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刘润波6非谓语动词


非谓语动词
(Non-predicate Verbs) 刘润波 天才中级教师

教学目标; 一、明确谓语动词和非谓语动词的形式的区别
? 二、明确谓语动词的否定与非谓语动词否定的

区别
? 三、明确句子谓语的主语与非谓语逻辑主语的

区别
? 四、初步掌握分析非谓语动词的方法<

br />
一、

明确谓语动词和 非谓语动词的形式的区别

(一)阅读下列句子,注意划线部 分的谓语动词的构成(时态、语态 和语气) 1.I have written him two letters so far. 2. The building will be finished next month. 3. Listen carefully. 4. You should have cleaned the room.

谓语动词的形式(以take为例)主动语态
一般式 现在 take/takes 过去 现在 将来
took Will/shall take

完成
have /has taken

进行

完成进行

am/is/are have / has taking been taking had taken was/were had been taking taking will have taken will/shall will/shall be have been taking taking would/ should be would/ should have been

过去 Would/sho 将来 uld take

would/sho uld have taken

被动语态
一般式 现在 am/is/are taken 完成 进行

过去

现在 将来 过去

have /has am/is/are been being taken taken was/were had been was/were taken taken being taken Will/shall be will have taken been taken Would/shoul would/

归纳总结
谓语动词是有正确的时态、 语态和语气的动词形式:除 了一般现在时和过去时以外, 都包含一个系动词或助动词 或情态动词。



二)阅读下列句子注意划线部分 非谓语动词的构成

不定式 1.The last one to arrive pays the meal. 2.He pretended to be listening to me carefully. 3.She is said to have just completed a novel. 4.The experiment was said to have been done twice. 5.The meeting to be held next week is very important.

过去分词

The meeting held last week is very important. I found them seated at the back.

现在分词 1. Don’t sit there, doing nothing. 2.Having failed to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. 10.The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent having been launched at the end of last March. 3.The meeting being held now is very important.

非谓动词形式
名称
不定式主 动形式

一般形式

完成形式

进行形式

to take

to have taken

to be taking

不定式被 动动形式
V-ing主动 形式 V-ing被动 形式

to be taken taking

to have been taken having taken

being having been taken taken Ved形式 Taken V-ed 归纳总结:不定式前面都有一个小品词to; 现在分词是 动词后加ing构成;规则过去分词是动词后加ed。

The children went home from the grammar school,
their lessons _______ for the day.[2007 重庆卷]

A. finishing
C. had finished

B. finished
D. were finished

二、 明确谓语动词的否定

与谓语语动词否定的区别

阅读下列句子,区别谓语和非谓语的否定
非谓语动词 谓语动词 ?He doesn’t like ?Not knowing what maths. to do, ?She isn’t coming he turned to the teacher tomorrow. They haven’t for help. done the ?He told me not to experiment. open ?The engine won’t the window. start. ?Not well designed, ?You mustn’t leave the things every where. bridge collapsed soon 谓语动词的否定借助于助动词+not来实现 归纳总结: ?He didn’t play after it was completed. 非谓语的否定借助于 not 来实现

? —It’s

a long time since I saw my sister.

—____________ her this weekend? [2007 全国
卷I]

A. Why not visit C. Why not visiting

B. why not to visit D. Why don’t visit

三、 明确句子谓语的主语
与非谓语逻辑主语的区别

阅读下列句子,谓语的主语与非谓语逻辑主语
主语
?The

逻辑主语

?He told me to leave at once. (不定式作宾补) table is made in China. ?He spoke in a loud voice to make himself ?He can’t jump that high. heard.(不定式作状语) ?The taller of the two boys ?He offered to help us. (不定式作宾语) is ?Walking in the street, he happened to meet absent. Jane.(分词作状语) ?To see is to believe. ?The trees planted last year grow well.(定语) ?Seeing is believing. ?People there were all excited at the news. (分 词作表语) ?What he said was right then. ?I found him lying on the grass.(分词宾 ?It is said that he will visit 补) China. ?It’s important for you to master a foreign

language.(不定式的逻辑主语) ?It was careless of us to forget to lock the door. (不定式的逻辑主语) ?His leaving is a great loss.(动名词)

归纳总结:
谓语动词的主语是用名词、代词、不定式、 动名词还有从句担任,一般放在谓语动词前 面. 非谓语动词的逻辑主语是由句子的成分 兼任的(作状语由主语、作宾补由宾语、 作定语由修饰的中心词、作表语由主语 兼任);(个别不定式使用for sb或of sb 和动名词是用形容词性的物主代词做宾 语是可以用宾格来代替)

四、
初步掌握分析非谓语动 词的问题方法 一个中心,两个基本点

(一)五个基本句型
观察下面五个句子(五个基本句型),判断一下他们都 有哪些共同的成分(主语、谓语、宾语、表语)

1. He lives in Beijing. 2. He wrote a novel. 3. A taxi wasn’t necessary at all. 4. I have written me two letters so far. 5. I found him lying on the grass.

主语

谓语 时态
现在
一 现 现 在 般 在 在 完 现 进 完 成 在 行 成 进

状语

语态语气
将来

一 将 将 般 来 来


过去
一 过 过 过 过 般 去 去 去 去 过 进 完 将 完 去 行 成 来 成 进

被 动 动


陈 祈 虚 述 使 拟 语 语 语 气 气 气

将 进 完
来 行 成

语 态 态





谓语
系动词 不及物动词 及物动词
单 宾 语 双 宾 语 复 合 宾 语

主系表

主谓结构
主谓宾

主谓宾宾 主谓宾宾补

归纳总结:一个句子里有一个主语 和一个谓语。
狭义上讲:一个句子只有一个主 语和一个谓语动词。

(二)一个中心,两个基本点
1、他躺在那里。 He lay there. 2、他躺在那里望着天空。 A.有连词: He lay there and looked into the sky. B.没有连词: He lay there, looking into the sky.

阅读下列句子,观察:
非谓语动词与逻辑主语的关系(主动还是被动);

与谓语动词时间的关系(之前、同时还是之后发生)

1.He lay there, looking into the sky. 2.Driven by a greater demand of vegetables, farmers have built more green houses. 3. With Father’s Day around the corner, I have taken some money out of the bank to buy presents. 4.Having failed to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. 5. She is said to have just completed a novel.

总结:
非谓语动词与逻辑主语的关系: 表示主动用V-ing、 表示被动用V-ed; 与谓语动词时间的关系: 同时发生用:v-ing的一般形式、 发生在之前用:完成形式; 发生在之后用:不定式的一般形式。

一个中心;两个基本点: 一个句子只有一个主语和一个谓语,这是构成 句子的核心;出现第二个动词时,如果有连词 那就是并列谓语,如果没有连词就使用非谓语。 使用非谓语时要明确两种关系:一是与逻辑主 语的关系,与逻辑主语是被动关系使用过去分 词,与逻辑主语是主动关系使用现在分词;第 二种关系是非谓语动词发生的时间与谓语动词 的关系:与谓语动词同时发生使用现在分词的 一般形式(doing)、先于谓语发生使用现在分 词的完成形式(having done)有时也用(to have done)、后于谓语发生使用不定式的一般形式 (to do).

?Don't sit there ________ nothing. Come and help me with this table. (06湖北—34) A. do B. to do C. doing D. and doing ? I'm calling to enquire about the position in yesterday's China Daily. (10北京卷25). A. advertised B. to be advertised C. advertising D. having advertised

?

?

There were many talented actors out there just waiting . (江西卷32) A. to discover B. to be discovered C. discovered D .being discovered ________ many times, he finally understood it.
(四川卷10)

A. Told B. Telling C. Having told D. Having been told ? , you need to give all you have and try your best. (辽宁卷27) A Being a winner B To be a winner C Be a winner D Having been a winner

阅读下列句子辨析分词不定式的被动语态 与过去分词的区别: ?The meeting being held now is very important. ?The meeting to be held next week is very important. ?The meeting held last week is very important. 归纳总结:现在分词的被动语态表示动作正在进 行、不定式表示将来发生而过去分词 表示已经发生。

(三)独立主格结构
1. It rained. 2. I stayed at home.

A、有连词 1、并列句 It rained so /and I stayed at home.
并列连词:and, or, but, so, for, when, while, neither… nor, either… or, not… but, not only… but also

(三)独立主格结构
1. It rained. 2. I stayed at home.

2、复合句 Because it rained yesterday, I stayed at home.

(三)独立主格结构
1. It rained. 2. I stayed at home.

B、没连词

It raining, I stayed at home.
With the problems settled, the boss felt relaxed. With a lot of dishes to wash, I can not go with you. With a lot of dishes to be washed, the

归纳总结:
? 两个句子分别要有自己的主语和谓语,

? 如果用并列连词连接就形成并列句;
? 用从属连词连接就构成复合句。

? 但是两部分放在一起,没有连词连接那就

是一个句子,就一个主语和谓语,另一部 分就是名词+非谓语。

? The

country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ________at the end of last March. [2007 山 东卷] A.has been launched B.having been launched C.being launched D.to be launched

(四)连词+分词 When walking along the street yesterday, I met Mr. Wang. I won’t go there, unless invited.

?Every evening after dinner, if not
from work, I will spend some time

walking my dog.(10湖南卷21)
A. being tired B. tiring

C. tired

D. to be tired

1. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _______ for the day. [2007 重庆卷] A. finishing C. had finished B. finished D. were finished

2. Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage ____ the girl and took her away____ into the woods. (04上海春季)

A. seizing, disappeared
C. seizing, disappearing

B. seized, disappeared
D. seized, disappearing

3. _____ the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. (09湖南卷30) A. Completing B. Complete

C. Completed

D. To complete

4. ______that he was in great danger, Eric walked
deeper into the forest. (09浙江卷10 )

A. Not realized
C. Not realizing

B. Not to realize
D. Not to have realized

5.

at my classmates' faces, I read the same excitement in their eyes. (10北京卷21) A. Looking B. Look C. To look D. Looked 6. Mrs. White showed her student some old maps _________from the library. (10全国I 27) A. to borrow B. to be borrowed C. borrowed D. borrowing 7. Dina, _______ for months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a local advertising agency. (10湖南卷26) A. struggling B. struggled C. having struggled D . to struggle 8. There were many talented actors out there just waiting . (10江西卷32) A. to discover B. to be discovered C. discovered D .being discovered

9. Though ________to see us, the professor gave us a warm welcome. (10全国II) A. surprising B. was surprised C. surprised D. being surprised 10. In order to make our city green, _____. A. it is necessary to have planted more trees B. many more trees need to plant C. our city needs more trees D. we must plant more trees


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