1.Find the word or phrase from the text for each of these meaning.
? sunburnt _______ brown (skin) from spending too much time in the sun. ? _______ rid… of to make something or somebody
free of expand to become larger in size, number or ? _______ amount ? _______ circulate to make information and ideas known to many people Would rather would prefer to ? _____________ ? _______ struggle to try extremely hard to achieve something
export to send things to foreign ? _______ countries for sale Satisfied with pleased by having what one ? ___________ wants or needs ? _______ to provide with things necessary equip for a certain purpose crop ? _______ plants grown in large amounts by farmers Thanks to because of ? _______
Answer key for Ex 2:
1. information: statistics 2. Strong: super world: globe
3. Not having enough food: hunger sickness: disease 4. A small Southeast Asian country: Vietnam jobs: occupations 5. Open conditions : freedom sold and sent abroad: exported
Keys to Ex 3.
Decade, struggle, expanding, Equipped, output, grain, crops, battles, disturbing
What he said confused me.
他的话把我搞糊涂了。 Don?t confuse the word “weather” with “whether”. 把……和……弄混 confused confusing 困惑的 令人困惑的
confused expression，he didn?t Judging from his ________ understand the ________ confusing problem referring to teenagers? mental health.
It?s no use regretting what you have done. 后悔你做过的事情没有用。
I have always regretted not having studied harder at school.
我一直后悔在校期间没能努力学习。 We regret to inform you that your application has not been successful. 我们很遗憾的通知您，您的申请未通过。 We think，much to our regret，that we will not be able to visit you next year. 让我们深感遗憾的是，我们认为明年不能去拜访你了。 I regret that I am unable to accept your kind invitation. 很遗憾，我不能接受你的友好邀请。
regret doing/having done sth. 后悔做了某事 regret to say/tell/announce/inform 遗憾地说/告诉/宣布/通知 regret that从句…… 遗憾/后悔…… to one?s regret 令人遗憾的是
—Robert is indeed a wise man. D —Oh, yes. How often I have regretted_____ his advice!
C．not to take
解析：regret (not) doing/having done sth.表 示“后悔 (没)做 (了)某事”。
—Mr Black，what about my application? B —Oh，I regret________you that it hasn?t been successful.
A．telling B．to tell
解析：句意为：——布莱克先生，我的申请如 何？——噢，我很遗憾地告诉你，它未通过。由 句意可知为“遗憾地要去干某事”，故选择 regret to do的形式。
build up one?s confidence / strength 增强信心 / 体质 build up business / a company 建立生意 / 公司
Don?t allow misunderstanding to you and your partner. A.bring up B. take up C. Build up D. pull up
不要让你和你的合伙人之间的误解越积越深。 C. 增强；建立
Too much work and too little rest often leads to illness. 导致= result in All roads lead to Rome. 通往 （谚）条条大道通罗马。
As we all know，it is human activity that________ the global warming. A．has come from B．have come from C．has led to D．have led to
句意为：众所周知，是人类的活动“导致(lead to)”了全球 变暖。主句是强调句型，是对主语human activity的强调， 谓语动词用单数，故选C项。
focus v. 集中(注意力)；聚焦 n. [C,U ] 焦点；中心点
Focus your camera.
Her beauty makes her the focus of attention. 她长得漂亮, 很惹人注目。 focus on 集中于 focus (one’ s attention/mind/efforts) on 集中(注意力/心思/精力)于 Olympus: Focus on life. 奥林巴斯：瞄准生活。
You should focus your attention on your work.
on The focus of recent research has been _______ (介词) environmental issues. focused on All eyes _______ _______ (集中于) her. doing (do) the They focused their mind on ______ experiment. 他的眼光集中在电视屏幕上。 focused his eyes on the TV screen. He ____________________
reduce vt. 减轻，减少，减缩, 降低
①Taking a deep breath can reduce stress.
②It?s said that prices of oil will be reduced to 7 yuan.
③It is proper that housing prices are reduced by 10%.
（1）We must reduce our expenses ______ 300 to yuan a month. （2）Their output has been reduced ______ 10 by percent. by 5 kilos. （3）He reduced his weight ______
【熟词生义】根据语境选择最佳汉语意思 The rich man was reduced to a beggar. A. 减轻
keep...free from/of 使……免受；使……不含 别让孩子们受到伤害。 Keep children free from harm. 我们应该远离毒品。 We should keep ourselves free from drugs. 我们必须确保食物不含人工色素。 We must keep the food free from artificial colours. keep (1) We? ve managed to ________ the garden ________ free from ______weeds this year. keep your body _______ (2) Relaxation exercises can ________ free from _______ tension.
comment vi.&vt. 表达意见；作出评论
n. 评论；议论 make a comment/ comments on 对……作出评论 without commemt No comment！ 未作出任何解释
[即学即练8](1)Have you any ___________ comments ______ on
(2)It created ______ wide ___________ comment in the press.
(3)He made some useful ___________ comments ______ on my
(4)He ____________ commented that it was an excellent film.
Chemical Or Organic Farming? 化学耕作 还是
Skim to find the topic sentence or main idea for each paragraph. Structure: Para 1 Long-term use of chemical fertilizers can cause damage to the land and people?s health. Problems caused by chemical fertilizers Farmers and customers turn to organic farming.
chemical Part1 farming
Para3 Part 2 organic farming para4
Other methods to keep the soil fertile.
Tips: the usage of several adverbs means clear and reasonable connection between parts.
therefore; meanwhile; anyhow; thus ;otherwise; moreover; besides etc.
1 Why are chemical fertilizers so popular in farming today?
2 After the long-term use of chemical fertilizers, what have scientists found?
Many farmers welcomed them as a great way to stop crop disease and increase production.
Long-term use of chemical fertilizers can cause damage to the land and , even more dangerous, to people?s health.
1. ______ damage the land
by______ killing the bacteria helpful_____ and pests as well as _______harmful ones affect crops, 2.______ by staying _____ in the ground animals and humans and underground water
building up in people?s 3._________ cancer by________ lead to or other illnesses bodies over time growing too fast 4. fruit, vegetables by _______ and other food_____ have less____ nutrition
Read paragraph 2 and find out the problems caused by using chemical fertilizers. There are three problems.First, they can damage … as well as …. They also stay in the … and …. In addition, …grow too fast to ….
first;second; finally;last but not least ,etc.
Tips: connectives （过渡词） and transitional phrases（过渡词） for development
Retell Part 2
natural waste 1. use __________from make ---richer in minerals animals as fertilizers and so more fertile and keep ---- free of chemicals. 2. change the kind of put ---back into---,making it crop in each field ready for other crops every few years _______________ 3. plant different crops use different levels of soil with different roots 4. plant grass between prevent---from---and leave crops and then ______ become a natural fertilizer it in the ground to grow good food and to avoid damaging the environment or people?s health. The same goal:____________________________
The structure of this passage
Para1 para1:Topic A new discovery of scientists. para2: Several problems Para2 Problems caused by using chemical fertilizers. Para3 Advantages para3: The advantages of using organic farming. Para4 methods para4:Several Some methods to keep the soil fertile.
illustration （阐明） comparison conclusion
The type of the article is_____________ exposition（说明文）
请以“PLASTIC OR CLOTH BAGS?”为题模 仿这篇文章的篇章结构 和句子结构去写一篇说 明文。
Discussion and practice Plastic Or Cloth Bags?
illustration （阐明） comparison conclusion
Para1: Have a brief illustration of the
Para2: The problems caused by
using plastic bags.
Para3: The advanages of using cloth
The following words may help you.
Over the past half century, …have become very common …. …welcomed them as a … way to …. Recently, however, we have been finding that they can cause damage to …, even …, to people?s health.
What are some of the problems caused by …? First,… With these discoveries, …are beginning to turn to …. ….
Over the past half century, plastic bags have become very common in our daily life. We welcomed them as a convenient way to carry goods. Recently, however, we have been finding that they can cause damage to the environment, even worse, to people?s health.
What are some of the problems caused by plastic bags? First, people often leave plastic bags here and there, making white pollution. Second, it takes a long time, more than 100 years ,to be exact, to break up .Last but not least, when heated, plastic bags can produce something harmful, which can build up in our body and eventually lead to cancer or other illnesses.
With these discoveries, we are beginning to turn to cloth bags. They can be used many times. People can save a lot of source in this way. It is also a good idea to make some by ourselves, which is interesting. Let?s use cloth bags in our daily life instead of plastic bags, not only for the environment protection, but also the sake of our health.
Recently, however, scientists have been finding that longterm use of these fertilizers can cause damage to the land and, even more dangerous, to people?s health.
have been finding是现在完成进行时。 表示一个动作开始于过去，持续到现在，并强调现在 还在进行。
have been finding是现在完成进行时。 表示一个动作开始于过去，持续到现在，并强调现在 还在进行。
— I have got a headache. — 我头疼。 — No wonder. You have been working in front of that computer too long. —难怪你头疼，你在电脑前工作的时间太长了。
No wonder you are so tired. You have been working all day.
Because of illness，he has been lying in bed all day. 由于生病，他整天都躺在床上。
In addition, fruit, vegetables and other food (grown with chemical fertilizers) usually grow too fast to be full of much nutrition. 另外，施过化肥的水果、蔬菜和其他食物通常因生长得 过快而营养不足。 in addition意思是“另外，还有”，相当于besides grown with chemical fertilizers， 为过去分词短语作后置定语，表示被动 相当一个定语从句“which were grown with chemical fertilizers”。
Crops such as peas or soybeans put important minerals back into the soil, making it ready for crops such as wheat or corn that need rich and fertile soil. [分析] ①本句结构比较复杂。其主干结构为: 主句 Crops put important minerals back into the soil. ________________________ + 结果状语 making it ready for crops such as wheat or corn that need rich and fertile soil. _______________________________________ the soil it ________, 指代 ②状语中‘make? 的宾语是 ________, ?ready for crops such as wheat or corn? 宾补 作_______________ 成分，‘that need rich and 定语从句 fertile soil? 作 ___________成分。
Some organic farmers prefer planting grass between crops [to prevent wind or water from carrying away the soil], and then leaving it in the ground [to become a natural fertilizer for the next year?s crop].
[分析]①本句的主干结构是一个简单句, 其结构是: 主语 prefer organic farmers + 谓语__________ __________ + 并列宾语 planting grass between crops ________________________________ leaving it in the ground +_____________________________________ 。 ②其中between crops和in the ground作 地点状语 __________________ 。 ③两个宾语后面又分别带有一个不定式作目的状语 _________________________ _________ 和 [to prevent wind or water from carrying away the soil] _____________________________________ 。 [to become a natural fertilizer for the next year?s crop].
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