高中英语语法之被动语态 (I)被动语态的概念 语态也是动词的一种形式，表示主语与谓语之间的关系。英语有两种语态：主动语态和 被动语态。主动语态表示主语是谓语动作的执行者，如：People grew rice in this area some years ago.被动语态表示主语是谓语动作的承受者，如：A new swimming pool will be built on ou
r school. (II)被动语态的构成 被动语态的形式是由“助动词 be+动词的过去分词”构成。助动词 be 随着主语的人称， 数，时态和语气的不同而变化。各种时态的被动语态形式如下： 1.一般现在时 am/is/are+V(p.p) 人们利用电能运转机器。People use electricity to run machines. Electricity is used to run machines. Is electricity used to run machines? Yes, it is . / No, it isn't. 2.一般过去时 was/were + V(p.p) 昨天我们在山坡上种了许多树。We planted many trees on the hill yesterday. Many trees were planted on the hill yesterday. Were many trees planted on the hill yesterday? Yes, they were. / No, they were not. 3.一般将来时 will/shall +be+V(p.p) 下星期我们将举行一场运动会。We will hold a sports meeting next week. A sports meeting will be held next week. Will a sports meeting be held next week? Yes, it will. / No, it won't. 4.过去将来时 should/would +be+V(p.p) 他告诉我们人们将在他家乡建一个大水坝。He told us that people would build a big reservoir in his hometown. We were told that a big reservoir would be built in his hometown. Were you told that a big reservoir would be built in his hometown? Yes, we were./No, we weren't. 5.现在进行时 am/is/are +being+V(p.p) 他正在油漆房子。He is painting the house. A house is being painted. Is the house being painted? Yes, it is. / No, it isn't . 6.过去进行时 was/were +being+V(p.p) 当我进厨房时，她正在做蛋糕。She was making a cake when I came into the kitchen. A cake was being made when I came into the kitchen. Was a cake being made when I came into the kitchen? Yes, it was./ No, it wasn't. 7.现在完成时 have/has +been+V(p.p) 他已经结束工作了。He has finished his work. His work has been finished.
Has his work been finished? Yes, it has. / No, it hasn't. 8.过去完成时 had +been+V(p.p) 到上个月为止，他们已经把这本书翻译成了英语。 They had translated the book into English by the end of last month. The book had been translated into English by the end of last month. Had the book been translated into English by the end of last month? Yes, it had./ No, it hadn't. 9.将来完成时 will have +been+V(p.p) The students will have learned 2,000 words by the end of next year. 2,000 words will have been learned by the end of next year. Will 2,000 words have been learned by the end of next year? Yes, they will./No, they won't. 10. 过去将来完成时 would have +been+V(p.p) He told me that Mr. Brown would have taught them for two years by the next summer. I was told that they would have been taught by Mr. Brown for two years by the next summer. 注：1.含有情态动词的谓语变成被动语态时，用“情态动词+be+V(p.p)”构成。如： You must operate the machine with care. The machine must be operated with care. Must the machine be operated with care? Yes, it must. / No, it mustn't. 2.含有“be going to”, “be to”等结构的谓语，变成被动语态时，分别用“be going to +be +V(p.p)”和“be to +be+V(p.p)”。如： We are going to discuss the problem at the meeting. The problem is going to be discussed at the meeting. Is the problem going to be discussed at the meeting? Yes, it is. / No, it isn't. 3.被动语态除常用 be 加过去分词构成外，还可用“get+过去分词”结构。这种结构多用在 口语中。如： The boy got hurt when he was riding to school. 4.被动语态没有完成进行时态，也没有将来进行时态，如果要将这些时态的主动结构变 为被动结构，可以用完成时态或一般将来时态来表示。如： 他已被检查过了。He had been being examined. 通常用 He has been examined.来代替。 当我们到那儿时他将正被检查。He will be being examined when we get there.通常用 He will be examined when we get there. (III)被动语态的几种句型 将主动语态转换成被动语态，通常分以下四步进行： 1.将主动语态中的宾语转换成被动语态的主语。 2.将主动语态中的动词改为“be+V(p.p)”
3.原来主动语态中的主语， 如果需要， 放在 by 后面以它的宾格形式出现， 如没有必要， 可以省略。 4.主动语态中的其他句子成分不变。 由于主动语态结构的不同，因而转换成被动语态的方式也各有不同，现分类说明如下： a.由及物动词形成的被动语态： (1)S+V+O 主语+动词+宾语 People grow rice in the south. Rice is grown in the south. 注：带有宾语从句的句子转换成被动语态时，需要将宾语从句变为主语从句，通常用形 式主语来代替，而将主语从句后置。 They said that he would come back soon. It was said that he would come back soon.类似的 还有： It is reported / believed /hoped /supposed that ...... (2)S+V+O+C 主语+动词+宾语+宾补 We elected Li Ming monitor of our class. Li Ming was elected monitor of our class. 注：在主动结构中跟不带 to 的动词不定式作宾补变为被动结构时应加上 to 作主语补足 语。 奴隶们被奴隶主强迫整日整夜工作。Slave-owners made slaves work all day and all night. Slaves were made to work all day and all night by slave-owners. (3)S+V+Oi+Od 主语+动词+间宾+直宾 昨天他给了我一件漂亮的生日卡。He gave me a beautiful birthday card yesterday. I was given a beautiful birthday card yesterday. A beautiful birthday card was given to me yesterday. 注： 用直接宾语作被动语态的主语时， 通常要在间接宾语前加上适当的介词。 to, for, 如： of 等，以加强间接宾语的语气。 b.由动词短语形成的被动语态： 一般情况下，只有及物动词才能跟宾语，而不及物动词不能跟宾语，所以只有及物动词 才有被动语态，不及物动词则没有被动语态。但有些不及物动词后面跟上介词或副词后，变 成一个动词短语，相当于一个及物动词，就可以形成被动语态。 约翰打开了收音机。John turned on the radio. The radio was turned on. 奶奶照看我姐姐。Grandma takes care of my sister. My sister is taken care of by Grandma. 注：千万不要遗漏介词或副词。 c.祈使句的被动语态通常借助 let 句式 请把窗户关上。Please close the window. Let the window be closed. (IV)被动语态的使用时机 被动语态的使用往往不是任意的，而是按照表达思想，描述事物的需要，通常在下列情 况下使用被动语态。 1.不知道或不必说出动作的执行者。
这本书已被翻译成许多种语言。This book has been translated into many languages. 2.动作的对象是谈话的中心。 我们家乡将建一条新铁路。A new railway will be built in our hometown. 3.修辞的需要，为了使句子更加简练匀称： 他出现在舞台上受到了观众的热烈欢迎。He appeared on the stage and was warmly applauded by the audience. 注： 被动语态便于论述客观事实， 故常用于科技文章， 新闻报道， 书刊介绍及景物描写。 (I)被动语态与系表结构的区别： 所谓系表结构，在此指“连系动词+用作表语的过去分词”结构。它与被动语态的形式完 全一样，所以在应用时应注意它们的区别。 1.被动语态中的过去分词是动词，多强调动作；系表结构中的过去分词相当于形容词， 多强调状态。前者通常可用 by+人或 by+抽象名词表动作的执行者，而后者则一般用 by+物 或不用。如：The tree was uprooted by the wind.（被动结构）那棵树被风连根拔起。 The tree was uprooted when we saw it.（系表结构）当我们看到那棵树时，它已经被连根 拔起了。 2.系表结构一般只用于一般现在时、 一般过去时、 现在完成时和过去完成时这四种时态； 而被动语态除了不用于完成时态外，可用于其它任何时态。 The composition has been written.这篇作文已写完了。（系表结构） The composition is being written.这篇作文正在写。（被动语态） 3.系表结构中的过去分词可被 very 修饰，被动语态中的过去分词须用 much 修饰。 He was very agitated.他很激动。（系表结构） He was much agitated by the news. 他听到消息后很激动。（被动结构） 4.be+不及物动词的过去分词通常是系表结构，如：be gone, be learned, be ashamed 这些 动词通常是表示状态，智力活动或心态的动词。 be+延续性动词的过去分词通常是被动语态， be loved, be encouraged, be praised 等。 如： (II)主动形式表被动意义 在下列情况中，谓语形式是主动的，但具有被动的含义。 1.转化为系动词的感官动词+表语 The food tastes delicious.这种食物尝起来很可口。 The idea sounds good.这个主意听起来不错。 2.有少数及物动词转化而来的不及物动词，常见的有：cut, lock, open, read, sell, shut, wash,wear, write 等。此时句子的主语一般是物，而且这些动词常和表示行为的状语，如： well, easily 或与否定词连用构成否定句。如： The apples sell well.这些苹果很好卖。 The door won’t shut.这门关不上。 注：含有这类动词的句子也可写成被动语态的句子，但含义不同。主动语态表示现状， 被动语态则侧重某一动作的发生。
The clothes wash well.这些衣服很好洗。 The clothes aren’t well washed.这些衣服没好好洗。 3. 某些动词以物作主语时，其进行时也可表被动意义。 The dinner is cooking. 正在烧饭。 The book is printing.书正在印刷中。 4.一些固定句型表示被动含义 a. be worth doing sth The film is well worth seeing.这部电影很值得一看。 b. have/ get sb/sth done have 作使役动词没有被动语态， 但可用这种结构表被动或使役。 I had my watch stolen.我的手表被偷了。 c. sth need/want/require doing=sth need /want/require to be done The room needs cleaning.=The room needs to be cleaned.这间房屋需要打扫。 d. to be under/in +抽象名词 The railway is under construction.这条铁路正在被修建。 e.一些不定式 （1）There be…… There are a lot of things to do.有许多工作要做。 (2)不定式修饰 want, have 等动词的宾语，且句子主语是不定式动作的执行者。 I have a lot of things to do.我有许多事情要做。 (3)动词不定式前有表性质的形容词，且动词不定式中的动词与句子主语有动宾关系。 The question is easy to answer.这个问题很容易回答。 (4)当不定式修饰 buy, get, give 等动词的直接宾语，而间接宾语是不定式的逻辑主语时 I bought him a story-book to read.我给他买了本故事书看看。 (5)在 “This(that) is +名词”的句型中，修饰表语的不定式用主动形式表被动。 This is a hard question to answer.这是个很难回答的问题。 (III)主动语态不能改成被动语态的情况 1.有些动词虽是及物动词，但由于表示的是状态或关系，通常不用于被动语态，常见的 这类动词有 leave, enter, reach, resemble, suit, lack, benefit 等。 这男孩像他爸爸。The boy resembles his father. 2.不可拆开的短语动词如：take place, lose heart, belong to, consist of, change colour 等短 语动词。 台湾属于中国。Taiwan Island belongs to China. 3.宾语是 a.反身代词，相互代词，同源宾语，不定式，动名词等。 b.虚词 it,如 foot it, cab it 等。 c.身体的某一部分如 shake one’s head 等。 d.某些抽象名词等，如：interest 等。
主动形式表被动的意思， 有些词主动形式有被动的意味， open sell read shut wash wear 如 Write 等，此时句子的主语一般是物 eg These books sell well 这些书很畅销 The door won’t shut 这门关不上 The clothes wash well 这些衣服很好洗。 练习题: I. Multiple choice 1. No permission has ___ for anybody to enter the building.(MET 88) A. been given B. given C. to give D. be giving 2. I ___ ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.(MET 89) A. gave B. was given C. was giving D. had given 3. The police found that the house ___ and a lot of things ___.(MET90) A. has broken into; has been stolen B. had broken into; had been stolen C. has been broken into; stolen D. had been broken into; stolen 4. ---Have you moved into the new house? --- Not yet, the rooms ___.(MET 91) A. are being painted B. are painting C. are painted D. are being painted 5. As we joined the big crowd I got ___ from my friends.(NMET 2001) A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed 6. Cleaning women in big cities usually get ___ by the hour.(NMET 98) A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 7. Great changes ___ in the city, and a lot of factories ___. A. have been taken place, have been set up B. have taken place, have been set up C. have taken place, have set up D. were taken place, were set up 8. The suit's finished, ___ it? A. doesn't B. isn't C. hasn't D. has 9. The surface of the table ___ smooth enough. A. hasn't felt B. doesn't feel C. isn't feeling D. isn't felt 10. Such plants never ___ in this part of the world. A. have grown B. are growing C. grow D. are grown 11. These kinds of shoes ___ well. A. were not sold B. won't be sold C. are not sold D. don't sell 12. Text books ___ to come in time.
A. require B. required C. are required D. are requiring 13. When the speaker entered the hall, all the listeners ___. A. had seated B. were seated C. seated D. were seating 14. Don't get that ink on your shirt, for it ___. A. won't wash out B. won't be washing C. isn't washing out D. doesn't wash out 15. Tom ___ to work in the office though he didn't like serving there. A. wanted B. was wanted C. was wanting D. had wanted 16. He said he wouldn't mind ___ at home. A. leaving alone B. being left alone C. to be left lonely D. to leave alone 17. Tom was said to ___ Mary for 40 years. A. have been married to B. have married with C. has bee n married D. had married with 18. The TV play ___ last night. A. was tired out me B. tired out me C. was tired me out D. tired me out 19. I remember ___ for the job, but I forget the exact amount. A. to be paid B. being paid C. to pay D. paying 20. In front of the hall color flags were ___. A. hunged B. hanged C. hang D. hanging Answers: 1-5 ABDAA 6-10 CBBBC 11-15 DCBAB 16-20 BADBD
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