. lately, last C. late, last D. latest, latest 9. ____ is it to ask her about her about that? She doesn ’t know it either. A. What good B. How good C. What a good D. How much good 10. ____ I had done it I knew I had made a mistake. A. Hardly B. Directly C. mostly D. Nearly 11. It is said you went to see Jenny yesterday. What has become___ her? A. from B. of C. into D. / 12. Who do you think will be allowed____ there tomorrow? A. visit B. to visit C. visiting D. visited 13. Today we can either fly to Hainan Island or take a ship___ the sea. A. in B. across C. from in D. across from 14. You wil find what great benefit the computer you own can be____ each time you use it to help you work. A. for B. of C. at D. on

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15. I thought he was not____ of a professor the first time I heard him speaking to the children at the platform in the hall of our school. A. something B. anything C. somebody D. anybody 16. We’ve missed the last bus. I’m afraid we have no____ but to take a taxi. A. way B. choice C. possibility D. selection 17. ____ students have graduated from this school in the last twenty years. A. Tens of thousands of B. Tens upon thousands of C. Tens in thousands D. Ten thousands of 18. The farmers plan to produce three times____ in the year before last to meet the increasing need of the people. A. of crop as much this year as B. as much crop this year as C. as more crop this year as D. much crop this year than 19. I think the house is____ large for a family of four people and the price is very reasonable. A. too B. rather C. fairly D. a little 20. His mother dislikes him, for he____ lies. A. tells B. is always telling C. has told D. always told (答案): 1-5 ABBDB 6-10 BBAAB 11-15 BBDBB 16-20 BABCB 一、Language points 1. sb./sth.+adj/n sb./sth.+to do consider(以为,认为)+ sb./sth.+as that-clause n. consider(考虑)+ doing 疑问词+to do sth “把?当作?”的译法:consider?as =think of/look on/take/regard/treat/have ?as 2. to do A way+ of doing (that/in which)+定语从句 A method of doing sth by this means You can solve the problem+ with this method in this way by means of:通过?方式,以?手段

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by this/that means:通过这种/那种方式 by all means:务必,一定;(用于回答)当然行,请 by no means:决不,一点也不(用于句首时用倒装) 3. protect?(from) doing sth prevent/stop?(from) doing sth keep?from doing keep?doing under the potection of? 4. as well as well as might/may as well=had better 5. to do specially+ for-phrase especially 6. along the river:沿着河流 over the river:在河的正上方 through the forest:穿过森林 by the river:在河边 on the bank:在河岸上 7. follow the instructions follow one’s advice as follows 8. be responsible to sb for sth 9. n. doing/to do sth sb to do sth prefer+ sth to sth doing A to doing B to do A rather than do sth that sb (should) do sth 10. n.+after +n.=one +n. +after another 一个接一个(强调动作的重复) n. +by +n.: 一个接一个(强调动作的变化) tree after tree/day by day

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11. say “hi” to sb. Please remember me to sb. 向“某人”问好 Send my regards to sb. Send the best wishes to sb. 12. 主+be +adj. +to do: 不定式一般用主动式,与主语存在逻辑上的动宾关系,所以当不定式 的动词是不及物动词时,则应在其后加上适当的介词。 主+be +adj. +to do= It be +adj.+ (for/of sb) +to do sth eg. This question is difficult to answer. =It’s difficult to answer the question. The man is hard to work with.=It’s hard to work with the man. 当不定式用作定语时, 与其所修饰的词之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系, 且主语为该动作的执行者时, 也常常用主动形式。 Eg. He wants water to drink. She has a room to live in. I will go to Beijing tomorrow. Do you have anything to be taken there? 二、语法专题──冠词的考点 1. 考查冠词的一些基本用法,例如:复数名词、不可数名词表示泛指不用任何冠词;the+单数 名词表类指;a/an+单数名词表泛指。 2. 考查冠词的习惯用法。如:in case of fire, be wounded in the leg, on the telephone, leave college 等。 3. 考查冠词的活用。如:抽象名词的具体化,a success; a/an+专有名词表泛指,an Edison。 4. 考查零冠词的用法。 三、题型归纳──结构型单项填空 结构型试题常表现在句子中某些成分的省略、 标点符号的出现、 倒装或插入其他成分使前后分离 等,从而引起句子结构的变化,扰乱对句子的判断。 1. 有省略的复合句。由于宾语从句或定语从句中谓语部分行为动词的省略,导致对不定式作状 语产生误解。 2. 标点符号的影响。由于受汉语习惯的影响,往往会因为句子中的标点符号,弄错句子的结构。 3. 插入语的影响。有些句子由于中间插入了某些成分,而使句子显得支离破碎,造成对句子结 构的误解。 4. 倒装句型的基本结构:(1)完全倒装;(2)部分倒装:1)在特殊疑问句和一般疑问句中;2) so/neither/nor+do/be/have/情态动词+主语; 3) 当虚拟语气的条件从句中省略 if 时, were, had, 和 should 应置于句首, 采用倒装结构;4) 表示祝愿的句子: may+主语+动词原形;5) as, though 引导让步状语从句时:提前部分+as+主语+谓语动词;6)表示否定意义的副词、介词短语和连词 词组置于句首;7)当 not until+时间状语从句置于句首时,主句应采用倒装结构,而从句仍用 正常语序;8)not only?but also?连接两个句子时,第一个句子采用倒装结构,第二个句子 不采用倒装结构;9)no sooner?tham?, hardly?when?, scarcely?when?都表示“一?

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就?”,强调过去的两个动作接连发生,当 no sooner, hardly 和 scarcely 置于句首时,主句 常把 had 置于主语之前,采用倒装结构,但从句不倒装。 10)only+副词/介词短语/宾语/时间 状语从句置于句首时,常采用倒装,但 only+主语则不应采用倒装;11)在 so/such?that?引 导的结果状语从句中,将 so+adj./adv.或 such 置于句首时,其主句常采用倒装结构。 5. 强调句型,感叹句,并列句的应用。 6. 独立主格结构。1) n+to do; 2) n+doing; 3) n+done; 4)n+prep.+n.; 5) n+adj/adv; 6)n+n; 7) with+n+to do/doing/done/adj/adv/prep+n. 1. He said he would do what he could____ us. A. help B. to help C. helping D. helped 2. He spent all the money he had____ that dictionary. A. buy B. to buy C. buying D. bought 3. There are more than three thousand students in my school, most of____ from the country. A. that B. which C. whom D. them 4. It is his cleverness, not his strenth, ____ defeated his rival. A. that B. which C. what D. who 5. The way you think of_____ our living conditions sounds reasonable. A. improve B. to improve C. improving D. improvement 6. I feel strongly that whatever you____ matter to me. A. don’t B. do doesn’t C. don’t do D. doesn’t do 7. Is this school____ you studied in two years ago? A. that B. when C. it D. the one 8. Please tell me the way thought of____ the garden. A. take care of B. to take care of C. taking care of D. how to take care of 9. Mr Wang was much disappointed to see the washing machine he had had____ went wrong again. A. it repaired B. to be repaired C. repaired D. repairing 10. We will do everything we can____ our city. A. to save B. save C. saving D. saved 11. The air quality in Beijing as well as in the neighboring cities we once spent much time____ better and better.

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A. in getting B. having got C. in is getting D. has got 12. Who did the teacher, as well as the monitor, ____ an article for the wall newspaper? A. has write B. has written C. have write D. have written 13. What do you consider____ to her? A. to happen B. happening C. happened D. happens 14. Mr Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to____ some schools for poor children. A. set up B. setting up C. have set up D. having set up 15. To his joy, the day he looked forward to____ at last? A. coming B. come C. came D. have come 16. How long do you think it is____ she arrived here? A. when B. that C. before D. since (答案): 1-5 BCDAB 6-10 BDBCA 11-16 CCCBCD 一、Language points 1. owe sb sth=owe sth to sb:欠某人某物 owe sth to sb/sth: 将?归功于? owing to?: 由于? =thanks to/because of/due to? 2. think highly/poorly/little/a lot +of sb/sth speak highly/well/badly +of sb/sth sing high praise for sb/sth 3. apologize to sb for (doing) sth make an apology to sb for (doing) sth excuse sb for (doing) sth forgive sb for (doing) sth pardon sb for (doing) sth 4. make an impression on sb have an impression of sth impress sth on/upon one’s mind 5. serve in the army on the office serve the people/the dish serve sb with sth=serve sth to sb

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serve as the chairman 6. make jokes about: 取笑, 拿?开玩笑 =make a joke about laugh at: 嘲笑 have a joke with sb: 开某人的玩笑 play a joke on sb=play tricks on sb: 戏弄 in joke: 闹着玩,开玩笑 7. to do It’s time+ for sth For sb to do sth That-clause(一般过去时) 8. the one/ones:替代同类事物中特指一个或一些 one: 替代上文提到的同类名词中的一个,表泛指 it: 指上文提到的同一个事物 that: 替代上文出现的带定冠词的名词或不可数名词 9. none: 用来回答 how many/how much 引导的问句,常与 of 连用 no one: 只能指人,用来回答 who 引导的问句 neither: 两者都不,表单数 nothing: 用于指物,用来回答 what 引导的问句 10. cloth 布(u.): a piece of cloth 表示某种特殊用途的布块(桌布):Wipe up the water with a cloth. clothes: 衣服,服装。是一个没有单数形式的复数名词: A suit of clothes 注:不能直接用数词修饰,但可用 many, few, his, my, thse 之类的词修 饰,作主语时谓语动词用复数。 clothing: 服装,衣着。是一个无复数形式的物质名词,除衣服外,还包括幌子,手套,鞋袜之 类的东西,作主语时谓语动词用单数。A piece of clothing, an artcle of clothing dress: 指穿在外面的衣服,尤指在社交场合穿的礼服及妇女的连衣裙。 suit: 成套的衣服。 11. live: 活着,有生命的(作定语,主要用来指鸟或其他动物),实况直播的 lively: 活泼的,有生气的,生动的 alive: 活着的,还有气儿的,是表语形容词,在句中作表语或后置定语 living: 活着,健在的,现行的 12. receive: 收到,接到(客观动作);accept: 接受,领受(主观意愿) 接受教育、惩罚、支持,遭受不幸,接待客人:只用 receive 接受某条件、建议:只用 accept 13. turn+adj: 常表示从某种状态向其他状态变化的自然现象

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The weather has turned much colder. go+adj: 常表示由好变坏的情况:The milk went wrong/bad. become+adj: 强调施动者的作用或变化的结果 Please don’t get angry. come+adj: 一般表示向好的方面变化。 My dream has come true. 14. 含有插入语的疑问句: What do you think has happened to him? How do you suppose the film will end? Why do you believe he is unfit for the office? 15. 主从复合句的反意疑问句: 疑问部分根据主句确定, 但是主句的主语是 I/we, 谓语是 think /suppose /believe /hope /imagine /expect /guess /know /feel /be sure /be told 时,疑 问部分根据从句确定,否定转移时,疑问部分用肯定语气。 She think it is a good idea, doesn ’t she? I think it is a good idea, isn’t it? I don’t think it is a good idea, is it? 二、语法专题──代词的考点 1. 不定代词:(1)all, any, none, both, either, neither; (2)another, other, the other, others, the others; (3)复合不定代词:someone, anyone, everyone, no one; something, anything, everything, nothing. 2. it 的用法: (1)it 作实意代词,代替日期、时间、季节、距离;代替身份不明的人,心目中的人和事以及代 替上文已提到的或下文将要提到的人、物或某种情况;代替指示代词 this, that。 (2)it 作引导词:作形式主语和形式宾语,代替不定式、动名词和从句;it 用于强调句型。 3. 替代词 one, ones, the one, the ones, that, those 的用法。 4. 人称代词在使用中要注意主格和宾格的区别,反身代词则要注意和主语一致。 三、题型归纳──习语、搭配型单项填空 语言的习惯表达是语言在长期使用过程中的结果,不能随意改变。其表现形式主要在介词短语、 名词短语及非谓语动词短语的习惯搭配等方面。 习语、 搭配型单项填空主要考查对英语习语及搭 配的掌握和运用,这就需要在平时多加注意和积累,切不可想当然。 1. 介词后的宾语:介词后面常接名词、代词、动名词作宾语,但是,在考试时要注意一些习惯 用法。如:far from satisfied/over; take sth for granted; in hospital 与 in the hospital; at sea 与 at the sea。 2. 冠词的增删:固定搭配中名词前的冠词的有无都是习惯用法,若去掉或增加,都会使其意思

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发生变化。如:in prison 与 in the prison; in bed 与 on the bed; in school 与 in the school; in possession of 与 in the possession of; in charge of 与 in the charge of; in front of 与 in the front of。 3. 非谓语动词短语的考查重点:一是非谓语动词与逻辑主语的关系;二是非谓语动词与谓语动 词所表示动作的时间先后关系;三是非谓语动词的习惯用法。另外,有些非谓语动词短语已经从 非谓语动词短语中游离了出来,而成为表达某种意思的固定搭配。如:to be true; to tell you the truth; to be exact; judging by/from; exactly speaking; frankly speaking; compared to/with 等。 4. 动词的搭配。如:mean to do sth/mean doing sth; forget to do sth/forget doing sth; be used to doing sth/used to do sth; head for/go to; lend to/borrow from; set about/set out; write down/take down/put down 等。 5. 动词短语。如:have a cold/catch cold; take place/take one ’s place 等。 6. 短语动词。如:run out/run out of; stick to/keep on; bring in/bring on 等。 7. 形容词短语。如:be strict with/in; different from/in; be careful of/with 等。 8. 名词短语。如:the number of/a number of; a knowledge of 等。 1. No matter what you see, don’t take it for____, but use your head to think it over. A. grant B. granting C. granted D. grantness 2. When writing, he often keeps a dictionary____. A. in hand B. on hand C. at hand D. hand in 3. His wife often goes to____ on Sundays. A. church B. a church C. the church D. churching 4. It is good for you in your future life____ English. A. have good knowledge of B. to have good knowledge of C. to have a good knowledge of D. has a good knowledge of 5. ____ what he said, he has been to Australia. A. Judge by B. Judged by C. Judging from D. To judge from 6. She is always ready to help others and asking for nothing____. A. in return B. in case C. in addition D. in turn 7. They held a ceremony____ those killed in the battle. A. instead of B. in favor of C. by means of D. in honor of

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8. The man____ the shop said we could have two days off. A. in charge of B. in the charge of C. take charge of D. take the charge of 9. When they got to America, they nearly____ money. A. ran out B. ran out of C. ran away D. ran away from 10. Word came that Brown____ the record in yesterday’s match. A. made B. stroke C. beat D. hit 11. Look, little Betty is giving a talk to the children and is____ a teacher. A. somebody of B. anybody like C. something of D. like anything 12. Mr Wang is very old, but he works like a young man. In deed, I can’t admire him____. A. very much B. so well C. too much D. quite well (答案): 1-6 CCACCA 7-12 DABCCC 一、Language points 1. sth sth for sth prepare+ for sth to do sth be prepared for be prepared to do sth make preparations for 2. They tied for first place in the game. We tied with the visiting team in the basketball match. The dog is tied to a tree. 3. affect vt. 影响 effect n. 效果,作用 have a good/bad effect on in effect 事实上 cause and effect 因果 take effect 生效,起作用 come into effect 生效,实行 effort n. 努力 without effort 毫不费力 make every effort 尽一切努力 spare no effort 不遗余力

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3. weigh vt. 称?的重量 vi. 重达?, 重量为? put on weight lose weight by weight in meters/pounds/calories by the day/the week/the yard/the dozen/the ton 4. in?参加?比赛 compete+ with/against?与?竞赛/竞争 for?角逐?,为获取?而竞赛 5. Where there is a river, there is a city. Where there is a will, there is a way. Where there is life, there is hope. 6. do sth not do sth do sth than do sth would rather+ =would do sth rather than do sth =prefer to do sth rather than do sth that-clause+ did──表现在或将来 had done──表过去 7. do damage to sth live one’s dream in ruins/in pieces under attack/discussion/construction/consideration/treatmen 8. almost: 差距比 nearly 小。可与 never, no, no one, none, nobody, nothing, nowhere 等否定词连用,但不能 与 not 连用。 nearly: 不可与上述否定词连用,但可与 not 连用,构成 Not?nearly, 意为“远非?,远不及?” 二、语法专题──形容词和副词的考点 1. 形容词和副词的辨析:一般无规律可循,只能在于平常时多积累。我们应注意这几点: (1)分清形容词和副词各自的语法功能,即形容词常用作定语,而副词常用作状语; (2)掌握具体的形容词、副词的基本含义和语法功能。如 therefore 意为“所以”,在句中起关 联作用。 (3)有些副词有两种形式,其中一种形式与形容词相同,另一种形式是在形容词后加-ly,意义不 太相同,应加以分辨。常见的有:close 接近──closely 仔细地,密切地;high 高──highly 高度地; free 免费──freely 自由地, 自如地; late 晚, 迟──lately 近来; deep 深──deeply

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深刻地, 深入地; near 邻近──nearly 几乎;hard 努力地──hardly 几乎不; most 最──mostly 主要地; wide 宽阔──widely 广泛地;easy 从容地──easily 容易地 (4)有些副词与形容词的词形完全相同。换言之,有些词同时兼有形容词和副词两种词性。常见 的有:early, straight, slow, enough, fast, hard, long, firm 等。 2. 形容词和副词的词序: (1)enough 用作形容词修饰名词时,可前可后;用作副词修饰形容词或副词时,只能位于之后。 例:enough time/time enough; strong enough 。 (2)形容词修饰复合不定代词时要后置,something important。 (3)as, how, so, too 修饰单数名词时,其词序为:as/how/so/too+adj.+a/an+n.,too large a room; how interesting a film; Mike is as clever a boy as Tom 。 (4)such 修饰单数名词时, 其词序为: such+a/an+adj.+n., such a large room; 但名词前是 one, some, many, all, no 等修饰时,其词序为:one/some/many/all/no+such+adj.+n. 。 (5)多个形容词作定语时的词序为:县官行令宴国才──限定词+描绘性形容词+大小、长短、 高低等形容词+新旧+颜色+国家、 地区+材料+用途+被修饰名词。 限定词包括: 前位限定词, 如:倍数词、分数词及 all, both, half, double 等;中位限定词,如:冠词、物主代词、指示 代词、所有格及 some, any, no, every, each, either, neither, enough, much, whose 等; 后位限定词,如:基数词,序数词及 little(表示少),few, last, next, other, another, more, less, most, several, least, plenty of 等不定量代词;限定词的排列顺序:前位+中位+后 位+中心词。 (6)倍数的表示法:A is n times bigger than B. as big as the size of John has five times as many books as mine. 3. 形容词和副词的比较等级: (1)当 A>B 时,比较级+than (2)当 A>B,且 B 包含 A 时 He is older than any of the other boys(=any other boy) in his class. 当 A>B,但 B 不包含 A 时 He is richer than any of the people here. I’m taller than any student of your class. (3)比较级+and+比较级:表示自身的变化 The+比较级,the+比较级:表示随之变化。 (4)“否定词+谓语+比较级”相当于最高级 I’ve never seen a nicer bird than this one. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard a better voice. (5)常见的无比较级、最高级的形容词和副词有:cpmparative(ly), relative(ly), particular(ly), special(ly), excellent(ly), extreme(ly), perfect(ly), complete(ly) 等。 (6)more+原级+than: 与其说?不如说?。 (7)可以修饰比较级的副词有:any, even, far, much, rather, still, yet, a bit, a little, a lot, by far, 但不可加 very, many, more, fairly, quite( 但 quite better 除外)。

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4. 形容词和副词的成分区别: (1)不能作定语的形容词(大多数以 a 开头):afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, awake, ill, well, 若要作定语,则分别改用 frightened, similar, living, lone, shy, sleeping, waking, sick, healthy; 有时这些形容词也可以作定语,但一般作后置定语。 (2)作状语一般用副词,但有时形容词可作伴随状语。 He hurried home, full of fear./ All men all created equal. 三、题型归纳──语境、语境+语法型单项填空 在题干上附加一些语言信息,将词法、句法等知识融入到语境之中,使试题语境化,其特点是: 如果单独看空白和选项,各个选项都是正确的。然而,将题干和选项联系起来考虑,就只有一个 最佳选项。常见的题型有:(1)对话语境;运用对话语境命题是高考的一种趋势,应该正确理解 对话双方的语气、时态、语态,从而确定正确的选项;(2)句中的语境:有些试题选项中的一个 或几个好像都适用这个问题,但是,根据句子的语境的意义,就可判断出只有一个是最佳答案; (3)动词的时态和语态,情态动词及语气,形容词和副词的级。 1. ----Why? Tom, your shirt is so dirty? ----Mom, I____ my store room downstairs. A. cleaned B. have cleaned C. was cleaning D. have been cleaning 2. ----I think Gorge doesn’t really care for TV plays. ----Right, ____ he still watches the program. A. and B. but C. or D. so 3. If you can’t come tomorrow, we’ll____ have to hold the meeting next week. A. yet B. even C. rather D. just 4. I’m going to Beijing tomorrow. Do you have anything____ to your brother there? A. to take B. to be taken C. taken D. take 5. We are sure everything here____ by the time you come back from abroad in a few years. A. had changed B. will have changed C. had been changed D. will have been changed 6. Hello, you____ 323-65668. I’m sorry but I’m unable to answer your call right now. A. reached B. are reaching C. have reached D. had reached 7. The meeting is not over, and you____ not leave. A. will B. shall C. may D. need 8. Had I learnt English well, I____ the interview for the job tomorrow. A. would take B. would have taken C. shall take D. could be taken 9. Bob is____ honest boy, and he won ’t tell lies.

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A. most B. the most C. a most D. very much 10. With the doctor’s treatment, Sally feels____ better now. A. very B. fairly C. so D. quite 11. Though the ship sunk, all the people on her____ be resuced. A. could B. should C. had to D. were able to 12. We will all appreciate____ you can come to join us in developing my hometown. A. that if B. it if C. it that D. that when 13. ____ he said to us yesterday____ true? A. What can, was B. That can, was C. Can what, be D. Can that, be 14. He told me that he would remember the days in Beijing University forever____ he got much help there from Professor Zhu. A. where B. which C. that D. when 15. ____ is what he did, not what he said, that moved us greatly. A. It B. This C. Which D. As (答案): 1-5 DBDBD 6-10 BBACD 11-15 DBCDA 一、Language points 1. sth:与?一致/符合 sb:同意某人 with one’s idea/opinion 同意某人的意见 what sb said (观点,所说的话) to on’s plan/arrangement/suggestion agree 同意某人的计划、安排、意见 about/on/upon sth 同意做某事 to do sth that-clause 2. of/about sth 提醒 remind sb to do sth that-clause 使人回忆起? 3. add?to?:把?加上(在)? add to=increase:增添,增进 add up (to):加(起来是),总计达? 4. success n.(U)成功,(C)成功者/事

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succeed v. successful a. successfully ad. be successful in (doing) sth succeed in doing sth 成功做某事 have success in doing sth Sb/sth is a success. 5. be/stay/keep+in touch with 表状态 be out of touch with get in touch with 表动作 lose touch with 6. in case of+短语 in case+从句 in no case 决不 in any case 无论如何 in that case 如果那样 7. expensive/cheap valuable/valueless priceless=very expensive:无价的 8. respond (vi)+ to?:对?回应 with/by:以?(方式)回答,响应 resonse (n.) 9. be harmful to sb/sth do sb/sth harm do harm to sb/sth do sb/sth good do good to sb/sth 10. die out:(家族、物种等)死光,灭绝; (习俗、做法、观念)消失,过时;(火)熄灭 die away:(风、声音、光线等)逐渐停止(消失) die down:(指炉火等)渐熄;(指骚动等)渐平息;(指闹声)消失 die off:先后死去了;?死去 die of:死于内因(如疾病、年老、饥饿、情感等) die from:死于外因(如损伤、事故、天灾等) 11. as a/the result of:由于? as a result:结果,因此 result from:因?而引起 result in=cause:导致,致使?

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12. take measures to do sth:采取措施 make clothes to one’s own measure:量体裁衣 13. late:晚,迟,不久前 lately=recently:近来 last:最后,最后的 latest:最近的,最新的 later:后来;结构常为:一段时间+later:过了?之后 14. adapt to sth/sb:适应某物/某人 adapt sth/sb to sth/sb:使某物/某人适应某物/某人 adapt oneself to:使自己适应某事 adapt from:根据?改写/改编 adapt:指修改或改变以适应新条件 You should adapt yourself t the new environment. adjust:是指“调整、调节”使之适应 You can’t see through the telescope until it is adjusted to your eyes fit:多指“大小适合”,引申为“吻合” The shoes fitted me well. suit:多指“合乎要求、口味、性格、情况”等 No dish suits all taste. match:指“大小、色调、形状、性质等”相配或相称 A red jacket doesn’t match green trousers. adopt sb:收养 sth:采用 15. devote oneself/time/life to look forward to doing sth be/get used to stick to/get down to/object to 16. free of charge for free be free from set sb/sth free 17. by force:靠武力,强行 be in force:生效 come/go into force:生效 force one’s way:强行前进或进入 18. It’s one’s turn to do sth:轮到某人干某事 take one’s turn:依次,轮到某人

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in turn:依次,轮流,反过来,转而 by turns:轮流,交替 take turns (at) doing sth/to do sth :轮流干某事 二、语法专题──介词的考点 1. 常用介词的意义区别 (1)表示时间 at+时间点:在?时刻,在?点钟,在?岁时 on+某天或某天的某个时间:在某日、星期几、某日早中晚等 in+时间段:在?期间,在?以后,在?时间内 by+时间:在?之前,不迟于?,常与完成时连用 (2)表示方位:in/on/to/off (3)表示部位 on+ the head/shoulder/back/nose:表示拍打较硬或凸形的部位 in+ the face/ear/stomach/eye::表示拍打较软或凹形的部位 by+ the arm/hand/nose: 表示牵、拉、抓某部位 (4)表示之间:between/among (5)表示方式 by:乘?(交通工具),通过?(方法),常接无冠词名词或动名词 with:以?工具/手段,用身体某部位,常接带冠词的具体某工具 in:表示表达的方法、媒介、工具、材料等 through:通过?途径/方式/方法 (6)表示穿越 through:表示从物体里面穿过,还可表示沿着街道、河流走 across:表示从物体表面经过,还可表示横过街道、河流 over:表示从物体上方越过,还可表示挎在肩上 2. “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 3. with 的复合结构 4. 含有介词的固定搭配 ①有无冠词,意义不同 in front of/in the front of in charge of/in the charge of out of question/out of the question at table/at the table on earth/on the earth

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②有无介词,意义不同 know sb.认识某人/know about sb.了解某人 shoot sb.击中某人/shoot at sb.向某人射击 search sb.搜身/search for sb.搜寻某人 believe sb.相信某人的话/believe in sb.信任某人的人格 benefit sb.使某人受益/benefit from sb.从某人那里得到益处 ③不要画蛇添足 serve for the people 为人民服务 enter into the room 进入房间 follow behind me 跟在我后面 at the moment? ?就? in this/that/last/next year 今年/那年/去年/明年 in one/any/each/every/some/all year 一年/任何一年/每年/每年/某年/全年 marry with sb.与某人结婚 go to abroad 出国 live in upstairs 住在楼上 ④不要张冠李戴 be caught in the rain 被雨淋着(不用 by) leave for someplace 动身去某地(不用 to) set an example to sb 为某人树立榜样(不用 for) in the direction 朝着?方向(不用 to) do a favor for sb 帮某人一个忙(不用 to) different from 和?不同(不用 with) with the help of 在?的帮助下(不用 under) steal sth from sb 偷某人的东西(不用 of) ⑤别丢三落四 drop in on sb 拜访某人(别丢了 on) drop in at someplace 参观某地(别丢了 at) look down upon 瞧不起(别丢了 upon) think of?as 认为?是(别丢了 of) look on?as 认为?是(别丢了 on) rxplain to sb sth 向某人解释某事(别丢了 to) from behind the door 从门后面(别丢了 behind) be worth listening to 值得一听(别丢了 to) 三、题型归纳──逻辑型单项填空 这类题型主要从句子的形式、 句子的意义来考查对英语句子的把握和理解情况, 具体表现在主谓 一致、意义一致、人称一致、非谓语动词及介词的逻辑主语一致等方面。 1. Qiong Yao with her works____ very popular with us young people.

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A. be B. are C. were D. become 2. What I like best, to tell you the truth, ____, in my opinion, the books my brother bought me as my birthday present last week. A. are B. is C. have D. existed 3. The teacher told us that practice____ perfect. A. make B. makes C. made D. making 4. Hurry up, if you____ there with us. A. go B. will go C. would go D. could go 5. At the age of seven, ____. A. his father died B. he lost his father C. his dog followed him D. his parents divorced 6. ____, his mother saw him playing games with other children. A. On his way home B. From his room C. From her office D. Under his nose 7. She has long been expecting a chance to study abroad and at last she got____. A. it B. that C. another D. one 8. If a student can make what has been learned____ whether in class or from social practice, he will make steady progress. A. his own B. him C. himself D. his 9. He is one of the students who, I ’m sure, always do____ best. A. his B. their C. my D. one’s 10. Neither Rose nor Henry likes to attend the meeting, ____? A. does she B. does he C. do they D. did you 11. ____ more attention, the tree may grow better. A. Give B. Giving C. Given D. To give 12. Someone must have taken it away this morning, ____? A. haven’t they B. hasn’t he C. don’t they D. didn’t he 13. ----What do you think worries him so much? ----____. A. He didn’t pass the exam B. His father is seriously ill C. Lost his bike D. What Jim said just now 14. Miss Wilson, whose parents are____ working in China, is studying in Peking University

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now. A. either B. all C. both D. no 15. The teacher as well as a number of students____to attend the party yesterday. A. were asked B. was asked C. were asking D. was asking (答案):1-5 DABBB 6-10 CDDBC 11-15 CDDCB 一、Language points 1. keep a record of keep records of break/beat the record for/in+比赛项目 hold/keep the record of set (up) the world record for/in+ 比赛项目 set up a new world record make a record/make records play/put on a record 2. sb/sth=be satisfied with sb/sth satisfy one’s desires/hunger/thirst the conditions to one’s satisfaction adj.: satisfying, satisfied, satisfactory 3. treat a disease sb treat sb/oneself (to sth) This is my treat. Dutch treat 4.explain/whisper sth to sb =explain/whisper to sb sth in a whisper=in whispers 5. character: 性格,人物,汉字 characteristic: 特征,特点 6.trouble sb to do be troubled with ask/look for trouble get into trouble be in trouble get out of trouble have trouble (in) doing sth

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have trouble with sth make trouble:闹事 take (the) trouble to do:尽力/设法做? put sb to the trouble of doing:麻烦某人做? 7. turn on turn off turn in give/hand out turn up turn down turn around/round turn away turn over turn back turn out (to be) turn to sb/sth 8.only if?: 只有,只要? had done──过去 if only: 要是?该多好+ did/were──现在 would/should do 将来 did/were 9.at one time=once at times=sometimes at all times=always at a time=each time for a time=for some time at no time at the same time 10. supply sth to sb=supply sb with sth provide sth for sb=provide sb with sth offer sb sth=offer sth to sb 11. have a habit of doing form/develop the habit of be in the habit of 12. face the music: 临危不惧 play music=perform music 13. more than: 不仅仅,超过 more than one+n.(单)+V(单):不止一个 More than one student likes this film. more than+n/adj: 远非,不仅仅是?

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Bamboo is used for more than building. no more than: 只有,仅仅 not more than=at (the) most: 最多?,不超过? more?than?:与其说?不如说? The man is more brave than wise. 14. the next time 时间名词短语用作从属连词, 引导时间状语从句, 此外, the first time, every time, each time, the moment, the minute, the second 。 二、语法专题──动词和动词短语的考点 1. 动词和动词短语的考查重点是放在特定语境中的辨析 2. 几组常考的动词短语 1. get along:离开,进展,继续 get across:越过,使?让人理解 get away:逃走,逃避,得以离开 get back:回来,取回 get down:记下,吞下 get off:下车(飞机),下班 get on:上车 get in:上车,收割,到站,插话 get up:起床,站起,(风)变猛烈 get through:(电话)接通,通过,用完,完成 get together:聚会,收集 2. take away:拿走,带走,消除(病痛等),减去 take down:取下,记下,拆掉,吞下,病倒 take out:拔掉,切除,带(某人)出去,获得 take off:脱掉,起飞,成功 take up:占据(时间或空间),以?作为爱好或消遣,从事 3. break away (from): 逃掉,脱离,改掉 break down:出故障,失败,中断 break in:突然进来,插嘴 break into:强行进入,插嘴 break out:突然发生,爆发 break up:解散,结束,破裂,绝交 4. come about:发生 come across:(偶然)遇见 come on(upon):偶然碰见,出现 come on:来吧,快点,加油 come along:一道去 come in:到来,进来,上市

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come out:出来,出版,有?结果 come over:来访,产生 come round:来访,到来 come to:来到,合计,苏醒,谈到 5. pick out:挑选,找出 pick up:拿起,捡起,收拾,学会;(用车)来接,去取: 改进,改善,重新开始,继续,感染(疾病,坏习惯) 6. give away:赠,送,泄露,出卖 give back:归还,送回 give in:屈服,让步,投降 give off:发出(蒸汽,光等) give out:分发,耗尽,筋疲力尽,发出(气味,热等) give up:放弃 7. cut down:砍倒,削减,压缩 cut in:插入,插话,插队 cut off:切断,隔断,断绝 cut out:剪成,戒掉 8. make?into(out of)?:使?成为(变成)? make?of(from)?:由?制成?(多用被动式) make for:往?去,有助于 make it:及时赶到,成功,做成 make out:理解,看清,填写,假装 make up:构成,编写,编造,和解,弥补,凑足,准备好 9. look about/around:环顾四周,四处看 look after:照顾,照料 look at:看,注视 look down on/upon:看不起 look for:寻找 look forward to:期盼(to 为介词) look into:调查 look like:看起来像,似乎要 look out:向外看,当心,找出 look over:审阅,翻阅,检查 look through:翻看,浏览 look to:注意,负责 look up:查阅,看望 look up to:尊敬 11. bring about:引起,导致

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bing back:送还,带回,使想起 bring down:降低(温度,价格) bring on:带来,引起 bring out:取出,显示出,衬托出,出版,推出(作品) bring through:使渡过(困难,危机) bring up:提出,培养,呕吐 12. call at:访问(某地) call away:叫走,转移(注意力) call back:唤回,回电话 call for:去取(某物),去接(某人),要求,号召 call in:叫来,召集 call off:叫走,转移开,取消 call on:造访(某人) call (up) on sb to do sth:叫(请)某人做某事,号召某人做某事 call out:大声叫(喊) call up:(给?)打电话 14. go back:回去,回顾,回溯 go by:(从?)旁边经过,(时间、机会)过去,以?为依据 go down:下落,下降,减弱 go in for:参加(考试,比赛),从事(职业),爱好 go into:到达,进入,从事,调查 go out:出去,出国,熄灭 go over:复习,演习,检查 go through:通过,检查,审查,查找,经历,做完,用完 go up:上升,上涨 15. hold back:阻止,忍住 hold out:支持,坚持 hold to:抓紧,坚持 hold up:竖起,阻碍,延误 catch/get/seize/take hold of:抓住 keep hold of:抓住,握住 16. put away:收拾,放弃,打消,存蓄 put down:放下,写下,使下车,镇压 put off:推迟,推脱,使不高兴 put on:穿,戴,上演,装(样子),开(电、灯),增加 put out:扑灭,生产,发表,使不高兴 put up:举起,撑起,架起,张贴 17. set about:开始或着做某事(+n./doing)

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set out:动身,开始,想要(+to do) set up:建立,创立,树立 三、题型归纳──交际型单项填空 英语交际型试题主要考查社会交往中一些常用的日常交际用语, 考查方式多以应答为主, 提问为 辅,并以跨文化交际中中英交际文化差异明显的交际项目为重点对象。主要包括对请求、建议的 回答,对祝愿的回答,对道歉的回答,对感谢、观点的回答。 1. ----Help yourself to some apples and grapes, please. ----_____. A. Yes, of course B. Thank you C. That’s right D. Yes, I will. 2. ----Many happy returns of the day! ----____. A. The same to you B. Me, too C. Thank you D. Don’t be polite 3. ----I’m sorry but I didn’t mean to break it. ----_____. A. Why not be careful C. Why so careless C. Be careful next time D. You’re too foolish 4. ----Thank you for your help. ----_____. A. With pleasure B. No, thanks C. It’s my pleasure D. I didn’t help you much 5. ----Bruce works very hard. ----_____. A. So he does B. So does he C. It’s the same with you D. So you do 6. ----Are you sure it’s going to snow this weekend? ----_____. A. I don’t think B. I think not so C. I don’t think about it D. I don’t think so 7. ----How do you like your Chinese teacher? ---_____. A. He is very kind B. Yes, I like him very much C. No, I dislike him D. He is much better now 8. ----I’ll be away for a few days. Would you mind looking after my dog? ----Not at all._______. A. I’d rather not B. I’d be glad to C. I have no time D. I’d like it 9. ---Hey, look where you are going! ----Oh, I’m terribly sorry.____. A. I’m not noticing B. I wasn’t noticing C. I haven’t noticed D. I don’t notice

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10. ----How often do you eat out? ----____, but usually once a week. A. Have no idea B. It depends C. As usually D. Generally speaking 11. ----Go for a picnic this weekend, OK? ----_____. I love getting close to nature. A. I couldn’t agree more B. I’m afraid not C. I believe not D. I don’t think so 12. ----Let’s go and have a good drink tonight. ----____ Have you got the first prize in the competition? A. What for? B. Thanks a lot. C. Yes, I ’d like to D. Why not? 13. ----Now, where is my purse? ----_____!We’ll be late for the picnic. A. Take your time B. Don’t worry C. Come on D. Take it easy 14. ----Excuse me, could you tell me the time? ----Sorry. I don’t have a watch with me. ----_____. A. It’s a pity B. Thanks a lot C. I’m sorry to hear that. D. Thanks anyway. 15. ----Do you think I could borrow your bike? ----______. A. Yes, you may borrow B. Yes, you could C. Yes, help yourself D. Yes, go on (答案): 1-5 BCCCA 6-10 DABBB 11-15 AACDC 一、Language points 1. choose:选中,选出(结果) choose from:从?中挑选 pick:挑选(小东西) select:选择(过程) elect:选举 vote:投票 2. be similar to

the same as 3. light lit, lit(后置定语、状语、表语,完成时,被动态) lighted, lighted(前) 4. celebrate+sth

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in celebration of/for the celebration of :为了庆祝? congratulate+sb+on+sth 5. give away:离开,赠送 keep away (from):使离开 break away (from):脱离 put away:存储 do away with:处理掉 turn away:解雇 throw away:扔掉 6. honour vt. :尊敬,以?为荣 n. :尊敬,(pl)光荣,荣誉 in honor of:为了纪念?,尊敬 a sense of honour:廉耻心 show honor to sb:尊敬某人 7. pain (n.):指一般的疼痛;pains:还有“麻烦,努力”之意 ache (v.):指局部较持久的疼痛,是陷痛; (n.)常见在复合词中:headache,stomachace hurt vt:伤害 vi:常指精神、感情伤害;也指肉体伤害。 8. a bit/a little:一点儿,在肯定句中修饰动词、形容词、副词及其比较级 not a bit=not at all not a little=very much a bit of +n.(u) a little 9. in a/one word:简言之,总之 in other words:换句话说 in words:用语言,口头上 word (u):消息,诺言 10. such as:用于列举事物,且只列举部分 for example/instance:用来举例说明,不表列举或等同 namely=that is (to say):即(列举全部) 11. develop healthy habits:养成健康的习惯 develop an interest in sth:培养?的兴趣 develop?into?:把?发展成为? develop from?:从?进化/发展起来 develop natural resources:开发自然资源 develop films:冲洗胶

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12. 现在进行时有时代替一般现在时, 表示经常性或重复性的动作, 句中常见的副词有: forever, always, repeatedly, constantly, 也用 every/each day/year; 这时往往表达一种感情色彩, 如:不满,厌烦,赞扬等。 She is always helping others. The problem is that 300 people are dying each day from illnesses caused by smoking. 二、语法专题──动词的时态和语态的考点 1. 试题的立意由简单直接的“结构立意”转向了“情景立意”。试题创设的语境明确,交际情 景多是以对话的形式出现,并且大多数发生在学生学习和日常生活中的真实情景。 2. 题干中的有效信息不再让人一眼看穿,而是隐藏在字里行间,近几年在这一类考题中,很少 在情景中出现明显的时间信息,如时间状语等。 3. 解决时态和语态问题时,可遵循如下解题思路: (1)这个动作可能发生在什么时间?题干中可参照的信息有哪些。 (2)动作与主语的关系,是被动还是主动。 4. 四组容易混淆的时态: (1)现在完成时与一般过去时的区别:现在完成时强调动作结果对现在的影响,属于现在时的 范畴;一般过去时强调动作所发生的时间是在过去,属于过去时的范畴。因此,一般过去时需跟 表示过境的时间连用或有表过去时间的上下文,而现在完成时不能与表示过去的时间状语连用。 (2)过去完成时与一般过去时的区别:过去完成时表示以过去某时间为起点以前所发生的动作 或存在的状态,即过去完成时强调动作发生在“过去的过去”;而一般过去时只表示以现在时间 为起点以前所发生的动作或存在的状态。 (3)过去完成时与现在完成时的用法区别:两种时态都常与一段时间和状语连用,但现在完成 时表示的是延续到现在或同现在有关的动作(句中不可有表示过去特定时间的状语),而过去完 成时表示的是在过去某时之前已经完成或延续到过去某时的动作 (句中有表示过去特定时间的状 语)。 (4)将来完成时由“shall/will+have done”构成,表示动作或状态延续到将来某一时刻,常 用延续性动词, 并带有一个表示将来某一时间的状语或状语从句, 如: by the end of this month, by then, this time next week, by the time 等;将来完成进行时由“shall/will+have been doing”构成,表示某个动作在将来的某个时间以前已经开始,并一直持续进行着。 5. 关于被动语态的几种特殊用法: (1)主动形式表被动:表示感觉或变化的 feel, look, smell, sound, taste, turn, prove, get 等系动词的主动形式表被动意义;动词 let, blame 的不定式作表语或定语时,主动形式表被动 意义。 (2)由“get+过去分词”构成的被动语态:这种形式的被动语态主要用于:①给自己做事(get dressed 穿衣);②设法做到自己称心的事(get elected 当选);③由于客观原因遇到不尽如 人意的事(get burned 烧焦);④表示命令(get washed!去洗洗吧)。 (3)在表示“(某物)需要”的 need, want, require 等后的动名词用主动形式表被动。 (4) “据说类” 的 3 个被动句型: 如果我们要想把话说的谨慎些, 可以用下列被动结构: ①It is said that?;②There is said to be?;③sb/sth is said to?。能用于这类句型的动词还有

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believe, think, consider, suppose, hope, suggest, report, know, understand 等。 6. 某些固定句式中的动词时态是固定的、约定俗成的: (1)This/It is the first/second?time+that-clause: that 从句一般用现在完成时,如果 把前边的 is 改为 was, 则 that 从句用过去完成时。 (2)It is/has been+一段时间+since 从句:since 从句中一般用过去时,如果将前边的 is 改 为 was,则 since 从句中用过去完成时。 (3)be about to do?when?: 意为“即将?(这时)突然?”。 (4)be(was/were)+doing?when?: 意为“正在干?(这时)突然?”。 (5)Hardly/Scarcely had?done?when?; No sooner had?done?than?, when 和 than 从 句里用一般过去时,表示“刚刚?就?”。 (6)It+be+一段时间+before 从句:如果主句用将来时,则从句用一般现在时表将来时,意为 多长时间以后即将发生某事; 如果主句用过去时, 从句也用过去时, 意为多长时间后发生了某事。 三、题型归纳──综合型单项填空 综合型单项填空已经成为高考英语命题的一种趁势。要求具备以下的几个方面的知识的能力: 1.交际能力:在交谈中,我们必须了解并掌握各种不同交际功能的语言形式,才能正确理解说话 者的心理,选出正确答案。 2. 对语境的理解能力:我们在弄清说话者的字面意义的基础上,还必须能够深层理解,看出言 外之意,作出正确选择。 3. 扎实的词汇知识:一方面必须能正确辨别词汇的意义及感情色彩;另一方面必须掌握词汇的 正确搭配及习惯或固定结构。 4. 牢固的语法知识:我们必须掌握牢固的英语语言基础知识,对各种语言现象能用所学的知识 进行科学的解释。 1. ----What about____ passage? ----It’s too difficult____ passage for me. A. a, a B. a, the C. the, a D. the, the 2. ----How is your grandmother? ----She____ for many years. A. died B. has died C. has been died D. has been dead 3. ----Why is the boy crying there? ----Because____ his father. A. being scolded by B. scolding C. of scolding D. of being scolded by 4. ----What do you think make Jenny unhappy and worried? ----____ her new PC. A. Because she lost B. Lost C. As a result of losing D. Losing 5. ----Could I borrow your motor bike? ----Yes, of course, you____. A. might B. could C. can D. should

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6. ----Can I help you, sir? ----Yes. I bought this radio her yesterday, but it____. A. didn’t B. won’t work C. can’t work D. doesn’t work 7. I like____ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. A. this B. that C. it D. one 8. ----You haven’t been to Beijing, have you? ----____. How I wish to go there! A. Yes, I have B. Yes, I haven’t C. No, I have D. No, I haven’t 9. ----Your phone number again? I____ quite catch it. ----It’s 9568442. A. didn’t B. couldn’t C. don’t D. can’t 10. ----Will $200____? ----I’m afraid not. We need at least 50 more dollars. A. count B. satisfy C. fit D. do 11. He came home after midnight, and____, he got drunk. A. worse still B. that means C. what’s the matter D. what else 12. You can, ____, come to join us in the singing programme. A. if you happy B. when you possible C. if you please D. when you necessary 13. Mr Smith, ____ of the____ speech, started to read a novel. A. tired, boring B. tiring, bored C. was tired, bored D. was tiring, boring 14. I have a lot of books, half of____ novels. A. which B. that C. whom D. them (答案): 1-5 CDDDC 6-10 DCDAD 11-14 ACAD 一、Language points 1. recognize sb as:认出某人是? be recognized as:某人被认作? recognize sb to do sth:承认某人做某事 recognize that-clause recognition (n.)

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2. dress:既表动作,也表状态 be dressed in have on:表状态,不用于进行时

dress sb

wear:表状态+(衣服、鞋帽、领带、围巾、首饰、眼镜) 表示某一时间的穿戴,常用进行时 put on:表动作 3. prove sth sth to sb sth to be as (to be)that-clause 4. beyond control:无法控制 in control:控制着 under control:控制中 out of control=lose control of:失控 5. tear sth to/into pieces sth in half/into halves sth open sth down at sth:撕扯着?(表过程) sth:撕碎/撕破(表结果) up:毁掉 off:脱去、跑掉 away from?:从?夺走 6. attend school/church attend the meeting/lecture join party/league/club/sb join in the party/activity 7. call on sb=drop in on sb call at a place=drop in at a place visit +sb/a place pay a visit to a place 8. be (well) worth + n./doing sth be worthy + of+n. of+being done to be done 9. pay for sth

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pay sb for sth pay sb money for sth=pay money to sb for sth pay off:全部还清 pay back:偿还,归还;报复 10. make/carry out/perform/do experiment by experiment experiment on/upon?:对?进行实验 二、语法专题──非谓语动词的考点 1. 非谓语动词的句法功能 具有哪些词的部分特征 可作哪些句子成分 名词 形容词 副词 主 宾 表 定 状 补 不定式 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 动名词 √ √ √ √ √ 现在分词 √ √ √ √ √ √ 过去分词 √ √ √ √ √ √ 2. 不定式和分词作状语的比较 名称 状语类型 时间 目的 结果 原因 方式 条件 伴随 让步 不定式 √ √ √ 现在分词 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 过去分词 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 注:不定式和分词都可作结果状语,但用法和意义不同。不定式常和 only, never 连用,强调意 想不到的结果和失望的情绪;而分词往往与主句有因果关系,主句表原因,分词形式表结果。 3. 非谓语动词的选择原则:(1)与逻辑主语之间的关系:主谓或动宾;(2)与主谓语动词的 时间关系:①在主谓语之前一般用完成式;②与主谓语同时发生一般用现在分词;③在主谓语之 后一般用不定式。 4. 只能接-ing 分词作宾语的动词 建议冒险去献身,忍受期待不停顿; 放弃延期悔失去,坚持欣赏实践成; 注意原谅避反对,考虑要求不自禁; 允许习惯不介意,价值开始想动名。 它们所对应的动词或词组分别是:advise, suggest, risk, devote oneself to; have/bear/stand(忍受), look forward to, stop, give up, delay, put off, regret, miss; keep (on)/insist on/stick to, enjoy/appreciate, feel like, practice, finish; pay attention to, excuse, escape, avoid, object to; consider, require, cannot help, forbid; permit, be/get used to, mind; be worth, set about, imagine. 三、题型归纳──完形填空的解题要决一 巧用首句信息:①利用首句把握文章的体裁:如果文章开头交代事情发生的时间、地点以及人物 等,毫无疑问就是记叙文;如果文章开门见山点明话题或作者的观点,那么很可能就是议论文或

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说明文。②分析首句信息,预测下文内容:一般情况下,根据首句所给的线索,就能粗知短文的 大概内容。由首句的提示,加上语法分析、逻辑推理,并借助于短文中关键词语所提供的信息以 及上下文之间的关系,就能进一步确切了解短文内容,为确定答案开辟道路。 例 1:Monty owns a horse ranch(牧场) in San Sedro. Once when asked about his____, he told the story about a young man, son of a horse trainer. A. life B. success C. family D. education [分析]从本文的开头可以断定是记叙文, 同时第一句话还透露出 Monty 有一定的成就。 从后文的 “a horse trainer”可知他出身贫贱,由此可以断定,人们不是询问他的“生活”,“家庭” 或“受教育”情况,而是询问他“成功的秘诀”。 例 2:?Being alone in outer space can be frightening. That is one reason why astronauts on solo(单独的) space flights were given plenty of work to keep them____. A. tired B. asleep C. conscious D. busy [分析]文章开头谈到一个人进行太空旅行会感到很孤单, 因此通常给单独旅行的宇航员安排很多 工作以排遣这种孤独的情绪。由常识可知,人在忙碌的时候不会感到孤单,而其他三项都与第一 句话没有关系。 例 3:When I come across a good article in reading newspapers, I often want to cut and keep it. But just as I am about to do so, I find the article on the____ side is also interesting? A. each B. other C. another D. either [分析]作者非常喜欢阅读报纸上的文章, 当他想要把那些好的文章剪下来保留时却发现其背面的 文章也同样有趣。由文中的“newspapers”及常识可知报纸只有两面,故用 other。 一、Language points 1. when 既可指时间的某一点,从句中的谓语动词可以是非延续性的,又可指一段时间(从句中 的谓语动词要用延续性动词),从句的动作与主句的动作同时发生。 意为“这时”,常用结构:be about to?when? as: 强调从句的动作和主句的动作同时发生,而不是一前一后。 while: 表示两者情况对比。 2. be of +抽象名词=be + adj. be of (great) + use/help/value/importance =be (very) + useful/helpful/valuable/important 3. journey:适用范围广,可指陆海空的旅行,常指距离较远的旅行。 trip:指短时间,短距离的旅行。 travel:泛指旅游,前面一般不用冠词。 travels:多指旅行经历 journey 和 trip 强调往返性,travel 不侧重往返性,可以是章程旅行。 Voyage:海上旅行或航海。 4. hope:指与过去、现在或将来有关的希望,不能接名词,双宾语或复合宾语。

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wish:多指美好的祝愿,或表达的是过去,现在或将来发生的令人遗憾的事,接从句时使用虚拟 语气。 hope for:希望、期待、对(某物)有信心 We hope you’ll be very happy. I wish I had gone to that party. We haven’t heard from him for a long time, but we are still hoping for a letter. 5. n.诺言,有指望,有前途,可能性 There is a promise of better weather tomorrow. keep a promise→break a promise promise carry out a promise:履行诺言 fulfill a promise:实现诺言 v.许诺,答应,有?迹象,使?很有可能 I can’t promise, but I’ll do my best. The clouds promise rain. promising adj. 有前途的,有希望的 6. put up:搭起,建筑 set up:建立,成立 build:建造 build up:建立 found:创立,创办 7. around/round the corner:在拐角处,即将到来 in the corner:在角落里 on the corner:在拐角上 at the corner:在拐角处(比 on 的范围大) 8. sb/sth praise sb for (doing) sth:因?赞扬? sb as?:称赞?是? sing high praise for:称赞? in praise of:赞美 9. population:对此进行提问时,要使用 what,人口的“多,少”使用 large, small;表示“有 多少人”时用“has a population of?”。 population:用作主语时,谓语动词的单复数由其后面的表语来决定。 ----What’s the population of China? ----China has a population of 1.3 billion. The population of New Zealand is small. The population of developing countries are mostly peasants. 10. come to terms with:达成协议,妥协 take possessions of:获得,占有

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in/with relation to:与?有关联,关于 in memory of sb:为了纪念某人 match?with?:把?和?搭配起来 二、语法专题──情态动词和虚拟语气的考点 1. 表示推测:情态动词+ be+表:现在状态 be doing:现在动作 have done:过去 may/might have done:本可以干某事 can/could have done:本能够干某事 should/ought to have done:本应该干某事 needn’t have done:本不必干某事 would/should like/love to have done :过去本想干某事 had better have done:当初最好干某事 would rather have done:当然真该干某事 注:情态动词表推测时,其反意疑问句,应把情态动词变为不是推测的来考虑。 2. 几个情态动词的辨析与特殊用法: (1)can/could 用于肯定句中表“可以”,或“能够”(强调与生俱来的能力);be able to 强调过去设法完成的某一具体的动作。 (2)used to 表示过去常常干某事,暗示“现在不干了”,以及表示过去一直存在的状态;would 表示过去常常干某事,但不涉及现在的情况,还可以表示过去一直烦人的事情。 (3)need/dare 作为实义动词时,应用 need/dare to do; 作为情态动词时,一般不用于肯定句 中。 (4)shall 用于第一、三人称,表示征询对方意见或请求;用于第二、三人称时,表示命令、 强制、允诺或威胁。 (5)will 可以表示意愿或必然趋势。 If he won’t help us, all our plans will be ruined. The window won’t open. 3. 虚拟语气应用于如下结构中: (1)一种定语从句:It’s time that+did (2)两种目的状语从句: so that/in order that+ can/may/could/might +do (3)三种随时变化句: ① wish 现在→did/were

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if only + 过去→had done as if/though 将来→could/would do ② would rather + 现在/将来→did/were 过去→had done ③ 现在:if+did/were, would+ do 过去:if+had done, would+ have done 将来: did if+ were to do, would+ do should do 注意:除了由 if 引导的虚拟条件句外,还有倒装条件句,即把 were、had 或 should 提前;混合 时间句,虚实错综句,以及含蓄条件句,即由 or, otherwise, with, without, but for 来引导 的。 (4)四种名词性从句: ①当表语是 important, natural, necessary, possible, strange, arranged, decided, demanded, ordered, requested, suggested, surprising, a pity, no woder 时,主语从句要 用虚拟语气。例: It’s important that we (should) help each other. ②动词一坚持(insist),两命令(command, order),三建议(advise, propose, suggest),四要 求(ask, demand, request, require)后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。例: He insisted that he (should) be sent to the West. 注:insist(坚持说), suggest(暗示,表明)时,从句应用陈述语气。如: Her pale face suggested that she was ill. ③idea, plan 以及表示“坚持,命令,建议,要求”等动词的同源名词作主语时,表语从句用 虚拟语气。例: My suggestion is that we (should) hold a class meeting. ④idea, plan 以及表示“坚持,命令,建议,要求”等动词的同源名词后的同位语从句要用虚 拟语气。例: The office gave an order that his soldiers fight back bravely. 三、题型归纳──完形填空解题要决二 巧用上下文语境。①注意上下文的信息提示:信息提示出现在前文时,可以根据前文的信息提示 确定答案;信息提示出现在后文时,我们应该先把此空暂时搁置,在理解了后文的基础上,再确 定答案。②通读全文,利用复现词语:完形填空试题中,一些词语会重复出现在语篇之中。词汇 复现使得语篇中的句子相互衔接,从而构成一个完整的、有机的意义整体。把握这些反复出现的 词语,有助于我们确定正确答案。 例 1:Reading is a way of learning English without classes or a teacher. It helps develop learners’ independence. And while reading graded readers, learners don’t have to run a____ because the language is at their level.
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A. dictionary B. teacher C. student D. recorder [分析]because 在此引导一个原因状语从句,因为读物中使用的语言符合读者的语言水平,读者 当然不必求助于词典。 例 2:All of a sudden I started to feel rather__1__. She wondered why I was looking for this sort of__2___. I felt even more hopeless when she told me that it would be difficult to get a job without experience. 1. A. encouraged B. dissatisfied C. hopeless D. pleased 2. A. place B. job C. advice D. help [分析]文章讲到作者去应聘工作, 既没有经验又信心, 心里感到十分不踏实。 从下文中的 “I felt even more hopeless”可知第 1 题填“hopeless”,暗示作者那种无望的心情。而“it would be difficult to get a job without experience ”则呼应了第 2 题,故选 job。 例 3:Years ago in Scotland, the Clark family had a dream. Clark and his wife worked and____, making plans for their nine children and themselves to travel to 2(America) . It had taken years, but they had 3(finally) saved enough money and had gotten passports and reservations for the whole family on a new liner t the United States. A. spent B. counted C. saved D. played [分析]分析上面一段文字可知 Clark 夫妇存钱的目的是让一家人出去旅游。根据文中“but they had 3(finally) saved enough money ”可知第 1 题答案为 C 项。 一、Language points 1. in other words=in another word :换句话说 in a word=in one word:总而言之 have a word with=have a few words with :和?说几句话 have words with:与?争论 2. can never?too? can not?too? 无论怎样?也不过分,越?越好 3. as+adj/adv(原级)+as possible=as?as one can: 尽可能? 4. appreciate +n/doing appreciate +it+ that-clause(真宾) 5. to do/doing intend+ sb to do that-clause(虚拟语气) intend? + as?: 打算(使)?成为? be intended for?:(为?而)准备

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6. marry sb to sb be/get married to sb marry sb be/get married to sb with sth 7. 部分否定句:all, both, every, everyone, everything 等总概括词与否定词 not 连用时, 表示部分否定,意思是“并非?都?”。 8. make up:化妆,编造,组成(部分组成整体),占?(比例) be made up of:一个整体是由几个部分组成 =be composed of =consist of make up for:弥补 9. in(out of) condition/in good(bad) condition :情况良好(糟糕) On/upon condition that(引导条件状从):如果?,在?条件下 10. vi.: 受苦,受害,受损失 He suffered a lot during the war. suffer Your reputation will suffer. vt.:遭受,容忍,耐住 He is suffering the loss of his wife. These plants cannot suffer a cold winter. suffer from: 患?病,受?之苦 Last week I suffered from a bad cold. His hometown suffered from heavy floods in 1998. 二、语法专题──定语从句的解题方法 1. 通读全句,判断是否为定语从句。 2. 题干若为疑问句,将其恢复为陈述语序。 3. 认真分析句中所提供的信息,确定定语从句的类型,是限制性定语从句还是非限制性定语从 句。 4. 确定从句中所缺的成分,从而做出正确的选择。 5. 将选项填入句子中,看语意是否通顺。 6. 在此过程中,还要注意标点符号的位置,以及并列连词 but, and 的作用 三、题型归纳──完形填空的解题要决三 根据文化背景常识: ①利用英语国家的文化背景知识, 英语国家的文化背景知识包括英语国家的

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风俗习惯、历史事件、地理位置等。我们做题时若能积极调动自己的文化背景知识,注意中西文 化各方面存在的差异, 将会大大简化复杂的分析与判断过程, 选出正确的答案。 ②结合生活常识, 避免常识性错误。 完形填空文章的内容经常与日常生活相关, 因此当我们对语言的把握不准确时, 可充分利用社会知识和科普常识来帮助判断, 这就要求我们平时既要多体验生活, 又要博览群书。 例 1: Sometimes I really doubt whether there is love between my parents. They are very busy working to support the family. They don ’t act in the romantic ways that I read in books or I se on TV. Flowers to each other on Valentine’s Day is even more out of the question. A. Taking B. Passing C. Buying D. Sending [分析]利用文化背景知识解答。众所周知,Valentine’s Day 为西方国家的情人节,这一天情 人之间、夫妻之间一般是要互送鲜花来庆祝的。因此借助这一文化背景知识很快可以选出答案。 例 2:Roberta appeared on the stage. She took a deep breath and began to speak . Now she was Portia, a strong-willed in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice. The theatre was filled with people. She was speaking with a power she had never before experienced, the words flowing smoothly from her. A. member B. actress C. player D. character [分析]本题考查文化背景知识。莎士比亚为英国文学巨匠,他的作品人们耳熟能详,尤其是《威 尼斯商人》 更是广为人知。 其中主要人物有乐于助人的安东尼奥, 贪婪自私的夏洛克, 还有机智、 漂亮的鲍西亚。根据文意可知此题答案。 例 3:Fire stations are strangely exciting places. In the normal course of events the great doors are shut, and behind them, the fire-engines wait peacefully, brightly cleaned and lovingly cared for. But the moment the fire alarm sounds, the huge doors open immediately and the firemen come . A. fleeing B. laughing C. jumping D. rushing [分析]考查生活常识。每当有火警的时候消防队员都是快速出动,此处用 rushing 表示方式,修 饰 come。Fleeing“逃逸”,laughing“笑”,jumping“跳”,均与语境不符。 例 4:It was New Year’s night. An aged man was standing at a window. He raised his mournful eyes towards the deep____ sky. A. grey B. blue C. black D. cloudy [分析]考查生活常识。晚上天空的颜色一般是深蓝色。 It was a bright Saturday morning in the late fall. I had stopped at a caf é to enjoy a cup of coffee and__1__ the morning newspaper. Suddenly, I__2__ a hand on the back of my jacket and heard someone say, “Hey Steve! How ya doin’?” __3__ up, I saw a boy wearing a mechanic’s uniform worn by employees of the gasoline station next to the café. He looked__4__, but, at first, I was unable to__5__ where we

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had met. He also held a cup of coffee, so I asked him to join me. Very soon, his__6__ and probably my coffee began to thaw(解冻) out my__7__. Five years earlier, he had been traveling home late on a February night. A fierce__8___ had arrived that afternoon, and by midnight, the snowdrifts were getting__9___. He recalled__10__ a drift just down the road from my house. He had walked to my house for__11__. I had taken my pickup and a tow-rope and__12__ his car out of the snowdrift and up to the highway where maintenance( 维护) trucks had__13___ away the snow. This has been a__14__ occurrence here during the winter. I cannot__15__ the times someone has also pulled my car from a snowdrift. ___16__, it was an unforgettable experience for him, and his memory of our unexpected meeting in a snowstorm__17__ my entire day. Leo Buscaglia wrote, “Too often we underestimate(低估) the__18_ of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment( 赞扬), or the smallest act of__19__, all of which have the potential to turn a__20__ around. ” 1. A. preview B. scan C. order D. buy 2. A. noticed B. got C. caught D. felt 3. A. Looking B. Standing C. Rising D. Glaring 4. A. sensitive B. friendly C. familiar D. grateful 5. A. reflect B. determine C. regain D. recall 6. A. story B. experience C. appearance D. greetings 7. A. heart B. feeling C. memory D. wonder 8. A. sandstorm B. snowstorm C. hurricane D. rainfall 9. A. high B. slippery C. thin D. deep 10. A. blocking B. hitting C. knocking D. crashing 11. A. help B. advice C. emergency D. shelter 12. A. pulled B. dragged C. pushed D. dug 13. A. collected B. cleared C. threw D. melted 14. A. basic B. common C. forgettable D. practical 15. A. count B. keep C. master D. predict 16. A. Besides B. Therefore C. However D. Otherwise 17. A. covered B. influenced C. brightened D. filled 18. A. meaning B. relation C. value D. power 19. A. caring B. offering C. sharing D. forgiving 20. A. course B. fate C. truth D. life 本文是一篇夹叙夹议的文章。 作者在咖啡馆里喝咖啡的时候, 遇到了自己曾经在风雪之夜帮助过 的一个年轻人。作者已经记不起对方了,但年轻人对作者给予的帮助却多年不忘。这使作者意识 到一个善意的举动有多么大的力量。 (答案): 1-5 BDACD 6-10 ACBDB 11-15 AABBA 16-20 CCDAD

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一、Language points 1. lean against/on/upon+n. n.+against/on/upon+n. back 后仰 forward 俯身向前 to the left 向左侧身 to/toward?:倾向?,向?倾斜 2. match +n. +to/with +n.:使?(和?)调和,相配 match +n. +against/with +n.:使?(和?)交手,使?比赛 3. be sure of/about +n./pron.:对?有把握,确信? that-clause:确信 wh-clause:能确定?,知道? sb be sure to do:一定会?的,必定? sb be certain to do It is certain that-clause that-clause make sure+ of sth/doing sth:确信,对?有把握 to do sth:一定要做? 4. expect+ sb/sth:期待,预料 to do sth:期望做某事 n+ to do:期望?做? to be done:期待?被? that-clause ?+ than/as+ clause (it is) expected You arrived earlier than I had expected. expected. 5. appear: 不能接 as if, 强调外表给人某种印象,有时含有实际并非如此。 看起来 seem:可跟 as if, 暗示判断有一定的根据,这种判断往往接近事实。 look:可接 like/as if,强调视觉印象,后面跟形容词 6. engage sb to sb:使某人与某人订婚 get engaged to sb:与某人订婚(动作) be engaged to sb:与某人订婚(状态) be engaged in (doing) sth:忙于/从事某事 7. It is no good/use +doing sth There is/seems no point in doing sth There is no need to do sth

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8. use up=run out of 用完 give out=run out 耗尽 9. rather than:而不是 other than=except or rather:更确切地说 10. get through:做完,办完,看完;通过;接通;度过;用完 go through:经历(痛苦、困难),翻阅,参观,查看 look through:浏览 see through:看穿,看透 break through:突围 put through:把电话接通,使成交,完成 pull through:(使)恢复健康,(使)度过难关 11. be present at?:出席 present adj.:做后置定语:All the people present are students. present sth to sb 向某人颁发?,把?赠送给? present sb with sth for the present:暂时 up to the present:直到现在 at present:目前 present n.:礼物 12. be known as/for/to/in under debate would like to do feel like doing 13. TO 未介词 adapt to:适合 relate to:与?有关 get down to:开始做,着手 stick to:坚持 pay attention to:注意 look forward to:期望 addict oneself to:使自己沉溺于? be addicted to:沉溺于? devote?to?:致力于 二、语法专题──名词性从句的解题思路 1. 通读全句,首先考虑是不是某种句型。 2. 题干若是疑问句,首先把它恢复为正常语序。 3. 观察设空的前前后后,确定相关从句的性质。 4. 确定从句性质后回忆相关从句的用法特点,从而作出取舍。

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5. 注意标点符号和并列连词(and, but)的作用。 6. 将选项代入句子,看前后是否语意贯通。 三、题型归纳──完形填空的解题要决四 灵活掌握名词、动词在句子中的应用。①结合语境及名词、动词词义辨析选出最佳答案:词义辨 析主要集中在实词,即名词、动词、形容词和副词。设题通常以同义词、反义词或易混词的形式 出现。 这就要求我们在做题时要根据上下文语境确定答案, 将意义相反或相差较大的选项剔除掉, 选择使句子结构完整、语法正确、语意符合逻辑的最佳答案。②夯实基础,牢记含有名词、动词 的短语或固定搭配:对含义清晰的名词、动词短语或固定搭配,可以边读边猜测答案,遇到有能 和空白前后构成固定搭配的选项, 只要符合文意则可以不考虑其他选项, 因此我们平时要注重短 语或固定搭配的积累。 例 1: “Only a miracle(奇迹) can save him now”, the little girl went to her bedroom and took out her piggy bank. She emptied all the change out on the floor and counted it carefully. Then she her way six blocks to the local drugstore. “And what do you want?” asked the chemist. A. followed B. made C. felt D. found [分析]考查动词词组辨析。 语境为小女孩听到父母谈论她的弟弟病得很厉害, 家里已没有剩下多 少钱, 只有奇迹能救他, 于是她倒空自己的储钱罐。 再结合下文问话 “And what do you want? Asked the chemist.”可知她“去了”药店。Followed one’s way “跟着别人走”;made one’s way “朝?走去”;felt one’s way “摸索前进”;found one’s way “发现途径”,结合题意 此处应选 B。 例 2: “Stop that man!” Vernon shouted. “He has a bomb!” Everywhere, passengers were____ their feet and screaming. A. running over B. jumping over C. running to D. jumping to [分析]考查结合语境选择动词短语的能力。上文提到,有人携带炸弹,听到这种情况人们的反应 应为惊跳起来尖叫着。故选答案 D。 例 3:Why is setting goals important? Because goals can help you you, be, and experience everything you want in life. Instead of just letting life happen to you, goals allow yourself to____ your life happen. A. leave B. cause C. make D. get [分析]考查动词短语习惯搭配。make sb do sth “让某人做某事”,其余各项不符合表达习惯, 不可用省略 to 的不定式作宾补。 例 4:I began to feel self-conscious . A voice said to me “Why can’t you look like her?” “____ you’re so fat?” Although I wasn’t fat? A. When B. Because C. If only D. How come

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[分析]考查习惯搭配。How come??意为“何以会?,为什么”。全文语境为:作者所处的班级 的学生都比较有钱,尤其是在穿着方面更是挑剔,更注意自己的身材,唯恐发胖。因此作者考虑 到别人的情况感到不自在, 尽管自己不算胖。 此处意为: “你为什么看起来不能像她那样?” “你 为什么会这么胖呢?” 一、Language points 1. be convenient to do be convenient to sb 2. to one’s taste:合某人的口味 show good taste in:对?有鉴赏力 have a/an?taste:有?的味道 taste good:吃起来很好 have a taste for/in:喜好? 3. rob sb/place of sth steal sth from sb steal sb sth 4. contribute?to?: 向?捐献(投稿) contribute to?:促成,有助于 make a contribution to/towards:向?捐献 5. as follows:如下 follow the example of:以?为榜样 6. remind sb of sth=remind sb about sth remind sb that-clause remind sb to do sth 7. A is to B what C is to D stand out start with set aside:把?置于一旁,留出,拔出 be gone/missing/lost/left 8. impress?on?: 把?印在?上 impress sb (with sth):使某人牢记(某事) impress sth on sb:使某人铭记某事 be impressed by/at/with:被?所感动 be impressed on one’s mind/memory:被印在脑海里 9. recommand+ sb/sth to sb:向某人推荐某人或某物 sb for sth:推荐某人做(某工作)

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sth for?:推荐某物作(某用途) sb as?:推荐某人为? doing sth: sb to do sth 建议做某事 that-clause (should) 10. remain +adj./n./doing/to do/介词短语:仍然是,保持某种状态 It remains to be seen?:?还要看情况发展 remaining:现在分词作前置定语:the remaining three dollars =the three dollars left stay +adj.:继续处于某种状态 keep + adj. 继续处于某种状态 n. +adj/doing 11. lead to?:导致 lead?to?:把?带向? 12. differ from/with sb on/about/upon sth :跟某人在?上意见不同 make a difference:起作用,发生影响 make some/no difference:有(没有)关系或影响 二、语法专题──状语从句的考点 高考对状语从句的考查主要体现在成分的省略, 时态的替代, 语序的倒装以及连词的辨析四在方 面。 1. 成分的省略 ①在时间、地点、条件、让步、方式等状语从句中,如果主语是 it 或与主句的主语一致,且谓 语动词含有 be 时,可把从句的主语和 be 一起省略。 Don’t speak until (you are) spoken to. Do come to see me whenever (it is) possible. ②在比较状语从句中,可省略与主句相同的部分。 I know you more than he (knows you). Tom is two years older than Alice (is). ③as(尽管)引导让步状语从句,表语前的冠词要省略。 Hero as he is, he has shortcomings. ④其他省略。 Please drop in any time you like. Is it going to rain? If so, I’ll stay at home; but if not, we will go out. 2. 时态的替代

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①在时间、 条件和让步状语从句中须用一般现在时替代一般将来时, 用一般过去时替代过去将来 时。 If it rains tomorrow, we won’t go fishing. Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. ②The more?the more?句型中,前句起“条件状语从句”作用,故用现在时表将来。 The harder you work, the greater progress you’ll make. ③after, before, as soon as 等连词本身就暗示了时间的先后,因此可用一般过去时代替过去 完成时,而不会产生时间上的混乱。 I went to bed after I (had) finished my homework. The film star (had) left before the reporter arrived. He got down to work as soon as he (had) go to the factory. 3. 语序的倒装 ①no sooner?than?, hardly/scarcely/barely?when?句型中的主句常用过去完成时,从句 常用一般过去时,且置于句首时主句要倒装。 No sooner had he got home than it began to rain. ②so/such?that?, not until?置于句首时主句要倒装。 So angry did she feel that she couldn ’t speak. Not until he told me the truth did I realize what had happened. 4. 连词的辨析。根据上下文的语意推断属于哪种状语从句,然后选择连词。 三、题型归纳——完形填空的解题要决五 把握文章脉络,识别句式特点。①把握文章脉络,偏重观点、态度,慎边读边做。我们在通通览 全文的基础上,要从整体上把握文脉,找出完形填空短文的主题大意,作者的观点、态度,文章 展开的线索等信息。②学好语法知识,积累句型句式。尽管高考淡化语法,注重情景,但是扎实 的语法功底,良好的语感对于完形填空题是大有帮助的。 例 1:It was pouring outside. We all stood there____, some patiently, others annoyed because nature messed up their hurried day. I got lost in the sound and sight of the ? A. chatting B. waiting C. complaining D. talking [分析]细读全文可知,语境为外面下着倾盆大雨,我们站在那里在等雨停下来,不是在干其他事 情。 例 2: “Tonight was supposed to be____---- to celebrate six months. You do remember we’re engaged, don’t you?” A. normal B. sleepless C. special D. sad [分析]本篇文章谈论一对情侣的经历, 该题易误选 B, 认为会激动得睡不着, 但是结合语境可知, 要庆祝订婚六个月,所以今晚应具有特殊意义。

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例 3:The story____ to be this: George bought a lottery ticket(彩票) a few days ago and won a prize of $500,000. A. turned up B. turned out C. turned down D. turned off [分析]考查常见句式。句意:故事证明是这样的:乔治几天前买了彩票获奖 50 万美元。turn out to be “结果是,证明是”,表示结果出乎意料之外,四个选项中只有 turn out 可接 to be。 例 4:Ellsworth, a patient who had suffered several failures in business, did not show much interest in painting at first. But____ the weeks went by, Swain ’s visits grew more frequently . A. as B. with C. since D. had to [分析]分析语境可知,此处意为“随着时间一周一周过去”。此处不可填 with,因为 with 后不 接句子。As time went by “随着时间推移”,为我们所熟知的句式。 For some time I’ve had a church member provide me with a rose to pin on my suit every Sunday. __1__ I always got a flower on Sunday morning, I really did not__2__ much of it. It was a nice gesture that became__3__. One Sunday, however, what I considered__4__ became very special. As I was leaving the Sunday service, a little boy__5__ and said, “Sir, what are you going to do with your flower?” “Do you__6__ this?” I said, pointing to the rose pinned to my coat. He said, “Yes sir. I would like it if you are__7__ going to throw it away. ” The little boy said, “Sir, I’m going to give it to my granny. My mother and father got_8__ last year. I was living with my mother, but I could not__9__, so she sent me to live with my grandmother. She has been so good to me that I want to give that pretty flower to her for__10__ me.” When the little boy finished I could hardly__11__. My eyes filled with tears and I knew I had been touched in the__12__ of my soul. I reached up and__13__ my flower. With the flower in my hand, I looked at the boy and said, “Son, that is the__14__ thing I have ever heard, but you can’t have this flower because it’s not__15__. If you’ll look in front of the platform, you’ll see a big__16__ of flowers. Different families buy them for the__17__ each week. Please take those flowers to your granny because she__18__ the very best.” If I hadn’t been__19__ enough already, he made one last statement and I will always treasure it. He said, “What a__20__ day! I asked for one flower but got a beautiful bouquet.” 1. A. Because B. Although C. If D. Once 2. A. speak B. think C. remind D. care 3. A. rule B. practice C. custom D. routine 4. A. valuable B. useless C. ordinary D. normal 5. A. approached B. stopped C. interrupted D. followed

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6. A. notice B. see C. like D. mean 7. A. always B. just C. ever D. already 8. A. divorced B. lost C. disturbed D. troubled 9. A. stand B. understand C. stay D. help 10. A. comforting B. adopting C. supporting D. loving 11. A. move B. speak C. breathe D. refuse 12. A. depths B. back C. bottom D. corner 13. A. uncovered B. unloaded C. unpinned D. unwrapped 14. A. sweetest B. nicest C. saddest D. strangest 15. A. real B. fresh C. expensive D. enough 16. A. pile B. bouquest C. collection D. chain 17. A. relatives B. old C. poor D. church 18. A. deserves B. proves C. sounds D. matches 19. A. challenged B. surprised C. touched D. taught 20. A. sunny B. special C. lucky D. wonderful (答案): 1-5 ABDCA 6-10 DBACD 11-15 BACBD 16-20 BDACD 一、Language points 1. lack+ wisdom/money v. be lacking in+courage lack for nothing for lack of:因缺乏? have no lack of:不缺乏? a/the lack of:?的缺乏 2. persuade sb to do=persuade sb into doing sth persuade sb not to do=persuade sb out of doing sb to do=urge sb into doing:强烈要求某人干某事 urge sth on sb:对某人强调某事 that-clause+(should) do:强烈要求? 3. on the contrary be contrary to? on the other hand 4. in case+从句 in case of+短语 in this/that case in any case 5. be content with:对?感到满足 =be satisfied/pleased with
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be content to do?:满足于做? content (n.):内容,目录 6. at (the) sight of:一看见 at first sight:乍一见 catch/get/have (a) sight of:看见,发现 lose sight of:看不见 out of sight:在视线之外 in/within sight:在视线内 7. live through:活过,经历?而未死 live with:与?同住,接受并忍受某事 live on:以?为生 live by+doing:以?为生 8. knock about:到处漫游,(风浪)冲击(船只) knock into sb:撞上(某人) knock down:撞倒 knock over:撞翻 knock?off?:把?从?上撞下来 9. what’s up? =wha’s the matter? =what’s wrong? =what’s happening? 10. witness n.:目击者,证人,证据 vt.:目击,证明,为?作证 tip n.:小费,尖,尖端 vt.:使倾斜,倾倒,给?小费 11. at hand:在近处,在手边,即将到来 near/close at hand:近在手边 on hand:手头上 in hand:在手中,在掌握中 by hand:用手工 at second hand:间接地,二手地 hand in hand:手拉手,关系密切地 12. in harmony with:与?协调/和谐 leave out:省去,遗漏 leave?alone:不理会? be worn out:筋疲力尽

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二、语法专题──特殊句式的考点 特殊句式包括有:倒装句、强调句、省略句、反意疑问句、主谓一致和情景交际。这些句式都有 其基本结构和一些特殊情况的用法。 所以对于这些句式重点要熟记这些用法, 并要注重句意的理 解。 三、题型归纳──阅读理解的解题要决──主旨大意题 1. 根据文章第一段或首句确定文章的主旨。新闻报道的第一段一般首先概括全文的中心,另外 有些说明性或议论性文章也会开门见山地提出文章的中心或阐述的观点, 文章的第一句话或第一 段就是对全文主旨大意的概括。后文对此进一步解释说明,一般上具体的事例或信息,全文具有 先总后分的特点。我们在捕捉文章的主题句时,应该对包含主题句的段落进行适当的分析。 例:Fear and its companion pain are two of the most useful things that men and animals possess if they are properly used. If fire didn ’t hurt when it burned, children would play with it until their hands were burned away. Similarly, if pain existed but fear didn’t, a child could burn itself again and again because fear would not warn it to keep away from the fire that had burnt it before. A really fearless soldier----and some do exist----is not a good soldier because he is soon killed; and a dead soldier is of no use to his army. Fear and pain are therefore two guards without which men and animals might soon die out.? Q: The best title for this passage should be____. A. No pains, No Gains B. Pain and Actions C. The Value of Fear D. The Reason Why People Fear [分析]文章的第一句话就开门见山点明了主题: 如果利用得当, 恐惧和痛苦是人和动物拥有的两 样最有价值的东西。后文就此展开论述,说明恐惧的价值。故答案为 C。 2. 主题句在篇尾。 主题句位于段末的文章的特点是作者采用了先摆事实, 后下结论的写作手法。 作者在表述细节后,归纳要点、结论、建议或结果,以概括主题。我们在做题时,要判断所读内 容是细节性的描述还是对所涉及问题的集中表达。如果文章首先提及的内容多为一般性的事实、 细节的描写或具体的事例, 则对文章中心的归纳或作者观点及意图的体现极有可能在最后, 可以 重点细读最后一段,然后回过头来利用主题句进一步理解文章的细节。 例:?Free time increased considerably following the shortening of the working week, i.e. from six days to five days, and from ten hours to eight hours a day. In fact, the working day couldn’t be too long, otherwise people wouldn ’t have the time to spend their money. The amount of a family’s budget spent on outside entertainment, such as parties, films and concerts has increased from just under 6% in Ford ’s day to about 9% today. On the other hand, we spend only a quarter of what our great-grandparents paid for reading materials. It is difficult to see how our spending patterns may change in the future. We already know that our population is aging and this will have an effect on the amount of money we spend on medical care.

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Q: What is the subject discussed in the text? A. Changing patterns in spending B. Changes in family planning C. Decrease in food demand D. Increase in family income [分析]结合前文所提及的细节可知, 文章最后一段的第一句话即全文讨论的主题──消费方式的 变化。故答案为 A。 3. 主旨出现在文章的中间。在有些议论文或说明文中作者首先列举或说明人们的错误观点或认 识误区,然后再点明自己的观点或说明的中心,最后点题,这样文章的主题句就出现在篇中。 例: A close friend siad: “If I could only figure this out, I think I could find happiness. ” I have heard this before and will hear it again I am sure. Many people believe that finding happiness is all about finding something else they want. Not many have ever found long term happiness by achieving another goal. The answer to finding happiness is to look within yourself. In other words, happiness is a completely inside job. The most important piece to finding happiness is to comprehend happiness is a choice and not the result of an experience. If all happiness could be found as the result of an acquisition( 成就), meeting a goal, or having anything, then a person’s happiness would always be subject to something else. Q: Which of the following would be the best title for the passage? A. Look within to find happiness. B. Happiness, a choice or the result of an experience? C. The definition of happiness D. How can we create happiness? [分析]作者首先引用别人的观点, 然后在材料的第二段点明主题: 我们要从自己的内心去寻找幸 福。B 项表示不确定的两种观点,与作者意图不符;C 项仅仅是文章的细节;D 项不是文章论述 的中心。 一、Language points 1. reach+地点/数字 达到 get 是普通用语 获得 achieve+目标/希望/成功 win 赢得+比赛/荣誉 gain 获得(某种利益)+金钱/经验 2. put in:打断,插嘴,插入 put away:放好,收起来,留存 put on:穿,上演 put off:推迟,延期 put out:生产,扑灭 put up:举起,张贴 put aside:搁置一旁,储存

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put down:写下,记下 put back:放回,送回 put forward:提出主意、计划 3. hesitate in (doing) sth:在?方面犹豫,不灵敏 hesitate about doing sth:关于?犹豫不决 hesitate what to do:犹豫着不知做什么 hesitate to do sth:不愿(欲)做某事 4. a lead-on collision:正面冲突(相撞) come into collision with:和?冲突 in collision:相撞,在冲突中 in the collision with:在?的碰撞中 collision between A and B:A 与 B 相撞 5. set about+doing set out to do sth set out=set off 6. benefit sb/sth:使?受益 sb benefit from/by:从?中获益 7. all the way:一路上,一直,始终 on the/one’s way (to):在?的路上 in the way:挡道 8. It is likely that-clause It is possible/probable that-clause sb/sth be likely to do It is possible for sb to do sth sth is probable 9. rob warn cure +sb of sth cheat inform 10. throw light upon/on:阐明? be absorbed in:全神贯注于?,热衷于? be available for sth/to do sth:对?有效的/可利用的 be sensitive to sth:对?敏感 rang from?to?:范围从?到?

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一、Language points 1. complain to sb about/of sth take a complaint to sb about/of sth 2. apologize to sb for (doing) sth make an apology to sb=say sorry to sb 3. on doing sth insist+ 坚持?,坚决要求+that+(should) do 认为,坚持说+that+陈述语气 4. It is no harm/good/use+doing It is useless+doing It is a waste(of time/money)+doing It is worthwhile+doing There is no good/use+in+doing There is no use to do sth/for sth There is no need to do sth There is no doubt about/that-clause There is no sense+in+doing There is no point+in+doing 5. be/get used to+doing=beome used to+doing :习惯于? used to do sth:过去习惯于? be used to do sth:被用来做? 6. for sale:待售 on sale:上市,减价 7. How are you getting on/along with ??:询问与人相处的情况如或某人工作或学习的进展 情况如何。 What does?look like?:询问某人(物)外表看起来如何,侧重人或事物的外表。 What is?like?:询问人或物内在的品质、个性或外表,以及用来询问天气。 What does sb like?:询问某人喜欢什么? How do you like??=What do you think of??:某人认为?怎么样 What are you?:询问某人职业? 8. exchange sth for sth exchange sth with sb in exchange for:作为交换(和?交换) 9. view:眼界,视野,另外还可表示“观点,风景”等。 image:指想像或心中的“影像,意象”,还可指肖像、形象。

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sight:视野,强调视域本身,是不可数名词。 outlook:景色,指由里面向外看到的景色。 10. in respect of:涉及,关于 respectful:尊敬的,有礼貌的 respectable:体面的,有身份的 respect (n./v.):尊敬 11. trial and error:反复实验,不断摸索 be aware of:意识到?,知道? allow for:考虑到? be willing to do/that-clause+(should) do:愿意做? in vain:徒劳 drive off:驱赶 stand on ceremony:拘于形式 adjust (oneself/sth) to sth:适应于? participate in=take part in 二、题型归纳──阅读理解的解题要决三──推理判断题 本题型主要对短文的结论、隐含意义(寓意)、作者的倾向、文章的论调、写作的思路及目的等进 行考查,或对原文中没有提及的情况进行推理和想象。我们要在理解原文的基础上纵观全文,汇 集短文提供的各项信息,严格按照作者陈述的观点或描述的事实,进行正确地、合乎逻辑地推论 和引申,从而选出符合原文信息或作者意图而不是我们主观认为合理的最佳答案。 1. 写作意图题。有些文章作者不点明自己的写作意图,而是让读者自己去体会,这种情况多出 现在记叙文或夹叙夹议的文章中。 例:ALBANY, New York---- Students who rely on working at night to improve their grades might want to sleep on that strategy: a new survey in the U.S. says those who never study all night have slightly higher grades than those who do. A survey of 120 students at St. Lawrence University found that students who have never pulled an all-nighter on average have higher grades than those who have. The survey found those who do not study through the night have a grade point average of 3.2 compared to 2.95 for those who have. Q: The purpose of the passage is to tell us____. A. the bad effects of pulling an all-nighter B. pulling an all-nighter leads to sleep problems C. doubts about all-nighters D. all-nighters hurt students’ grades [分析]这是一段科普阅读材料。主要介绍了一项研究──晚上突击学习的人成绩非但没有提高, 反而受到了影响,因此 D 项是作者的写作目的。A 项意义范围过大;B 项偏离了文章说明的中心 内容;C 项意义过于模糊。 2. 态度倾向题。作者的态度倾向往往隐含在文章中,而不会明确说明,因此态度倾向题也是比

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较有难度的推理判断题型。这类题目一般分为两类:一是作者对某一具体事物的观点、看法;另 一类是作者对某一人、物的评价。议论文或记叙文往往考查作者的态度倾向。如果是议论文,应 该抓住作者的论点和论据;如果是记叙文,应该特别注意作者总结性的文字。 例:The NBA now has a serious image problem; more than any other sport, it ’s pulled in two opposite directions. As it’s been for years, whites make up a majority of the fans; blacks make up a majority of the players. And as those players have benefited from ever-upward-spiraling(不断上升的) paychecks, they’ve exercised their influence to shape the sight of the game around them in their own image. ? The NBA has the potential to be a bridge between cultures, a way to bring both sides together in cheering some of the best athletes of any color. But it ’s a fragile bridge indeed, where every black or white element apparently forces out its ethnic( 种族的) opposite. And it’s not hard to imagine a time when nobody will be interested in crossing over. Q: The author’s attitude towards the NBA culture could be described as____. A. supportive B. doubtful C. critical D. neutral [分析]本文是议论文。分析全文,作者认为在 NBA 文化中,黑人文化与白人文化之间互相冲突, 不利于 NBA 的发展,因此作者实际上是在对 NBA 文化进行批判。A 项是支持,B 项是怀疑,D 项 是中立。 3. 细节推断题。细节推断是根据文章中所阐述的细节,运用基础知识进行分析、推敲,从而复 出符合文章原意的结论的一种推断方法。 此类题要求我们根据语篇关系, 推断具体细节, 如时间、 地点、人物关系、人物身份、具体信息等。解答此类题要从文章提供的信息出发,抓住关键的信 息词,运用逻辑思维、哲学原理,并借助一定的常识,进行分析、推理、判断。进行细节推断, 必须吃透相关文段的意思。 例: In many countries the standard of living enjoyed by their people had increased rapidly in recent years. Sadly, not everyone in these countries is so fortunate and many people in rich countries are homeless. The reasons for homelessness are various, but poverty is undoubtedly one of the main causes. The homeless people may have become jobless and then unable to pay their rent and so no longer have a roof over their heads. Often, the fact that unemployed people get help from the government prevents this from happening, but not always. ? Some cynics(愤世嫉俗的人) declare that homeless people choose to live the life which they lead. But who would willingly choose to live in a shop doorway, under a bridge or in a cardboard box? Q: It can be inferred from the text that____. A. you will not find homeless people in countries with a high standard of living. B. the mental ill live on the street because they want the company of other homeless

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people C. he unemployed who receive help may still be among the homeless D. the homeless are willing to live under a bridge or in a cardboad box [分析]根据第二段最后一句“Often, the fact that unemployed people get help from the government prevents this from happening, but not always ”可知,政府会(偶尔)帮助失业 人员,但不是经常的所以失业人员仍然可能无家可归。 4. 逻辑结论题。逻辑结论型试题的特点是考查我们的逻辑思维及判断能力,要求我们根据文章 提供的细节,推断出合乎逻辑的内容。解答此类题我们首先要找出短文的主题,然后按题意要求 进行推断。 例:?Chapman feels it his duty to help the rural areas that get left behind. Ask him about the satisfaction of setting up the community wireless network and he ’ll mention two women who are attending online universities----or grandparents easily e-mailing their grandchildren far away. “When the members of the community contribute their effort like this, they feel a sense of ownership,” Chapman says, “We may operate the network, but it ’ s owned by the citizens of the community. It’s for the public good.” Q: From the last two paragraphs we know that____. A. West Virginia Broadhand only does good to old citizens B. West Virginia Broadhand is operated by the community C. Chapman is a man of social responsibilities D. Chapman isn’t very much satisfied with his work [分析]从文中对 Chapman 的描述及他的话中, 可以感受到他是一个有着强烈社会责任感的人, 他 感到帮助偏远地区是他的责任,他这样做是为了公众的利益。 5. 预测想象题。 预测想象型试题考查的内容一般在文意中没有明确说明, 因此我们要根据语篇, 把握作者的写作思路,对事件可能出现的结局后文可能涉及的内容以及上文的内容进行科学的、 合理的预测。 例: ?Completing a college application can take some time. But answering all the questions is not enough. Another important step is taking admissions tests. The SAT is the college entry test that American high school students most commonly take. Another one is the ACT. Colleges and universities may also require international students to take the TOEFL (the Test of English as a Foreign Language). If you have a general question for our Foreign Students Series, write to special@voanews.com Q: What will the author most probably talk about next/ A. SAT B. ACT C. FSS D. TOEFL

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[分析]第一段介绍了美国高中生的大学入学考试, 最后两段提到外国考生要参加 TOEFL 考试, 下 文极有可能要对此加以说明。 一、Language points 1. have mercy on:对?表示怜悯 at the mercy of:任由?摆布或控制 beg?for mercy:乞求?的怜悯 show (little/much) mercy to sb:对?(毫不/非常)仁慈 without mercy:无怜悯之心 2. keep sb company accompany sb to a place in the company of sb accompany sb (at/on sth):给某人伴奏 3. (c)=wealth:(大量)财产 fortune (u)=luck:机会,运气 (c)=fate:个人的前途,命运 fortunate=lucky fortunately=luckily 4. a spare room:一个备用房间 in one’s spare time:在某人空闲时间里 spare me five minutes:为我抽出 5 分钟 spare no efforts:不遗余力 spare no expense:不惜成本 spare time:花费时间 kill time:消磨时间 waste time:浪费时间 5. in terms of:就?而言,从?角度,根据 in the long term:长远看来 in the short term=at the moment:在目前 in sb’s terms:在?看来 in relative terms:相对而言 in general/practical/financial:从总体/实际/财政角度 6. go about (doing) sth:着手,从事某事 as far as I know:据我所知 go/get down on one’s knees:跪下 tend to do:倾向于干什么 tend to sth:倾向于什么 therefore (adv.)=as a result of that so (conj.)

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7. in the eyes of sb=in sb’s eyes=in one’s opinion:在某人看来 keep an eye on sb:留神,看管 look sb in the eye:目不转睛地看某人 keep one’s eyes open:留心看,密切注意 8. sb sth:给某人端上? sb with sth=sth to sb:拿出?来款待某人 serve to do sth:起?作用 as?:担任,充当? sb/sth:为?服务,端(饭、菜) First come, first served.:先到先招待 Make the past serve the present.:古为今用 Let those who can serve as teachers. :能者为师 二、题型归纳──阅读理解解题要决四──词义猜测题 利用文章所提供的语境去推测生词是阅读的必备技能之一。 词义猜测题是高考必考的题型, 所考 词汇可以是生词,也可以是熟词新义,还可以是人称代词的指代内容。 1. 根据定义、解释和复述猜测词义。这种情况下,生词往往出现在前面,定义或解释跟在生词 的后面,由 or 或破折号引出。因此只要找准并正确理解生词的释义,生词的含义也就清楚了。 释义部分可以是单词、短语,也可以是句子。在做这类题时,要注意生词与复述部分往往构成同 位语,在句中多用逗号、破折号、冒号、分号等来连接。 例:?In another survey, 79% of teens agreed that people at their age aren’t careful enough when giving out information about themselves online. Besides, careless blogging can also affect blog viewers. When you are angry or frustrated, your blog is the first place you turn to. The words you post then may not be rational which you may regret later. To minimize the negative effect, change the permission setting and make such posts “private” so that only you can read them. As long as you are careful with what you post, blogging is a great means of staying in touch with friends and displaying one ’s creative works. Q: The underlined word “rational” probably means____. A. strange B. perfect C. helpful D. reasonable [分析]通过本句中的定语从句“which you may regret later”可知,令人后悔的话肯定是不理 智的、欠思考的,是不太合理的发泄或表达,所以 D 选项最贴近于“rational”的意思:合理的, 有道理的。 2. 根据因果关系猜测词义。因果关系总是同时出现在文章中,有时原因在前,结果在后;有时 结果在前,原因在后,因此我们可以根据这一特定的逻辑关系来推测生词的含义。 例:?Technology greatly influences our standpoint on how fast we think everything needs to be done. If you put a dollar in the soda machine, you expect the bottle to move forward

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and fall down to the bottom. You can ’t count how many times you’ve smacked the machine if it went too slow for your expectations. You wanted instant results, immediate fulfillment.? Q: The underlined word “smacked” in the paragraph probably means____. A. clapped B. hit C. kicked D. pushed [分析]从本句后半部分“if it went too slow for your expectations ”可知,带来的后果显 然是你对机器不满意,不知道拍打了它多少次。四个选项中只有 B 符合。A:鼓掌,轻拍;C:踢; D:推,均不合适。 3. 根据搭配、对比关系猜测词义。有时分析句子结构,辨别句子成分,分清搭配关系,是判断 词义的前提,通过搭配关系得以确定划线名词指代的对象是人还是物。另外,转折词 but、让步 条件状语从句以及 unlike, in spite of, despite, however 等一些介词和副词都可以构成意义 上的对比关系。 例:Fine art treasures from many countries are kept in an art museum called the Louvre in Paris, France. The works of art have been collected by the people of France over many centuries. The Louvre has not always been a museum. The first building was a fort. In 1190, it was the king’s castle with high walls and a round tower. It had a moat to keep out his enemies. Over the years, the number of buildings around the castle grew. By 1350, the castle was no longer needed as a fort. The Louvre became a palace home for French kings and queens. Q: The underlined word “moat” probably means____. A. a high tower built in former times where soldiers watched out for enemies B. a long and deep ditch dug round a castle and was usually filled with water C. a cart pulled by horses on which soldiers fought D. a long and high wall around castle [分析]从上一句中可知,它是国王的城堡,有着高高的围墙和圆形的塔楼,接下来提到的用来抵 御敌人的 moat 不可能还是围墙或塔楼,故可以排除 A、D,也不可能是马车。最符合逻辑的应该 是“护城河,壕沟”,故选 B。 一、Language points 1. concern (vt.):涉及,使关心 concern(n.):关心,担心,关联 concerning(prep.)=as concerns:关于? be concerned with:与?有关 have no concern with:同?无关 show concern for sb:关心某人 as/so far as?be concerned:就?而言 2. rise(vi.)

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raise(vt.) arise(vi.)-arose-arisen:出现,发生 arouse(vt.)-aroused-aroused:唤醒,唤起 3. feed(v.) (fed, fed):喂养 feed sb (sth):喂食 feed sb with/on sth:用?喂养 feed sth to sb:喂?给?吃 (animals) feed on?:(动物)以?为主食 feed on:常用于动物 live on:常用于人 4. be anxious about/for sb/sth:担心? be anxious for sth:对?担心/忧虑 be anxious (for sb) to do sth:渴望得到某物 5. in consequence=as a result:结果,因此 in consequence of:由于,因为?的缘故 as a consequence (of):作为?的结果 consequence:指随这而发生的结果,后果 result:指最后的结果,与(cause)相对 6. pass away:去世,逝世 pass by:经过,从?旁走过 pass on:传递,传授 pass through:穿过?,经历? pass off:消失 pass down:传给 pass out:昏倒 7. blame sb for (doing) sth blame sth on sb sb be to blame for (doing) sth sb be blamed for sth 8. charge sb money for sth 要价 charge money for sth sb be in charge of sth 主管 sth be in the charge of sb 9. admit sb/sth into to sth:允许某人(物)进入 sb be admitted to school/hospital sth admit+ doing sth

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承认 that-clause 10. make sense:讲得通,有道理,有意义 make sense of sth:懂,了解?的含义 make no sense:讲不通,无意义 in a sense:就某种意义而言 11. be involved in:参与,卷入 go with:与?相符,相配 attach to:使?属于,使参加,附属于 associate?with?:把?与?联系在一起 react to sth:对?作出反应 react on/upon:对?产生影响 leave behind:忘带,留下 be abundant in/with:有丰富的,有大量的 go for:为了?,喜欢? tie?to?:把?系/拴在?上 what if??:如果?怎么办? remark on/upon sb/sth:谈论或评论某人/物 beyond one’s power:超出某人的能力 12. apply oneself to:专注于? apply?to?:应用于?,适用 apply to?:适用于? apply (to sb) for?:(向?)申请,请求 13. lay off:解雇 lay down:放下武器,交出 lay out:展开,展示 lay aside:把?搁置一旁 14. tell?apart:区分,分辨 take?apart:把?拆开 apart from=besides apart from=except 15. get hold of:抓住 get along with?:与?相处,进展 get rid of:去掉 二、题型归纳──短文改错的解题要决 短文改错要做好,常见类型要记牢。 名词爱考数与格,冠词在前错多少。 动词时态和语态,非谓搭配莫错了。

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连代形副错一样,多是故意来混淆。 介词多半考搭配,多漏误用想周到。 句法涉及到一致,从句多考关系词。 语法句法均未错,逻辑推理去寻找。 一一二六惯常比,回读复查敲定稿。 注:①“一致”包括主谓一致,代词及相应的限定词在数、性、人称方面的一致,主语与主语补 语,宾语与宾语补足语的一致。②“一一二六”通常指一处对,一处多余,两处需补加成分,六 处需更改,当然此非定比,仅供参考。 1. 常见词法错误。短文改错试题中的词法错误主要包括动词、名词、冠词、形容词、副词、代 词和介词等词类误用,同义词混淆使用,固定搭配错误等方面。根据句子成分分析句子结构和具 体词的含义从而作出正确的判断是解答此类试题的关键。 ①动词。设错的形式一般有:动词的时态和语态、主谓一致、非谓语动词、谓语动词缺失、短暂 性动词和延续性动词混用等。 例:I will send you the photos we take together last week.[ 分析]考查谓语动词时态。根 据句意“我将给你发送我们上周拍摄的照片”可知,照片为过去拍摄的,所以应用一般过去时。 例:The color TV set produced in their factory are selling to several countries.[ 分 析]考查谓语动词语态。根据句意“他们工厂生产的彩色电视机被卖到许多国家”可知,要用被 动语态。 例:More than one student have attended the meeting about the wildlife protection.[ 分 析]考查主谓一致。many a, more than one 修饰单数名词,概念上表示复数意义,但中心词是 单数,所以谓语动词应用单数形式。 例:We found that some little girls were made do the job from morning till night.[ 分 析]考查非谓语动词。make 后接不带 to 的不定式作宾补,但在被动语态中,不定式符号 to 不能 省略。 例:According to the survey, students working to earn money for their own use.[ 分析] 谓语动词缺失。该句中 working 是 v-ing 形式,不可以单独作谓语,根据句意应将 working 改为 原形 work 作谓语动词。 例:They had got in touch with each other for ages before they met at last.[ 分析]考 查短暂性动词和延续性动词辨析。get in touch with 表示短暂性动作,不能和表示时间段的 for ages 连用,所以应将 got 改为 kept 或 been。 ②名词。主要是对可数名词的单复数、不可数名词、名词所有格、名词作定语等的考查。 例:Xiao Ming and I walked into the bar and ordered two coffee. [分析]考查可数名词单复数的误用。coffee 本是不可数名词,但和数词连用时为可数名词,表 示“一杯咖啡”,因此两杯 coffee 要改为 coffees。

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例:Holding the Olympic Games is great success to our country. [分析]考查抽象名词具体化。success 当“成功”讲时是不可数名词,但指具体的一件事时,是 可数名词,前面须加不定冠词 a。 例:The woman teachers are dancing in the hall and everyone is happy. [分析]考查名词作定语。man, woman 等作定语时,其单复数形式以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。 此处应该把 woman 改为 women。 ③冠词。主要是从固定搭配中冠词的误用、冠词漏用、不定冠词 a 和 an 的误用等方面进行考查。 例:Suddenly, I caught a sight of my old friend in the crowd. [分析]考查固定搭配。catch sight of 为固定搭配,意为“瞥见”。 例:Everyone knows that the sun rises in east.[ 分析]考查冠词漏用。在表示方位、方向等 的名词前要用定冠词 the。 例:On the way to the village, they met a 11-year-old boy who looked a little frightened.[分析]考查不定冠词。 短语 11-year-old 的读音是以元音音素[i]开头, 所以其前应 用不定冠词 an。 ④形容词、副词。在试题中一般设两行,难度适中,常见的考点有:形容词和副词的误用、形容 词和副词比较等级的误用、比较等级修饰语的误用等。 例:Some students will be happy in an open educational school than in a traditional classroom.[分析]考查形容词的比较等级。该句中含有一个 than 的比较级句型,因此 happy 应 改为 happier。 例:I was very angry, but they were very angrier.[ 分析]考查比较等级的修饰语。比较级 前可用表示程度的副词,如 even, much, very much, still, any, a lot, a bit, a little, far 等来修饰,而 very, quite, so, fairly 等词不可修饰形容词或副词的比较级。 ⑤代词。常见的考点有:人称代词与物主代词的误用、不定代词的误用等。此类试题解答的关键 是准确把握行文逻辑关系。 例:The twins begin to hate this kind of work that can destroy his happiness.[分析] 考查物主代词。该句的主语是 twins 为复数形式,后面的代词 his 为单数形式与主语不一致,所 以应把 his 改为 their。 例:He and his children felt tired but neither of them would stop to have a rest.[ 分 析]考查不定代词。neither 指“两个都不”,该句明显是指三个或三个以上的人,所以 neither 应改为 none。

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⑥介词。主要考查介词的多用或遗漏。 例:Last Sunday we took a bus to visit to a factory. [分析]考查介词的多用。visit 作名词用时,后常和介词 to 连用,构成短语 pay a visit to 意 为“参观,拜访”;但作动词时为及物动词,后面直接跟表示地点的名词。 例:I disagreed him about how we ought to deal with the matter. [分析]考查介词的遗漏。Disagree with sb about sth 意为“不同意某人某事”。 2. 常见句法错误。短文改错中的句法错误通常表现为简单句、复合句以及疑问句、祈使句、感 叹句和强调句等错误。这类句子在短文改错中所占的比例较大,解答此类试题时,对句子结构分 析正确很关键。 ①简单句。考查主要以基本的句型为主。 例:His words made all of us were happy.[ 分析]考查简单句。make 后接复合宾语,因此应 去掉 be 动词 were。 例:How beautiful flowers he gave me as a present for my birthday! [分析]考查感叹句的感叹词。该句中 beatiful 修饰的是名词 flowers,所以应用 what 来引导。 例:There had a discussion on how to solve the problem yesterday afternoon.[ 分析]考 查 there be 句型。There be 句型表示“有”,谓语动词要用 be 动词。 ②强调句。考查其基本的句型结构。 例:It was at midnight when my brother and I got back home yesterday. [分析]考查强调句型。判断 it is?句型是不是强调句型主要是看能否将此句恢复成原句,即能 否把 it is/was?that/who?去掉。如果去掉后,剩下的成分仍然能组成一个完整的句子,就是 强调句型,否则就不是。 例:Why is that smoking is not allowed here?[ 分析]此句是个强调句。强调疑问词为 why, 将该句强调句型去掉并还原就成了:Why is smoking not allowed here? ③复合句。主要是对状语从句、定语从句、名词性从句等的考查。解答此类试题的关键是在读懂 句意的基础上判断它属于什么从句。 例:When he was a little boy, his mother was very poor that she had to send him to a rich family.[分析]考查状语从句。该句是 so?that?句型,意为“如此?以至于?”,very 改为 so。 例:The clever boy made a hole in the wall, through it he could climb out.[ 分析]考查 定语从句。分析句子可知,两个分句之间没有任何并列连词,因此不是并列句。后一分句应该是

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定语从句修饰先行词 hole,所以应将 it 改为关系代词 which。 3. 常见行文逻辑错误。很多情况下,在短文改错试题中,判断错误不能只从某个词本身,甚至 不能只从整个句子本身看, 而要从上下文, 乃至整篇文章去理解。 这属于对文章逻辑关系的考查, 这就要求我们做题时要准确把握文章的意思、内在的逻辑关系、篇章结构等。 (1)前后句之间和上下文中的逻辑错误。 例:This was a lie, and his teacher did not know.[ 分析]考查上下句之间的逻辑关系,它 们应该是转折关系,因此要将 and 改为 but。 例:Xiao Ming and I went to the same school and then to the same university. So we hadn ’ t met each other since then.[分析]前后两个句子应该是转折关系,而不是因果关系。 (2)代词或副词指代所引起的逻辑错误。 例:I gave private make-up lessons to three of my friends, so that we would have a chance of passing the examination.[分析]考查代词指代。根据句意可以看出前后人称不一致。应把 we 改为 they,指代 three of my friends。 例:I’ll never forget the first day at that factory. We arrived here early in the morning.[分析]由“that factory”可知,作者在写这句话时,立足点不是在工厂,故应将 here 改为 there 表示离说话人较远的地方。

高中英语介词用法总结
早、午、晚要用 in,at 黎明、午夜、点与分。 年、月、年月、季节、周,阳光、灯、影、衣、冒 in。 将来时态 in...以后,小处 at 大处 in。 有形 with 无形 by,语言、单位、材料 in。 特征、方面与方式,心情成语惯用 in。 介词 at 和 to 表方向,攻击、位置、恶、善分。 日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早、午、晚, 收音、农场、值日 on,关于、基础、靠、著论。 着、罢、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付、相反,准。 特定时日和“一……就”,on 后常接动名词。 年、月、日加早、午、晚,of 之前 on 代 in。 步行、驴、马、玩笑 on,cab,carriage 则用 in。 at 山脚、门口、在当前,速、温、日落、价、核心。 工具、和、同随 with,具有、独立、就、原因。 就……来说宾译主,对、有、方状、表细分。 海、陆、空、车、偶、被 by,单数、人类 know to man。
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this、that、tomorrow,yesterday,next、last、one。 接年、月、季、星期、周,介词省略已习惯。 over、under 正上下,above、below 则不然, 若与数量词连用,混合使用亦无关。? beyond 超出、无、不能,against 靠着,对与反。 besides,except 分内外,among 之内 along 沿。 同类比较 except,加 for 异类记心间。 原状 because of,、 owing to、 due to 表语形容词 under 后接修、建中,of、from 物、化分。 before、after 表一点, ago、later 表一段。 before 能接完成时,ago 过去极有限。 since 以来 during 间,since 时态多变换。 与之相比 beside,除了 last but one。 复不定 for、找、价、原,对、给、段、去、为、作、赞。 快到、对、向 towards,工、学、军、城、北、上、南。 but for 否定用虚拟,复合介词待后言。 ing 型由于鉴,除了除外与包合。 之后、关于、在......方面,有关介词须记全。 in 内 to 外表位置,山、水、国界 to 在前。 如大体掌握如上介调用法口诀,就不易出错。当然,至于介词的详尽用法,同形词又是连词及副 词等内容此章不讲。下面对该口诀分别举例帮助你理解消化。 早、午、晚要用 in 例:in the morning 在早上 in the afternoon 在下午 in the evening 在晚上 in the day 在白天 at 黎明、午、夜、点与分 例: at dawn, at daybreak 在黎明时候 at noon 在中午 at night 在夜间 at midnight 在午夜 以上短语都不用冠词 at six o'clock 在 6 点钟 at 7:30 (seven thirty) 在 7 点半 at half past eleven 在 11 点半 at nine fifteen 在 9 点 15 分 at ten thirty a.m. 在上午 10 点 30 分 也可以写成 seven to five 5 点差 7 分(半小时以上) five minutes after two 2 点过 5 分 at a quarter to two 1 点 45 分 at the weekend 在周末

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年、月、年月、季节、周 即在“来年”,在“某月”,在“某年某月” (但在某年某月某 日则用 on),在四季,在第几周等都要用 in。 例;in 1986 在 1986 年 in 1927 在 1927 年 in April 在四月 in March 在三月 in December 1986 1986 年 12 月 in July l983 1983 年 7 月 in spring 在春季 in summer 在夏季 in autumn 在秋季 in winter 在冬季 in the fist week of this semester 这学期的第一周 in the third week 在第三周 阳光、灯、影、衣、冒 in, 即在阳光下,在灯下,在树阴下,穿衣、着装、冒雨等都要用 in。 例:Don't read in dim light. 切勿在暗淡的灯光下看书。 They are reviewing their lessons in the bright light. 他们在明亮的灯光下复习功课。 They are sitting in the shade of a tree. 他们坐在树阴下乘凉。 a prisoner in irons 带着镣铐的囚犯 He went in the rain to meet me at the station. 他冒雨到车站去接我。 The poor dressed (clothed) in rags in old society. 旧社会穷人们衣衫褴褛. 以及:in the bright sunlight 在明亮的阳光下 a merchant in disguise 乔装的商人 the woman in white (black, red, yellow) 穿着白(黑、红、黄)色衣服的妇女 in uniform 穿着制服 in mourning 穿着丧服 in his shirt sleeves 穿着衬衫 in brown shoes 穿着棕色鞋 将来时态 in...以后 例: They will come back in 10 days. 他们将 10 天以后回来。 I'll come round in a day or two. 我一两天就回来。 We'll be back in no time. 我们一会儿就回来。 Come and see me in two days' time. 两天后来看我。(从现在开始) after... (从过去开始) 小处 at 大处 in 例:Li and I arrived at Heishan county safe and sound, all is well. Don't worry. 李和我平安地到达黑山县,一切很好,勿念。 I live in a great city (big city), my sister lives at a small town while my parents live at a village. 我住 在大城市,我姐姐住在一个小城镇,而我的父母则住在农村。 I'm in Liaoning, at Anshan. 我住在辽宁省鞍山市. 有形 with 无形 by,语言 、单位、材料 in

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例:The workers are paving a road with stone. 工人们正用石子铺路。(有形) The teacher is correcting the paper with a new pen. 这位教师正用一支新笔批改论文。(有形) "Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy" is a good opera. << 智取威虎山>>是—出好戏。(无形) The product is separated by distilation into gasoline and gas oil. 这种产品是用蒸馏分离出气油和粗 柴油。 (表示方式、手段、方法——无形) I really can't express my idea in English freely in-deed. 我确实不能用英语流利地表达我的思想。 (表示某种语言用 in) I wrote a novel in Russian. 我用俄语写了一本小说。(同上) The kilometer is the biggest unit of length in the metric system. 公里是米制中最长的长度单位。 (表 示度、量、衡单位的用 in ) The length is measured in meter, kilometre, and centimetre. 长度是以米、公里、厘米为单位来计算 的。(同上) This board was cast in bronze not in gold. 这个牌匾是铜铸的,不是金铸的。 特征、方面与方式、心情、成语惯用 in 特征或状态: 例: The Democratic Party was then in power. 那时民主党执政。 They found the patient in a coma. 他们发现病人处于昏迷状态。 He has not been in good health for some years. 他几年来身体一直不好。 Many who came in despair went away in hope. 许多人带着绝望情绪而来,却满怀希望而去。 The house was in ruins. 这房屋成了废墟。 The poor girl was in tears. 这个贫苦女孩泪流满面。 Her clothes were in rags. 她的衣跟穿破了。 His shoes were in holes. 他的鞋穿出窟窿了。 I only said it in fun. 我说这话只是开玩笑的。 She spoke in grief rather than in anger. 与其说她讲得很气愤,不如说她讲得很伤心。 还有一些短语也用 in,如: in jest 诙谐地, in joke 开玩笑地, in spite 恶意地, in fairness 公正地, in revenge 报复, in mercy 宽大,in sorrow 伤心地等。 His mind was in great confusion. 他脑子里很乱。 Today everybody is in high spirits and no one is in low ebb. 今天大家都兴高采烈,没有一个情绪低 落的。 She and her classmates are in flower ages. 她和她的同学都正值妙龄。 The compaign was in full swing. 运动正值高潮中。 方面: 例:we accepted the item in principle. 我们在原则上接受了这个条款。 They are never backward in giving their views. 他们从来不怕发表自己的意见。 The backward area has achieved self-sufficient in grain. 这个落后的地区在粮食方面已能自给。 A good teacher must be an example in study. 一个好的教师必须是学习的模范。 方式: 例:All the speeches were taken down in shorthand. 所有报告都用速记记录下来了。 The Party has always educated us in the spirit of patriotism and internationalism. 党一贯以爱国主义 和国际主义精神教育我们。 如下成语惯用 in

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例如: in all 总计 in advance 事前 in place 适当地 in connection with 和……有关 in addition to 除......以外 in conflict with 和......冲突 in depth 彻底地 in the neighborhood of 大约、邻近 in behalf of 代表......利益 in alarm 惊慌、担心 in the long run 从长远说来 in word 口头上 in vain 无益地, 白白地 in detail 详细地 in conclusion 总之 in other words... 换句话说 in the name of 以......名义 be interested in 对......感兴趣 in love 恋爱中 in fun (jest、joke) 玩笑地 in wonder 在惊奇中 in a good humour 心情(情绪)好 “介词 at、to 表方向,攻击、位置、善、恶、分”。 介词 at 和 to 都可以表示方向; 用 at 表示方向时,侧重于攻击的目标,往往表示恶意;用 to 表示 方向时,突出运动的位置或动作的对象,侧重表示善意。试比较下列各句: 1. A.She came at me. 她向我扑过来。 B.She came to me. 她向我走过来。 B.Jake ran to John. 杰克朝约翰跑去。 2.A.Jake ran at John. 杰克向约翰扑过去。 in the meantime 与此同时 in hopes of(或 in the hope of) 怀着.......希望 in contact with 和……联系 in case of 倘若,万一 in force 有效的,大批 in regard to 关于 in retrospect 回顾,一想起 in the least 一点,丝毫 in the opinion of 据……见解 in one's opinion 在……看来 in a word 总之 in case 如果,万一,以防 in haste 急急忙忙地 in spite of 尽管 in return 作为回报 be confident in 对......有信心 in doubt 怀疑 in debt 负债 in hesitation 犹豫不决 in public (secret) 公开他(秘密地)

3.A. He rushed at the woman with a sword. 他拿着剑向那妇女扑过去。 B. He rushed to the woman with a sword. 他带着剑向那妇女跑过去。 4.A.He shouted at the old man. 他大声喝斥那老人。 B. He shouted to the old man. 他大声向那老人说 5.A.I heard her muttering at Xiao Li. 我听见她在抱怨小李。 B.I heard her muttering to Xiao Li. 我听见她在同小李低声说话。 6.A. She talked at you just now. 她刚才还说你坏话呢。 B.She talked to you just now. 她刚才还同你谈话呢. 7.A.She threw a bone at the dog. 她用一块骨头砸狗。 B.She threw a bone to the dog. 她把一块骨头扔给狗吃。 8.A.He presented a pistol at me. 他用手枪对着我。 B.He presented a pistol to me. 他赠送我一支手枪。 日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早午晚; 以下皆用 on。 例: on Octorber the first 1949 1949 年 10 月 1 日 on February the thirteenth l893 1893 年 2 月 13 日 on May the first 5 月 1 日

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on the first 1 号 on the sixteenth 16 号 on the second of January 或 on January the second 1 月 2 日 on a summer evening 在夏天的一个夜晚 on Boxing Day 在节礼日(圣诞节次日) on New Year's Day 在元旦 on my birthday 在我的生日 但 in the Christmas holidays 在圣诞节假期; in the eighteenth century 在十八世纪; in ancient times 在古代; in earlier times 在早期; in modern times 在现代,则用 in,the present time 现在,at the present day 当今则用 at。 on May Day 在“五· 一”节 on winter day 在冬天 on Decenber 12th 1950 l950 年 12 月 12 日 on Sunday 在星期天 on Monday 在星期一 on Tuesday morning 星期二早晨 on Saturday afternoon 星期六下午 on Friday evening 星期五晚上 但 last night 昨夜;in the evening 在晚上; on time 准时,in time 及时,等则不同。 年月日,加早午晚,of 之前 on 代 in 例: on the morning of 18th 18 日早晨 on the evening of 4th 4 日晚上 On the eve of their departure they gave a farewell banquet and their head gave a garewell speech. 他们 在临行前夕举行了一次告别宴会,他们的团长发表了告别讲话。 收音、农场,值日 on 例:Did your supervisor like the story over (or on) the radio last night? 您的导师喜欢昨天从收音机里听到的故事吗? I heard the news over (or on) the radio. 我从收音机里听到了这一条消息。 talk over the radio 由无线电播音 on TV 从电视里...... hear something on the wireless 在无线电里听到 My brother works on an Army reclamation farm. 我哥哥在一个军垦农场工作。 The students are working on a school farm. 学生们正在校办农场劳动。 This is a farmer's house on a farm. 这是农场的农舍。 Who is on duty, tody? 今天谁值日? We go on duty at 8 a.m. 我们上午 8 点钟上班。 关于、基础、靠、著论 例: This afternoon we are going to listen to a report on the international situation. 今天下午我们要听 关于国际形势的报告。 Professor Shen will give us a talk on travelling in America. 申教授将给我们做关于美国之行的报 告。

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You are wrong on all these issues. 在这些问题上你的看法都错了。 The belief is based on practical experience. 这种信念是以实际经验为基础的。 Theory must be based on practice. 理论必须以实践为基础。 The people in the south live on rice. 南方人主食大米。(靠) The citizens live on their salaries. 城市人靠薪金生活。 You can't afford luxuries, on an income of 100 yuan a month . 靠月薪 100 元的收入,你是买不起奢 侈品的。 Her pet dogs were fed on the choicest food. 她用精饲料喂养她心爱的狗。 He is just a scrounger, who lives on other people. 他正是一个小偷,专靠损害别人过日子。 Keep the kettle on the boil (=boiling). 让水壶的水一直开着。 The enemy are on the run (=running). 敌人在逃跑。 on 后接 the 加上一个作名词的动词.其意义与现在分词所表达的相近。类似例子很多如: on the march 在行军中,on the mend 在好转中,on the prowl 徘徊,on the move 活动中,on the scrounge 巧取豪夺(埋语),on the go 活跃,忙碌,on the lookout 注意, 警戒,on the watch 监视着。 on the hop 趁不备抓住某人等等。 on the People's Democratic Dictatorship<<实践论>>和<<矛盾论>> on the People's Democratic Dictatorship<<论人民民主专政>> "on Coalition Government" <<论联合政府>> 着、罢、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付,相反、准 注:口诀中的“着”是指着火,罢指罢工,偷指偷偷地,公指出差、办公事;假指休假,准指准时。 例:The house next to mine was on fire. 我邻居的房子着火了。 The workers of the railway station were on strike. 铁路工人罢工了。 Grapes and big water melons from Sinkiang are on sale on a large sale. 新疆葡萄和西瓜大量上市了。 do something on the sly (quiet). 秘密地(暗地里,偷偷地)做某事。 I've come here on business. 我是有公事来的。 They went to Bern on a mission. 他们到伯尔尼去执行一项使命。 They has been away on a long trip. 他们出去做一次长途旅行。 I'll go home on leave next month. 下月我将休假回家。 I went on business to Shanghai. I did not take leave. 我是公出去上海的,不是不告而别。 She came to see you on purpose. 她是专程来看你的。 He came here on purpose to discuss it with you. 他到这来是要与你讨论这件事的。 This lunch is on me. "No. let's go Dutch." “这顿午饭我付钱。” “不,还是各付各的。” On the contrary, it was very easy to understand. 相反,这事儿很容易理解。 P1ease come on time. (on schedule). 请准时来。 注:in time 是“及时”的意思。 The train arrived on schedule. 火车准时到达。 特定时间和“一……就”,左右 on 后动名词 例:Gases expand on heating and contract on cooling. 气体加热时膨胀,冷却时收缩。(特定时间) On entering the room, he found his friends dancing in high spirits. 一进屋, 他就发现他的朋友们在愉 快地跳舞。

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On reaching the city he called up Lao Yang. 一到城里他就给老杨打了一个电话。 I'll write to him on hearing from you. 我接到你的来信就给他写信。(一……就) 以及 on the left, right 向左向右,on the stair 在台阶上等。 步行、驴、马、玩笑 on,cab,carriage 用 in 例:On foot 步行; on horse 骑马; on donkey 骑驴。 He rode on, blood flowing from his side. 他骑着马,鲜血从腰部流下来。 The soldier of the Eighth Route Army rode 100 li on a horse a day in order to catch up with his unit. 为赶上部队,那位八路军战士骑马日行百里。 Go on horse back! 骑马去!* ?# l. [# z You are having me on! 你和我开玩笑呢!. E0 c9 m/ C3 B# x) m in cab 和 in carriage 不能用 on 或 by cab 或 carrige。 at 山脚、门口在当前,速、温、日落价核心即在山脚下、在门口、在目前,速度、以??速率、 温度、在日落时、在??核心要用 at。例:At the foot of the mountain, there are thirty of our comrades. 在山脚下,有我们 30 个同志。( F5 A7 o; b% x6 J g u8 There is a beautiful lake at the foot of the hill. 山脚下有一个美丽的湖。- c- M! m+ v 在玩玻璃球。 Who‘s standing there at the door? 谁站在门口?+ h8 w He is at present in Washington. 他目前正在华盛顿。 The train runs at fifty kilometres an hour. 火车每小时行驶 50 公里。" E$ s9 S# B) O& we built the plant at top speed and minimun cost. 我们以最低的投资,最高的速度修建了 该工厂。 at home 在国内,在家里 at ten degrees centigrade 在摄氏 10 度 at minus ten degrees centigrade 摄氏零下 10 度. ^) ]$ v; `9 Q7 S; ^ Water freezes at 0°centigrade. 水在镊氏零度结冰。 Water usually boils at 100°. 水通常在摄氏 100 度沸腾。 at zero 在零度' p/ H2 M2 a( M/ F- k5 Kat the rate of 45 miles an hour at full speed 全速 at a low cost 低成本/ m2 [ at that time 在当时 _9 Z5 }" F7 o. M5 c+ C: s at a good price 高价( U# \! C$ r9 h. Z0 @0 P% at a great cost 花了很大代价 c1 \( |/ v I don‘t need the dictionary at present. 我现在还不需要这本词典。) F" Z& h9 u; S$ ~*

At the gate of the house there are many children playing glassball. 门口有一大群孩子

Evaporation takes place at all tempertures. 蒸发在任何温度下都能发生。 at 1000RPM (revolution per minute) 每分钟 1000 转 at a high speed 高速 攻击。 at daybreak 日出时 The force at the core leading our cause forward is the Chinese Communist Party. 领导 我们事业的核心力量是中国共产党。 The atom has a nucleus at its core. 在原子的中心有一个原子核。4 R7 G! W9 e8 K5 I6 v* At the beginning of this term the teacher in charge of our class was very strict with us. 这学期开始,我们的班主任老师对我们要求非常严格。常用的 at 短语有: at first 首先,开始时 1 }7 T' e$ s' oW2 ]; at least 至少 at all events 无论如何 @( r3 G1 t$ p1 X0 at home 在家,无拘束 6 y! V5 `% i" C" C G9 x) h1 K0 ] The soldiers launched an attack upon the enemy at sunset. 战士们在日落时对敌人发起了

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at one stroke 一下子 at any rate 不管怎样 be at high tide 处于高潮期$ b- j& x, a# X at the risk of 冒......危险 at a stroke 一举 at liberty 有权,随意 at the point of 接近,靠近 at the speed of 以......速度 at leisure 闲着、失业 at stake 在危险中、在成败关头 at short notice 一得到通知

at a loss 不知怎办! h# N1 q" z( C0 h at length 详细地 at our invitation 应我们的邀请 m) v! Z5 B6 e* at a great expense 以巨大费用 at intervals of 每隔 at the sight of 一见到 at the thought of 一想到 N; O. h2 E$ oat the cost (price) of 以......为代价 5

_

^% x8 ^% o.

at the disposal of 任凭??使用 w1 s2 Sat bottom 实际上、本质上 at seeing us 看到我们

at the happy tidings 听到喜讯 1 i/ o0 Q. e4 at sixteen 在 16 岁时 2 o4 R7 o# ~" n at the present stage 在现阶段( g# X2 c3 |; bat the weekend 周末 4 Q+ [& C8 j% k2 r0 s$ at all times 永远 2 P+ c# g6 R' g. {9 I# l5 k% m at 405 Victory Road 在胜利路 405 号工具、 同、 和、 随 with, 具有, 独立、 就、 原因例: We write with ballpens. 我们用油笔写字。(工具) 但 He write in blue ink. 他用蓝水笔写字(墨水用 in 不用 with) Theory must go hand in hand with practice. 理论必须同实践相结合。(同) He is talking with friends. 他正同朋友们谈话。〔同) I‘d like to have a dinner with a friend. 我喜欢同朋友共同进餐。- r/ L! W+ K5 W" h We must co-operate closely with them. 我们必须同他们紧密合作。(同) We, as human beings are going to leave, but friendship has taken roots among us and our hearts are linked with% A& ?# m4 j; ] yours. 我们虽然就要走了, 但是友谊却在我们之间扎了根, 我们的心和你们的心是紧紧相连的。 (和或同〕$ R3 Z, E& `" p1 g* @ A cadre must become one with the masses. 干部必须和群众打成一片。, N0 O1 x. _9 i. w I‘m with you. 我同意你。 An atom is so small that we can‘t see it with a microscope.原子太小即使用显微镜也看 不见它(工具) In the past I had to part with my wife. 旧社会我不得不和妻子离别。(和)5 c$ |' v* T2 {# The socialist revolution is deepening with each passing day. 社会主义革命日益深入。(随着)$ Z5 E'7 They sail with the wind. 他们顺风航行。(随着), @1 Q, M1 `+ w9 R# R0 l4 o5 E$ @ With the change of the economic foundation, the superstructure has to be transformed too. 随着经济基础的改变,上层建筑也必须改变。(随着)& N' d0 [9 v* u7 G With the battlle of Waterloo, Napoleon‘s rule in Europe was ended. 滑铁卢一战,拿破 仑对欧洲的统治就完蛋了。( q) c7 y3 C4 y4 C1 ]- Z2 ? The modern electron tube. 随着电子管的发明而诞生了现代电子工业. is pregnant (in G S! [( B0 i) ^" U2 |5 v% She is with child. = She is in a very interesting condition. = in a family way, = She pregnancy). 她怀孕了。(有)1 t# m5 e& K+ N9 ]+ e: _) v 但 She is with a child.意为:“她领着一个孩子。”) z8 [$ J/ [5 b4 e0 H China is a very large country with a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的大国。(具有) China is a country with a population of ten billion people. 中国是一个有 10 亿人口的

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国家。(具有 What is the matter with you? 怎么回事?(就,关于)$ c5 f" N1 q) _: s3 F* ` How is it with you? 你怎么啦?(就,关于) Everything was going well with them. 他们一切都进行得很顺利。(就??) 所以闪光非常强烈。(独立结构)注;即分词独立主格结构用 with。 With a new welding technique introduced, the use of stainless steel was no longer limited to making small things#only. 由于新的焊接技术的引进,不锈钢的使用就不仅仅局限在微小 的物件上了。(独立结构)# With all its beams advancing in step with each other the laser possessed very particular properties which no ordinary light ever has. 由于激光的光束同步,所以它具有普通光所没有的特殊性质。(独立 结构) Without the temperature or pressure changed matter can never change from one state into another. 没有温度或压力的变化,物质永远不能以一种状态变到另一种状态。(独立结构) The evil landlord was trembling with fear. 那个万恶的地主吓得浑身发抖。(原因) My wife‘s hands were rough with work. 我爱人因为老干活,手很租糙。(原因). With the help of my classmate‘s taperecorder I listen to the Voice of America and B.B.C every day. 借助于我同学的录音机,我每天收听美国之音和 B.B.C。(原因) With televition, we can see all kinds of programmes on the screen sitting at home without going to the movies and theatres. 因为有了电视,我们坐在家里就能看到各种节目, 而不必去影院、戏院了。(原 因)/ C就......来说宾译主,对、有、方状、表细分这里的 with 后边的宾语常译成主语。例: How are the things with you? 你情况怎样? What‘s wrong with your eyes? 你的眼睛怎么啦?9 H: Y! t6 _, u( M Something is wrong with my hands. 我手出点毛病。 Everything was going well with them. 他们一切都进行得很顺利。 Parents must be strict with their children. 父母对子女要严格。 The doctor was very patient with his patients. 那位医生对患者非常耐心。(对)( d5 F7 ~8 I‘m quite satisfied with your answer. 我对你的回答很满意。(对)/ z; `: R4 @0 R; G Many intellectuals with revolutionary tendencies went to the liberated areas. 许多带 有革命倾向的知识分子都投奔解放区了。(有) These apartment houses are for workers with families. 这些住宅楼是给有家属的工人盖的。 He was sitting in a chair with his hands folded. 他两手交叉在胸前坐在椅子上。(状语) 独立结构" w" They are highly mechanized farms, with machinery to do all the work. 它们是高度机械 化的农场,所有工作都由机器进行。(状语)独立结构上两句是 with 引出的复合结构。 I will be with you again in half an hour. 过半个钟头我还会跟你们在一起的。2 E$ v* O0 (with 的介词短语作表语。另注意 in 将来时态 in 以后)2 _, y. }) ~6 W4 [% l Our sympathies were with the students persecuted by the gang of four during the cultural revolution. 我们是非常同情“文革”中被“四人帮”迫害的青年学生的。 (with 的介词短语作 表语)。海、陆、空、车、偶、被 by,单数人类 known to man# [) p9 j7 c4 f" Q3 \$ H 例: by land (air, sea, water, bus) M) { N7 Z) A) k( Q) It is a very intense flash with a lot of power packed into it. 由于聚集了大量的能,

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陆路(航空,水陆,水路,乘公共汽车) by micro bus 坐小面包车(微型汽车)7 K3 k by train 坐火车 by tram 坐有轨电车 8 t2 x& ^# a0 k4 {+ T by motor car 骑摩托车 by airbus 坐大型客机(空中汽车〕1 r by chance 偶然 5 J by accident 偶然,无意中以及\ by virture of 靠、由于: O0 {- y( G7 u* J3 by way of 经由 2 L" N5 Y7 J5 w+ I 厚的书(偶然) V) by leaps and bounds 大幅度地( p/ by the book 按常规 9 ^0 q: k: D1 e7 gJ8 l& by mini bus 坐小面包车 by trolley bus 坐无轨电车 0 {$ N( e0 S by bike 骑自行车, b+ s7 c7 ~% w/ g6 by tube 坐地铁 2 z6 _7 U+ d3 Z2 z f* W: W" B by jeep 坐吉普车

The list of discoveries by "accident" could fill a long book. 偶然的发现可以写一本很 The law of relativity was formulated by Einstein. 相对论是爱因斯坦创立的。(被动) The book was written by Mr. Zhang. 这本书是张先生写的。(被动)# {* c$ V, y2 e; Q+ H4 @ That in 1969 the first artificial satellite was launched to the space is known to man. 1969 年第一颗人造卫星上了天是众所周知的。这里用 to man 而不用 by。即当单数又无冠词的 man 和 known 搭配时,表示人类不用 by。接年、月、季、星期、周,介词省略已习惯 例;一天 one day (不说 on one day) one summer 在一个夏天 Iast nieht 昨天夜里& T2 D( w/ a0 i2 M3 K7 g last month 上月 one year 一年 last Friday 上个星期五 last year 去年 tomorrow afternoon 明天下午 k4 f

yesterday afternoon 昨天下午$ M7 K4 ~) ?- [1 b

tomorrow evening 明天晚上# h" Z: n/ X3 N# z2 [; Cnext month 下个月$ w8 T* u7 | next week 下周& J6 d; }# V: I7 M next Saturday 下星期六 Y- O this year 今年 1 k; u8 M4 x \! g! this Autumn 今年秋天; J) \9 a5 H+ c4 D, H8 O J t s next year 明年

this morning 今天早晨 2 r, j$ }- K& \4 P1

this Tuesday 本星期二 9 t3 \$ T# z9 g.

that morning 那天早上 4 e1 p% B$ u, m( }0

that evening 那天晚上无论前面介词 in、on 还是 at,通通可省略,不能说 at last night, on last Friday, in last month, in this year 这些都是不对的,须去掉介词。 over, under 正上下,above, below 则不然若与数量词连用,混合使用亦无关 例:There is a picture over the window. 窗户上面有一幅画。(正上方)1 k. y/ h5 l. }. H, g: e The plane flew above the city. 飞机飞过城市上空。(高于城市并非正上方) A lamp was hanging over the table. 一盏灯是在方桌上方。(正上方)- c' v+ `4 C, ]0 e V The moon was now above the trees in the east. 这时月亮已经在东边树林的上方。(非正上 方)' P/ ]$
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i!

Don‘t stand above the masses. 勿高踞于群众之上。(比喻一非正上方) The mountain is 700 feet above sea level. 这座山海拔 700 米。(非正上方)2 ]2 t1 y) a+ P) E" P2 _ There is a small building below the hill. 山下有座小楼房。(非正下方)5 F2 [# B4 _9 t! X* G4 | There is a submarine under the water. 水下有艘潜水艇。(正下方)' O2 Z# z J0 B/ o

Water was found ten feer below the surface. 在地面下 10 英尺处找到了水。(非正下方) The peasants are cooling themselves under the trees. 农民们正在树下乘凉。(正下方), }% X' X+ over under 正上下,低高 below 与 above f+ {" u) w2 d) O- a0 C9 ~; }

The temperature in the room is below (or under) 30 ℃. 室温是摄氏 30 度以下。(数量词 两者皆可) Do you have anything in the way of computers below (under) $10000? 你们有哪些价格低 于 10000 美元的计算机?(数量词两者皆可〕 beyond 超出、无、不能例:It‘s quite beyond me (It is more than I can understand). 这 我完全不懂 Don‘t stay out beyond 10 o‘clock. 不要在外呆到 10 点以后还不回家。 But the gratitude from the bottom of my heart to the students and my old colleagues, has gone beyond mycontrol. 发自肺腑的对学生们和我的老同事们的感激之心使我毫不紧张, 毫不拘束; Your work is beyond all praise, so good that it can‘t be praised enough. 你的成绩是 赞扬不尽的。) c2 That is going beyond a joke, passes the limits of what is reasonable as a joke. 那样 开玩笑太过火了。 They were touched beyond words. 他们被感动得无法形容。(无)( o+ e" v2 e6 Y2 U r2 ^ To do this was quite beyond all doubts. 办这事我无能为力。(超出)5 r3 a2 P3 q* |- M) B S6 x This is inevitable and beyond all doubts. 这是必然的,毫无疑义的。(无) 另外, Beyond two cottages stood his house. 句子中的 beyond 是“那边”的意思。- p, X6 L- X: M$ ?# q. } against 靠着,对与反例: In front of the wardrobe there are two upholstered armchairs arranged against the south wall near the( Z$ t) V: Q door. 立柜前面是两把沙发椅,靠着南城门附近。(靠着) She leaned wearily against the railings. 她疲惫地靠着栏杆站着。(靠着)- n; w2 L' F- k9 x A new president was elected by a majority of 274 votes against 110. 新总统以 274 票 对 110 票的多数当选。 P' o; W" t4 W L; J4 K; Z3

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(对??) besides, except 分内外,among 之内 along 沿例:The design has many other advantages besides lower cost. 除费用低外,该设计还有许多其他优点。(优点包括在内) He had no time to prepare his lecture, besides which he was unwell. 他没有时间准备讲 稿,而且他的身体也不大舒适。 Every one of us, except her, went to see the exhibition. 除她外,我们都去参观了展览 会。 He gets up early every day except Sunday. 除星期日外他每天早起。& j5 @. y0 y3 t# A0 S Nobody was late except me. 除我以外,没人迟到。同类比较 except,加 for 异类记心间。( T1 D, HHe‘s composition is good, except for some spelling mistakes. 他的这篇作文写得很好, 只是有几处拼写错误。(非同类比较用 except for)# |0 H& [: `9 U, l+ e/ h She was all alone in the world except for an old aunt. 除了有一个老姑妈,她别无亲人。 Anna felt disappointed when she found out they had gone swimming without her. (without =except) 当安娜发现除她外,他们都去游泳了,她感到很失望。 Lion Head Hill is not worth seeing except for its old temples. 除了那些古寺以外,狮头山没什么可看的。 Among other things, we are interested in drawing. 我们对图画和别的一些东西很感兴趣。 (among 之内即包括在内)( ^- Y, l' }0 @) I8 c9 g# H) x. k; c 原状 because of, owing to, due to 表语形容词例:Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of schedule. 由于我们的共同努力,任务提前完成了。注:Owing to 和 because of 都做原因状语,而 due to 只能做表语形容词。所以此句。owing to 的介词短语做 原因状语。 AII our achievements are due to the correct leadership of our Party. 我们的一切成绩 都归功于党。(due to 做表语形容词) under 后接在维修中、建设中 例:The road is under repair now .这条路正在修建中。

The now railway is stil under construction. 新铁路尚在修筑中。(不能用 in)

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