引述别人的话有两种方式： 一是使用引号引出人家的原话， 这叫做直接引语； 一是用自己的话把人家的话转述出来，这叫做间接引语。直接引语一般前后要加 引号，间接引语不用引号。例如： John said, "I?m going to London with my father." （引号内是直接引语） John said that h
e was going to London with his father. （宾语从句是间接引语）
一、如何变人称 下面有一句顺口溜“一随主。二随宾，第三人称不更新”。 1、“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时，如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被 第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如： She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her. 2、“二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时，若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称。 或被第二人你所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引 号外的主句没有宾语。也可以用第一人称，如： He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?" →He asked Kate how her sister was then。 3、“第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是 第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化如： Mr. Smith said "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr. Smith said Jack was a good worker。
二、如何变时态： 直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。 ⑴主句是一般现在时态或将来时态时，间接引语的时态不变。 He says, “I’m tired.” → He says he is tired. ⑵主句为过去时态时，间接引语也要改为过去时态。如：
She said "I like English." → She said she liked English. ⑶主句为过去时态，直接引语为过去时态时，间接引语要改为过去完成时态。 He said ”I visited Beijing.” → He said that he had visited Beijing. 但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时，时态一般不变化。 ⑴直接引语是客观真理。 The teacher told me. "The earth moves around the sun.” → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun。 ⑵直接引语是过去进行时，时态不变。如： Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?" →Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。 ⑶直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语，变为间接引语时，时态不 变。如： Xiao Wang said. "I was born in 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born in 1980 。 三、如何变状语： 指示代词 this ---that ； these--- those
表示时间的词 now --- then ；today--- that day； this week ----that week yesterday ---the day before；last week--- the week before； three days ago---three days before tomorrow ----the next day ；next week--the next week 表地点的词 here --there 动词 bring -- take ； come --go 四、如何变句型： 1、直接引语如果是陈述句，间接引语应改为由 that 引导的宾语从句。如： She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes." →She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes. 2、直接引语如果是反意疑问句，选择疑问句或一般疑问句，间接引语应改为由 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句。（宾语从句必须用陈述句语序）如： ⑴ He said, "Can you swim, John?" (一般疑问句) →He asked John if he could swim.
⑵ My mother asked "You have finished the homework, haven?t you?" （反意疑 问句） →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework. ⑶ He asked "Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" （选择疑问句） →He asked me whether I went to school by bus or by bike. 3、 直接引语如果是特殊问句， 间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的 宾语从句（宾语从句必须用陈述句语序）。 She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?" → She asked me when they had their dinner. 4、直接引语如果是祈使句，间接引语应改为"tell/ ask sb. (not) to do sth."句型。 如： ⑴She said to the children "Don?t make any noise." (否定祈使句) →She told the children not to make any noise. ⑵She said "Bring me a cup of tea, please." （肯定祈使句） →She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.
直接引语和间接引语练习 I. 请将下列直接引语改为间接引语。 1. “I'm glad to receive your e-mail,” said he. 2. He said to me, “Are you going home this weekend?” 3. “How do you like the food here?” said she. 4. She said to me, “Don't ride in the street.” 5. “Stand where you are!” the police said to the young man. 6. He said, “I like this book.” 7. He said, “I will do it here.” II. 请在下列空白处填上适当的词语，使句意不变。 1. She said, “Are you from the south?” She asked ________ I ________ from the south. 2. Mom said to me, “Don't tell a lie.” Mom ________ me ________ ________ tell a lie.
3. Susan said to me, “We visited the Red Star Farm last week.” Susan told me that _____ _____ _____ the Red Star Farm _____ _____ ______. 4. Mr. Paul said to us, “Light travels faster than sound.” Mr. Paul ________ us that light ________ faster than sound. 5.“Go and post the letters,” the manager said to him. The manager ________ him ________ ________ and post the letters. Ⅲ. 请选出正确的答案： 1. Is Mr. Wu from Beijing? I don?t know ________. A. where does he come from B. from where does he come C. which city he comes from D. what city he comes from 2. Can you make sure ___________? A. that he will come here today B. when he will come here today C. will he come here today D. whether will he come here today 3. Do you happen to know ________? A. where is her address B. in which place is her address C. what her address is D. the place her address is 4. Excuse me, but can you tell me ___________? A. where can I get to the library C. how can I get to the library A. when he began to learn B. where I can get to the library D. how I can get to the library B. when did he begin to learn
5. I?d like to know ________ Chinese. C. when did he begin learning D. for how long he began to learn III. 把下列句子变为直接引语： 1. I told him that I had lost my money and that I would find it. 2. She asked whether I would be free the next day or not. 3. I asked her where she was going the next day. 4. His father told him not to climb that high tree in his new coat. 5. The stranger asked me what my name was. 6. She said that she would finish her work the next day. 7. The teacher asked if we could do it. 8. The commander ordered his men not to cross the river before dawn. 9. My teacher asked whether he was coming. 10. The scientist asked me what I was doing.
指路常用语： 1. Go down this street. Turn right / left at the first / second crossing / turning. 2. Walk along this road, and take the fourth turning on the left. 3. Go down this street for a while until you get to the first traffic light. 4. Go straight ahead till you see the post office . 5. It?s about 20 kilometers from here . 6. I am sorry, I don?t know. You?d better ask the policeman over there . 7. I am sorry. I am a stranger here. / I am new here. 8. How far is it from here ? ----It?s only 3 minutes? walk . 9. Which bus shall I take ? ----You can take No.5 bus. It will take you there.
10.Go straight ahead. 一直朝前走 11. Go down the street for about 200 meters. 沿着这条街走，大约 200 米 12. Then turn left into Green road. 然后往左拐，进入格林路 13. Walk on for about 5 minutes, you'll find a red building, that's it. 再走大约 5 分钟，你就会看 见右边有一栋红色楼，那就是了 14. You have to get off at the park, then transfer to bus No 25, and it'll take you right there. 你得在公园下车，转搭 25 路车，你就可以到那儿了
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