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2014届高考英语《语法填空》复习方案二轮权威课件(广东省专用):专题五


考情分析
【考纲解读】 语法填空是考查“词法与句法知识”的项目。词法部 分侧重考查动词时态及语态、非谓语动词、情态动词、冠 词、代词、并列连词、形容词与副词、介词等; 句法部分 侧重考查定语从句、名词性从句、状语从句、虚拟语气、 强调句型、倒装、省略句等。试题本着“突出语境、重在 运用、符合表达、体现能力”的原则,强调语法知识在具 体语境中的运用,因此掌握一定的文化背景

、揣摩说话人 的意图成了解决语法填空的关键。

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考情分析
【命题透视】 以下是广东省近3年高考自主命题语法填空题考点分 布情况:

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题型探究
? 探究一 语法型 语法填空主要对所学的语法知识进行考查,既可能是 对语法概念理解和运用上的考查,也可能是对语法结构的 考查。基本特点就是“先语境后语法”。几乎所有的考题 都提供了一个微型语境,让考生根据讲话人所处的语言环 境来选择答案。体现了高考试题“活用语法”的命题特点。 要求考生对语言的把握要准确、透彻,解题过程中要领会 语境中的内涵,因为这种类型题的答案往往隐藏在语境中。

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题型探究
例1 After school we went to the reading room to do some reading, only to be told that it ________. A.was decorated B.had decorated C.had been decorating D.was being decorated [ 解析 ] D 考查动词的时态与语态。 reading room 和 decorate 之间是动宾关系,应用被动语态。 B和 C是主 动形式,故排除。题空处暗含一个时间状语:我们去 阅览室的那段时间。表示过去某段时间正在进行的被 动动作,应用过去进行时的被动语态。
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题型探究
? 探究二 习惯搭配型 习惯搭配题是对中学所学的词或词组的习惯用法和搭 配进行考查。在历届高考试题中,既有对一些固定的、不 能改变的习惯用语或搭配的考查,也有对一些搭配灵活、 可变的词或词组的考查。做这类试题时,应注意固定搭配 的结构问题,弄清习惯用语或固定搭配的结构。在答题时, 考生要清楚所考的习惯用语或搭配是由哪几个词构成的, 每个词的作用以及它们的位置关系等。许多习惯用法和固 定搭配所表达的意义是固定不变的,所以只要记住其结构, 答题就容易了。

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题型探究
例2 Li Lei will come to understand your efforts sooner or later. It's just a matter of ________. A.luck C.time B.value D.fact

[解析] C 考查名词辨析。句意:李雷迟早会理解你 付出的努力的。这只是个时间问题。根据句意选C。a matter of…是习惯搭配,意为“一个……的问题”。

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题型探究
? 探究三 句式结构型 一般来说,英语句式按结构划分,可分为简单句、并 列句和复合句; 按语气划分,可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈 使句和感叹句。此外,还有一些特殊句式,如省略句、强 调句、there be 句型和独立结构等。要求熟练区分各种句 式结构和句式特点。

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题型探究
例3 Before you quit your job, ________ how your family would feel about your decision. A.consider B.considering C.to consider D.considered [解析] A 考查特殊句式。虽然干扰项多为非谓语动 词,但本句是祈使句,故应用动词原形。

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应试点睛

? 1.要仔细阅读题干,抓住关键词,捕 捉句中隐含信息。题干中的关键词或关键 符号具有提示信息的作用,一旦抓住了它, 就能掌握选择的依据。几乎每年的高考题 在题干设计上都有所创新,所以考生在考 试之前应该有相应的心理准备。

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应试点睛
例4 There's a ________ in our office that when it's somebody's birthday, they bring in a cake for us all to share. A.tradition B.balance C.concern D.relationship

[解析] A 考查名词词义辨析。句意:在我们办公室 有一个传统,那就是在某一个人过生日时,那个人就 带一个蛋糕到办公室和大家一起分享。 tradition 传统; balance平衡; concern关心; relationship关系。根据 句意可知选A。
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应试点睛
2.灵活采用还原法(把倒装式、强调式或疑问式的题 干变换为陈述句,再选择就容易多了)、归类法(根据句意, 把选项分组归类,缩小范围,提高做题的速度和确保准确 性)、推理法(根据前后文进行逻辑推理,在四个选项都可 填入的情况下,要认真阅读全句,仔细体会其语境,进行 综合判断)、排除法(对于难度较大的题要逐个试填,最后, 选取最符合语境的选项)等做题方法。

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应试点睛
例5 I ________ sooner but I didn't know that they were waiting for me. A.had come B.was coming C.would come D.would have come [解析] D 似乎本题与虚拟语气不沾边,但是我们把 “…but I didn't know that they were waiting for me.” 变化一下就成了“ …if I had known that they were waiting for me.”这样我们就知道,本空是虚拟语气的 主句,与过去事实相反。
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应试点睛
3. 多从交际的角度,即上下文的情景考虑问题,不 要单一地局限于某项语法理论。近年来,高考题重视考查 学生的语言实践能力,将语法语言知识放置于一定的语言 环境中进行考查,这是近年来高考英语改革的一个方向。 所以考生在做题的过程中应该树立全局观、整体观,不能 顾此失彼,只注意语法知识的正确性而忽略了语境使用中 的合理性。

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应试点睛
例6 If you ________ smoke, please go outside. A.can B.should C.must D.may

[解析] C 句意:如果你非要吸烟,请到外面去。考 查情态动词的用法。can能够;should应该;must非要, 偏要;may可以。根据语境可知选C。

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应试点睛
4. 高考中的单选考点分布相对稳定、集中。英语的 时态、语态、非谓语动词、名词、代词、形容词、副词、 冠词、情态动词出现的频率较高,尤其要引起重视的是动 词、动词短语、各种习惯表达法及交际用法。

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应试点睛
例7 The exam results will be ________ on Friday afternoon. A.put down B.put off C.put up D.put away [解析] C 句意:考试结果会在周五的下午被张贴出 来。本题考查动词短语用法辨析。 A 项意为“放下, 镇压”,B项意为“推迟,阻止”,C项意为“张贴, 举起,建造”,D项意为“收好,储存”。故选C。

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应试点睛
5. 对于含插入成分的句子,要抓住主干,排除冗余 信息。

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应试点睛
例8 It sounds like something is wrong with the car's engine.________, we'd better take it to the garage immediately. A.Otherwise B.If not C.But for that D.If so [解析] D 句意:听起来好像车的发动机出了问题。 如果那样的话,我们最好立即把它送到修理厂。本题 考查省略。otherwise在其他方面,否则;if not如果不 这样的话,否则; but for that要不是那样的话; if so 如果那样的话。根据句意应选D。
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专 题 导 读

典 例 导 练
新 题 预 测

专题五 记叙文型语法填空

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专 题 导 读

专题五 记叙文型语法填空
? 记叙文体裁主要是记人、叙事、写景、 状物一类的文章,是常见的文体,在语法 填空篇章中,其语言特点有:(1)以一般过 去时为主,其他时态为辅。合理使用丰富 多彩的谓语动词时态,文章中所叙述的动 作具有层次感和立体感。(2)广泛使用动态 动词。这些动词的存在使文章充满“动 感”,而这种让往事历历在目的“动感” 正是优秀的记叙文所要追求的效果。
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专题五 记叙文型语法填空

典 例 导 练

[2013· 广东卷改编] 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的 语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词 或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在相应 位置上。 One day, Nick invited his friends to supper. He was cooking some delicious food in the kitchen.Suddenly, he 16.________ (find)that he had run out of salt. So Nick called to his son,“Go to the village and buy some salt, but pay a fair price for it: neither too much 17.________ too little.” His son looked surprised.“I can understand why I shouldn't pay too much,Father,but if I can pay less, 返回目录 18.________ not save a bit of money?”

专题五 记叙文型语法填空

典 例 导 练

“That would be a very 19.________(reason)thing to do in a big city,but it could destroy a small village like ours,”Nick said. Nick's guests, 20.________ had heard their conversation, asked why they should not buy salt more cheaply if they could. Nick replied,“The only reason a man would sell salt 21.________ a lower price would be because he was desperate for money.And anyone who took advantage of that situation would be showing a lack of respect 22.________ the sweat and struggle of the man who worked very hard to produce it.”
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专题五 记叙文型语法填空

典 例 导 练

“But such a small thing couldn't 23.________ (possible) destroy a village.” “In the beginning, there was only 24.________ very small amount of unfairness in the world,but everyone added a little,always 25.________ (think) that it was only small and not very important,and look where we have ended up today.”

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专题五 记叙文型语法填空

典 例 导 练

【要点综述】 文章通过一个故事向我们揭示了一个道 理:世上的不公平本来没这么明显,正是由于众人的 一点一滴的改变才使得这些不公愈演愈烈。 16.found 考查动词的时态。文章讲述的是过去的事 情,所以用一般过去时,也可结合后面从句的时态(过 去完成时)来判断。 17 . nor 考查连词。 neither…nor… 为固定搭配 。 a fair price表示“钱既不能太多,也不能太少”。 18 . why “ why not +动词原形”意思是:为什么 不……? 19.reasonable 考查词形变化。作定语,修饰后面的 名词thing,用形容词形式。reasonable 合理的。
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专题五 记叙文型语法填空

典 例 导 练

20 . who 考查关系代词。代替指人的先行词,引导 一个非限制性定语从句,用who。 21.at 考查介词。at a lower price为固定用法,意思 是:以较低的价格。 22.for respect for sth意思是:对……的尊重。 23.possibly 考查词形变换。修饰谓语动词destroy, 作状语,用副词形式。 24.a 考查冠词的用法。an amount of 意思是:许多, 大量。amount 前面有very修饰,用不定冠词a。 25.thinking 考查非谓语动词。作谓语动词 add的伴 随状语,表示主动,用v.ing形式。
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专题五 记叙文型语法填空

新 题 预 测

I am a junior in high school. There is a lady at my school 1.________ job is to hand out call-slips(索书单) and prevent students from leaving the campus 2.________ permission. Before today I had never seen her smile. The other day my friends and I were eating in the cafeteria and I saw her walking around. When she came 3.________ (close) to us, I could see that she was crying. She pulled out a tissue and quickly wiped her eyes. I thought to myself that this lady was so underappreciated and needed 4.________ (recognize) for all her hard work. So I wrote a note telling her that the students appreciated
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专题五 记叙文型语法填空

新 题 预 测

everything she did and 5.________ her contribution to our school made a difference in all of our lives. I signed it with “Some thankful students” and slipped it into 6.________ envelope. Then I realized I didn't even know her name. I asked all of my professors but 7.________ knew her name. I finally went to ask the lady at student services and 8.________ (tell) that her name is Kathy. I bought her a bouquet of 9.________ (colour) sunflowers and tapped the envelope to it. I brought the flowers to the school and left 10.________ in her office. She came into my third period shortly afterwards to deliver a call slip, and there it was a smile on her face!
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专题五 记叙文型语法填空

1.whose 2.without 3.closer 4.recognizing/to be recognized 5.that 6.an 7.nobody 8.was told 9.colourful 10.them

新 题 预 测
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备用习题
(一 ) Elevenyearold Angela was stricken with a disease involving her nervous system. The doctors did not hold out much hope of her ever recovering 1.________ this illness. They predicted she'd spend the rest of her life in a wheelchair. 2.________ Angela firmly believed that she was definitely going to be walking again someday. The doctors were charmed by her 3.________ (defeatable) spirit. They taught her about imaging—about seeing herself 4.________ (walk).Angela would work as hard as possible in physical therapy(治疗), lying there faithfully doing her imaging, visualizing herself moving, moving, moving!
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备用习题
One day, 5.________ she was straining all her might to imagine her legs moving again, 6.________ seemed as though a miracle happened: the bed moved! She screamed out, “Look, what I 7.________ (do)! Look! Look! I can do it! I moved! I moved!” Of course, 8.________ this very moment everyone else in the hospital was screaming, too. It was the San Francisco earthquake. But don't tell 9.________ to Angela. She was 10.________(convince) that she did it. And now only a few years later, she was back in school on her own two feet. No walking sticks, no wheelchair.
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备用习题
【要点综述】 靠轮椅行走的安吉拉,连医生对她的康 复都不抱希望,但她始终没有放弃,一次地震让她觉 得是她自己的腿动了,并对此坚信不疑,几年后她真 的靠自己的双脚重新走进了学校。 1.from recover from an illness意为“从疾病中恢复 过来”。 2.But 与前句是转折关系。 3.undefeatable 在名词前作定语,要用形容词;由 语境可知,此处应表示“不败的”,故填undefeatable。 句意:医生为她永不言败的精神所折服。 4.walking see sb doing sth看见某人在做某事。
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备用习题
5.as as表示“正当……时”。 6.it 句式搭配:it seems as if/as though…仿佛 是……。 7.am doing 8.at at this very moment意为“就在此刻”。 9.that/it 代替前文说的地震这回事。 10.convinced 用形容词形式。be convinced of/that… 深信……,坚信。

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备用习题
(二 ) One Sunday morning in August I went to a local music festival. I left it early because I had an appointment 1.________ (late) that day. My friends walked me to the bus stop and waited with me 2.________ the bus arrived. I got on the bus and found a seat near the back, and then I noticed a man 3.________ (sit) at the front. He 4.________ (pretend) that a tiger toy was real and giving it a voice. He must be 5.________ (mental) disabled. Behind him were other people to 6.________he was trying to talk, but after some minutes 7.________ walked away and sat near me, looking annoyed.
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备用习题
I didn't want to be laughed at for talking to him but I didn't like leaving him 8.________ his own either. After a while I rose from my seat and walked to the front of the bus. I sat next to the man and introduced myself. We had 9.________ amazing conversation. He got off the bus before me and I felt very happy the rest of the way home. I'm glad I made the choice. It made 10.________ of us feel good.

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备用习题
【要点综述】本文是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了“我” 的一次乘车经历:在公交车上遇到一个好像是弱智的 人,其他人都躲开了,而“我”走近了他,和他聊起 来,一路上“我俩”都很高兴。 1.later 考查副词的用法。“我”离开得较早因为那 天晚些时候“我”有个约会。 2.till/until 考查状语从句的连接词。“我”的朋友 一直陪“我”直到公共汽车来。 3.sitting/sit 考查动词的用法。notice sb doing/do sth意为“注意到某人正在做某事/做某事”。 4 . was pretending 考查动词的时态。由 giving it a voice可知用过去进行时。
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备用习题
5.mentally 考查副词的用法。此处disabled是形容 词,用副词修饰。 6 . whom 考 查 定 语 从 句 的 关 系 词 。 此 处 he was trying to talk to 是定语从句,people是先行词,whom 作介词to的宾语。 7.they 考查代词的用法。他们走开然后坐在“我” 的旁边。 8.on 考查词组的用法。此处考查词组on one's own (=alone)。

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备用习题
9.an 考查冠词的用法。amazing是以元音音素开头, 故用an。 10 . both 考 查 代 词 的 用 法 。 由 上 文 “ We had…amazing conversation.” 可知“我们俩”都很高 兴。

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