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时态


时态概念
时态是谓语动词所表示的动作或情况发
生的时间的各种形式。英语有16种动词时态 形式,但常见的有12种.

? 英语中动词描绘动作或事情发生的 ? 时间:现在、过去、将来. ? 状态:一般、进行、完成、完成进 行 ? 构成不同的形态变化,即为时态 tense

12种时态
一般 现在
do

/does

进行
am/is/are doing

完成
has/have done

完成进行
has/have been doing

过去

did

was/were doing

had done

had been doing

将来

will do

will be doing

will have done

will have been doing

1. I was out of town at the time,so I don’t know exactly how it A.was happening C.happens 解析 B.happened D.has happened B .

“事情的发生”是和“was out of town”同时

发生的,故用一般过去时。

2. His sister left home in 1998,

and

B

since.

A.had not been heard of B.has not been heard of C.had not heard of D.has not heard of 解析 句意为:他的妹妹自从1998年离开家后一 直杳无音讯。根据句意,指从1998年后到现在一 直没有音讯,故应用现在完成时,排除A和C项;

又因他的妹妹和hear of之间是被动关系,故排除
D项。

3. The population of Jiangsu A to more than twice what it was in B.have grown D.are growing 1949.The figure is now approaching 74 million. A.has grown C.grew

解析 本句中谈论的人口的增长是从1949年一直
到现在的人口的增长,所以应该用现在完成时态。 又因为population作主语时谓语动词应该用单 数,所以此题选A。

4.— Ann is in hospital. — Oh,really? I know. I go and visit her. A.didn’t;am going to B.don’t;would C.don’t;will D.didn’t;will 答案 D 解析 在听完第一个说话者的话之后“我不知道 Ann在住院”这个情况就已经成为过去,所以要用 一般过去时,因此可以排除B、C两项;我去看她 这个动作发生在将来,是临时决定要去做某事, 没有计划和安排性,所以用一般将来时,不用be going to结构,由此可以排除A项。故此题应该选 D。

5.— Hi,Torry, can I use your computer for a while this afternoon? —Sorry. C . A.It’s repaired B.It has been repaired

C.It’s being repaired
D.It had been repaired 解析 由sorry可知,第二个说话者拒绝了第一

个说话者借电脑的要求,只有选C项,第二个人
的理由才充分。答句句意为:对不起,我的电脑 正在被修理。

6. My parents

A

in Hong

Kong.They were born there and have never lived anywhere else. A.live B.lived

C.were living
解析

D.will live

由第二句中的“...have never lived

anywhere else.”可知,空格处应用一般现在时 表示状态。

7. Mary went to the box office at lunch time, but all the tickets A.would sell C.have sold B.had sold D.was selling B out.

解析 玛丽去售票处是一个过去的动作,而票全 部售完发生在玛丽去售票处之前,因此是“过去 的 过去”,故用过去完成时。?

9. — What is the price of petrol these days? — Oh,it B sharply since last month. B.has risen D.is increased A.is raised C.has arisen

解析

由since last month可知应该用现在完成

时,首先排除A、D。再根据句意可知应该选B。 rise是不及物动词,意为“上升”,符合题意。 arise意为“出现”,不符合语境。

10. —You speak very good French! — Thanks. I A.studied C.was studying 解析 A French in South China B.study D.had studied

Normal University for four years.

句意为:——你法语说得很好!——谢谢。

我在华南师范大学学了四年法语。此处表示过去某 一段时间所进行的动作,纯粹是过去的事实, 与现在没有关系,故用一般过去时。

时态考点易混点解 读

? 1)少数用于表示动作起止的动词。如: go,come,leave,start,arrive,begin等有时 也用一般时态代替将来时态。 ? 表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动 作(表示车、船、飞机等按时刻表要发生 的动作)。 ? The plane for Beijing takes off at 9∶30. 去北京的飞机9∶30起飞。

表示经常或反复发生的动作,但往往带有赞 赏、厌恶等感情色彩。 E.g.:

? He is always thinking of others first. ? New products are appearing all the time. ? Why are you always leaving things behind?

3) 表示暂时的情况。 e.g. You are being foolish. 你真是聪明一世, 糊涂一时。 She is being naughty. 她在故意撒娇。

4) come, go, leave, die等瞬间动词的进行 时可以用来表示将来的意味。E.g.: ? I’m leaving Guangzhou for Beijing tonight. ? The old fisherman is dying.

用于现在完成时的特殊句型
1) 在“This is the first time…”后用现在完成 时。E.g.: This is the first time I have spoken four-letter words

在“It/This + be + adj.最高级/only+n.”后 的从句中用现在完成时。 E.g.: This is the best film I have ever seen. This is the only film I have ever seen

对现在完成时的考查
1. -Another cake?

-No,thanks , I've had too much. 到现在动作已完成并对现在造成了影响 2. The Smiths have lived in the town for over 10 years.

动作发生在过去且持续到现在

—why, Mike, you look so tired! D ---Well, I _____the house and I must finish the work tomorrow. A. was painting B. will be painting C. have painted D. have been painting
油漆的动作到现在为止还在进 行,甚至有可能持续到将来。

四、对现在完成进行时的考查 现在完成进行时是由“have / has been+现 在分词”构成,表示从过去某一时刻发生的 动作,一直延续到现在,并且还可能继续下

去。它与现在完成时的区别如下:

1.如果句中不出现时间状语,现在完成时强 调的是完成的动作,而现在完成进行时是持 续了一段时间的动作,这个动作刚停止或 仍在继续。

I have written an article. 已完成 I have been writing an article.
还在写

2.如果句中出现表示持续的时间状语,现在 完成时和现在完成进行时含义基本相同,现

在完成进行时更强调动作持续不中断,且在
说话同时有可能还在进行。

1. -Hey! Where were you going !I have
waited here for an hour! 已经停止 2.--I have been waiting here for 2 hours but Tom hasn't come yet.

仍在持续

过去完成时
主要表示过去某时刻前发生的动作或状态, 常和after, before, by, up till等引入的过去时 间状语连用。 ? Examples ? Before Jim got home, his parents had gone to bed. ? By the end of last week all the students had returned from their holidays.

特殊句型(考点)
(1)和before连用,表示“还没……就”。 They set out before I had told them the address.

2)用在固定句型: 1)hardly/scarcely…when…, 2) no sooner…than…, 3)It was the first (second, etc) time (that)。

1. Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him. 2. Scarcely had he escaped when he was caught. 3.No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. 4.It was the third time that he had been out of work that year.

与expect, hope, intend, mean, plan, suppose, think, want等连用,表示过去的 希望、预期、意图或愿望等没有实现。

I had planned to visit you, but I just couldn’t spare time. You had thought that you could learn Japanese by yourself.

把过去完成时放在by + 时间点或by the time + 从句的句子里考查。
By the end of last year, another new gymnasium ___ D in Beijing. A. would be completed B. was being completed C. has been completed D. had been completed by the end of+过去时间 常与过 去完成时连用,表示到过去某个时候 前已经完成的动作。

过去完成时,经常以“过去”为背景,要想 表达比这一背景更早的动作,常用此时态。 — George and Lucy got married last week. Did you go to their wedding? —No, I ___. C Did they have a big wedding? A.was not invited B. have not been invited

C. hadn’t been invited D. didn’t invite

现在完成时与现在完成进行时 的比较

1.--- Hi, Tracy, you look tired. C 2.“--- I am tired. I _______ the living room all day. A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted

强调动作从过去到现在的延续, 而非动作的结果

2. --- Have you had any letters from him? --B him No, I haven’t, but my wife _______ regularly . A. has heard from B. has been hearing from C. had heard from D. hears from 不强调结果,A错;不是指目前 一般的情况,D错;是指从过去延 续到现在的情况

? 巩固练习

1. —You didn’t lock the back door. —You are wrong.I A.have locked it C .

B.lock it myself

C.did lock it

D.do lock it

? 解析 由前句中的“didn’t”可知用一般过去时 态;强调谓语动词时,是在谓语动词前面加 do,does或did,因此C项正确。

2. — You’d better keep quiet in class. B —Sometimes I .However, Yesterday,I was as quiet as a mouse during my English class. A.would C.did B.do D.was

解析 考查动词的时态。根据语境来看应该是描
述了主语的习惯性的行为,所以要用现在时。

4.— Hurry up! Alice and Sue are waiting for you at the school gate. —Oh! I thought they A.went D without me. B.are going

C.have gone

D.had gone

?解析 考查时态。答语意为:我原以为她们不等我 就走了呢。“想”和“走”两个动作有时间上的

先后
关系,故用过去完成时。

5. Hey,Lee.I

D

you never took interest in

computer games. What a surprise!

A.don’t think
C.think ? 解析

B.didn’t think
D.thought

考查时态。句意为:太令人惊讶了,我原

以为你绝不会对电脑游戏感兴趣的。说话人现在 发现Lee对电脑游戏感兴趣,以前没想到。

6. — Excuse me, I wonder if you can help. A my ID card. I —But where did you lose it?

A.have lost
C.had lost 解析

B.lost
D.lose

考查时态。一般过去时和现在完成时均

可表示事情已经发生,但一般过去时强调动作本 身,而现在完成时强调该动作的结果和影响。第 一个人说自己的ID card丢了想寻求帮助,所以 应用现在完成时。

7. If a computer crashes, you will lose the file you A on if you don’t save it early enough. B.work D.worked

A.are working C.will work ? 解析

考查时态。结合语境可知此处应该用现

在进行时。

8. I understand it’s

not your fault,but the airline

C

they

would deliver my baggage yesterday. A.promises C.promised B.has promised D.had promised

解析 考查动词的时态。从后面的时间状语 yesterday可知,描述的是过去发生的事情,应 用一般过去时态。

9. — Do you know our city of Xi’an at all? — No,not at all.You see,this is the first time I D here. B.am coming D.have been

A.came C.was

解析 考查时态。It/This is the first/last

time(that)sb.have/has done sth.为固定句型。

10.— Why don’t we choose that road to save time?

—The bridge to it
A.has repaired

C

.

B.is repaired

C.is being repaired

D.will be repaired

解析 根据上下文来看,不选那条路的原因是通 向那条路的桥梁正在被修,故用现在进行时态的 被动语态。

10. —Do you want a lift home?

— It’s very kind of you,but I have to work
late in the office. I overslept this morning because my alarm clock

D

.

A.doesn’t go off
C.wasn’t going off

B.won’t go off
D.didn’t go off

解析 由上文的I overslept this morning可知 此处谈论的是发生在过去的一件事,所以用一 般过去时。

11. Excuse me,Marcia, a reporter from Vanity Fair C all day. Could you speak to her now?

A.phones
解析

B.has phoned

C.has been phoning D.phoned 句意为:对不起,玛西娅,一位来自 Vanity Fair?的记者一整天都在打电话,你现 在能和她通话吗?表示过去开始的动作一直持 续进行到现在用现在完成进行时。题干中all day表示一段时间。


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