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2014高考英语一轮复习 语法梳理 动词的时态和语态(16页Word文档)


动词的时态和语态
【考情分析】 一、考查具体语境下时态的呼应 对动词时态和语态的考查是高考题中的重点,考查的角度越来越趋向语境化、实用化, 即以基础知识为主,把时态和语境结合起来,注重在实际运用的语境中考查知识点。解答此 类题目时决不能脱离实际运用的语境而一味死记硬背语法规则的条条框框,在解答过程中应 该捕捉信息,理解情景,综合分析,灵活答题。 二、考查常见的八大时态:

①八大时态:一般现在时,一般过去时,现在进行时,过去进行时,一般将来时,过去将来 时,现在完成时和过去完成时。另外,现在完成进行时、过去完成进行时和将来完成时也比 较常用。 ②时态的考查主要以一般时、进行时和完成时为主,试题将继续呈现“情景立意”和“能力 立意”的原则,即在考查固定句式中的时态和语态的同时,注重在语境中考查时态和语态。 ③要求掌握时态的意义、各种时态的动词形式、与各种时态连用的时间状语以及一些时态的 特殊意义。 三、考查主动语态和被动语态的使用以及改为被动语态时的一些特殊情形。 四、考查的时态呼应 【知识归纳】 考点一、动词的时态呼应: 在复合句,从句(主要是宾语从句)中的时态,常受主句谓语动词的影响,这就叫做时 态的呼应,时态的呼应一般有如下的情况。 1、 如果主句的谓语动词为现在时态, 其从句中的谓语动词应该用什么时态就用什么时态, 如:She knows you have been in Beijing for five rears. 2、如果主句中的谓语动词为过去时态,从句中的谓语动词就要用过去时态,但要注意到 下列情况: (1)如果从句中的谓语动词所表示的动作与主句中的谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,从句 中须用一般过去时或过去进行时, She said she was busy then./She said she was reading at that 如: time. (2)如果从句中的谓语动词所表示的动作发生在主句谓语动词所表示的动作之前, 从句中须用 过去完成时,如:I didn’t know that she had been to London twice. (3)如果从句中的谓语动词所表示的动作发生在主句谓语动词所表示的动作之后,从句须用过
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去将来时,如:They didn’t know when they would have a rest. (4)如果从句中说明的是一种普遍真理现象,虽然主句的谓语动词为过去时态从句中仍要用一 般现在时,如:When I was a little child, my father told me that the earth is round. (5)如果从句中有表示具体过去时间的状语,虽然其谓语动词所表示的动作发生在主句谓语动 词所表示的动作之前,从句仍用一般过去时,但如果该状语表示的时间不具体,则从句仍要 用过去完成时,如:Tome said he was born in 1975. 考点二、动词的进行时态 一、现在进行时 1.表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作;表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时的一个动作;表 近期特定的安排或计划;go,come 等表示起止动作的动词可用进行时代替将来时。 He is teaching English and learning Chinese.他正教英语和学习汉语。 The girl is always talking loud in public.(与 always,often 等频度副词连用,表示某种感情色彩) 这个小女孩总是在公众场合下大声谈话。 2.下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。 (1)表示感官的动词:see,hear,notice,feel,smell,sound,taste,look。 (2)表示心理状态、情感的动词:like,love,hate,care,believe,want,mind,wish。 (3)表示存在的状态的动词:appear,exist,lie,remain,seem,belong to,have,own。 (4)表示一时性动作的动词:allow,accept,permit,promise,admit,complete。 二、过去进行时 1. 过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某动作在某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。 常常与 at that time, at this time yesterday 等时间状语连用。 I was reading an interesting book at this time yesterday.昨天的这个时候我正在读一本有趣的书。 2.某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生,其中一个在由 when 或 while 引导的时间状语从句中。 持续性动作用过去进行时,短暂性动作用一般过去时。 Tom slipped into the house when no one was looking.当没人注意的时候,汤姆溜进屋来。 The reporter said that the UFO was traveling east to west when he saw it.那位记者说,当他看到 时,不明飞行物正在自东向西飞行。 三、将来进行时 将来进行时可用于表示将来某个时刻正在发生的动作或者将来某一段时间内正在进行的动 作。将来进行时常与一些标志性的时间状语连用。这些常见的标志性状语有:at this time tomorrow/the day after tomorrow,from 1∶30 to 4∶30 tomorrow/the day after tomorrow。
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I will be having a gathering party with my friends at this time tomorrow.明天这时我将与朋友一起 正在聚会。 I will be having a meeting from 2∶30 to 5∶30 tomorrow afternoon.明天下午 2∶30 到 5∶30 我们 将正在开会。 考点三、一般过去时和现在完成时的区别 一、一般过去时 1.一般过去时表示过去的事情、动作或状态,常与表示过去的时间状语连用(或上下文语境 有暗示);用于表示过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到的事。如: —If the traffic hadn’t been so heavy,I could have been back by 6 o’clock. “要是交通不那么拥挤的话,六点之前我本来能够回来的。 ” —What a pity!Tina was here to see you.“太可惜了!Tina 来这里看望你了。 ” 2.在过去某一具体时间的前提下发生了某件事情要用一般过去时表示。如: —Have you ever seen that movie?“你曾看过那部电影吗? ”

—Yes.When I was in Tokyo,I saw it three times.“是的,当我在东京时,我看过三次。 ” 3.表示两个紧接着发生的动作,常由以下词语连接,用一般过去时。 如:but,and,when,as soon as,immediately,the moment,the minute。如: He bought a watch but lost it.他买了一块手表但丢了。 The moment she came in,she told me what had happened to her.她一进来,她就告诉我她发生了 什么事情。 二、现在完成时 1.现在完成时除可以和 for,since 引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用:during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks),in recent years 等。 2.下列句型中常用现在完成时: ①It is (has been)+一段时间+since 从句 This (That/It)is the first(second...) time that+完成时 This is the first time we have seen a film in the cinema together as a family. 这是我们全家第一次到电影院看电影。 ②在条件、时间、让步状语从句中,表示将来某时以前已完成的动作。 I will not believe you unless I have seen it with my own eyes.只有我亲自看到,我才会相信你的 话。(强调“看完”) I will go with you as soon as I have finished my work.
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我干完了工作就和你一起去。(强调“干完”) 【专家提醒】 一般过去时与现在完成时的区别: (1)时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用过去时态,不能用完成时态,如含有 ago,last year, just now,the other day 等。 结果上有差异:现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果,动作到现在刚完成或还在继 续; (2)一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去” ,和现在毫无关系。 考点四、一般过去时和过去完成时的区别 一、过去完成时表示发生在“过去的过去”的动作,常用于以下几种情况中: 1.by,by the end of,by the time,until,before,since 后接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句, 主句用过去完成时。 By the end of last year,another new cinema had been built in our city. 到去年年末,我们城市又建了一座新电影院。 I had learnt 5,000 words before I entered the university. 在我上大学前就学了 5,000 个单词。 2.表示“一??就??”的几个固定句型:Hardly/No sooner/Scarcely had+主语+过去分词 +when/than/before+从句(一般过去时)。 Hardly(No sooner) had I got home when (than) the rain poured down. 我刚到家大雨就倾盆而下。 Hardly had we started when the car got a flat tyre. 我们才刚刚动身,汽车的轮胎就漏气了。 3.intend,mean,hope,want,plan,suppose,expect,think 等动词的过去完成时可用来表 示一个本来打算做而实际上没有做的事。这种用法也可表示过去未曾实现的设想、意图或希 望,含有某种惋惜。 I had intended to call on you yesterday, someone came to see me just when I was about to leave. but 我昨天本来要去看你的,但是刚要出门就有人来访。 I had meant to help you,but I was too busy at the moment. 我本想去帮你的,但当时确实太忙了。 考点五、现在完成时和现在完成进行时的区别 1.如果与段时间连用,两个时态可相互替用,只不过现在完成进行时具有强烈的感情色彩。 如:
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I have been learning English for ten years.=I have learned English for ten years. 我学英语有十年了。 2.现在完成时可与表示“次数”的状语,already,yet,ever 连用,而现在完成进行时则不能。 如: ①I have been to Hainan three times.我去过海南三次。 ②Have you ever met such a strange thing?你遇到过这样奇怪的事情吗? 3.现在完成进行时一般强调过去发生的动作现在仍在继续。现在完成时强调过去发生的动作 现在已经完成或表示曾经发生过。如: ①I have been writing an article.我一直在写一篇文章。(仍在) ②I have written an article.我已写好了一篇文章。(已完成) 4.现在完成进行时表示刚刚结束的动作,强调动作在不久前持续进行,带有感情色彩。 现 在完成时表示已经结束的动作,强调动作的结果。如: ①Where have you been? We have been looking for you everywhere. 你到哪里去了?我们在到处找你。(表示刚刚结束的动作) ②We have looked for him, but haven’t found him. 我们找过他,但没有找到他。(表示动作已结束,强调动作的结果) 5.现在完成进行时可以表示现在以前的这段时间内反复发生的事情。如: ①All these years they have been contributing articles to our magazine. 这些年来,他们一直为我们杂志写稿。 ②We have been seeing quite a lot of each other recently.最近我们常常见面。 考点六、主动语态和被动语态 一、主动语态转换为被动语态的几种句型: (1)如果主动语态动词后又有直接宾语,又有间接宾语,一般是将间接宾语改为被动语态句 中的主语,将直接宾语保留在原处。如将直接宾语改为被动语态句中的主语,将间接宾语保 留在原处时, 一般要在间接宾语前加介词 to 或 for, Grandma told me an interesting story last 如: night.→Iwas told an interesting story last night./ An interesting story was told to me last night. (2)主动语态中的宾语加带有宾语补足语时,改为被动语态时,就将宾语改为主语,将宾补 保留在原处,而成为被动语态句中主语的补足语了。宾补可以有下列几种情况:①宾补为动 词不定式,如:They asked her to sing a song. →She was asked to sing a song. 在动词 make, see, hear, watch, notice 等之后,不定式的 to 在主动语态里可要省略,而被动语态里不能省,如: Tom was seen to come out of the lab.②宾补为分词,如:They heard them singing at the
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time.→They were heard singing at that time.③宾补为形容词、副词、名词或介词短语,如:She kept me busy all the morning. →I was kept busy all the morning. (3)含有情态动词的动词改为被动语态时是将情态动词后面的动词原形改为被动语态,因其 前有情态动词,所以构成被动语态的助动词 be 就要使用原形,如:They must finish the work before Friday. →The work must be finished before Friday. (4)be going to, be to, used to, have to 和 had better 等结构,其作用相当于情态动词或助动词, 在改为被动语态时, 只需将后面的动词原形改为被动语态即可, The are not going to put off 如: the football match. →The football match is not going to be put off.

(一)被动语态的构成形式 被动语态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时 含有情态动词的 (二)被动语态使用注意点 1.主动表示被动的几种情况 ①不及物动词与状语连用,用以表示主语的品质和状态。常见动词有:cut, sell, read, write, fill, cook, lock, wash 等。 This knife cuts well.这把刀好切。 These books sell well.这些书好卖。 The pen writes smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。 Meat won’t keep long in such hot weather.肉在这样热的天气里放不长久。 The cloth washes well.这种布好洗。
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am/is/are done was/were done shall/will be done should/would be done am/is/are being done was/were being done have/has been done had been done will/would have been done can/must/may be done

②一些连系动词的主动式+形容词。 常见动 look, smell, taste, sound, feel, prove, turn out 等。 The apples taste good.这些苹果尝起来味道不错。 The flower smells wonderful.这花闻起来很不错。 The news proved/turned out true.这消息后来证明时真的。 Cotton feels soft.棉花摸起来很软。 ③主语+need/want/require 表示需要被……的时候,常用动名词的主动式表示被动或用不定 式的被动式。 (参看第八讲非谓语动词) The car needs repairing.=The car needs to be repaired.这车需要修理。 ④be worth doing 表示某事值得去做。 (参看第八讲非谓语动词) The Great Wall is worth visiting.长城值得一游。

二、被动语态的特殊情形: 1.get+过去分词表被动 They got married last week.他们上周结婚了。 He fell and got hurt.他摔倒受伤了。 2.主动形式表被动意义 (1)系动词 look,feel,sound,smell,taste,seem,appear,go,prove,turn 等+形容词/名词。 Ice feels cold.冰摸上去凉。 His plan proved (to be) practical.他的计划被证明符合实际。 (2)表示主语的某种属性的词:read,write,act,cut,draw,drive,sell,wash,clean,wear, open,cook,lock,look,shut 等。 The books sell well.这些书畅销。 The door won’t lock.门锁不上。 This coat dries easily.这种外衣容易干。 The plan worked out wonderfully.这计划进行得很顺利。 The engine won’t start.引擎发动不起来。 The pen writes smoothly.这只钢笔写起来流利。 【专家提醒】 1.短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴” 。 ①The children were taken good care of (by her).孩子们得到很好的照料。 ②Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to.你的发音和拼写应当得到注意。
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【方法技巧】 一、动词的时态和语态备考建议 1.清楚地了解英语中常用的八种常用时态的一些常用规则,留意在实际生活中如何使用各种 时态的使用。准确掌握八大常见时态(一般现在时,一般过去时,现在进行时,过去进行时, 一般将来时,过去将来时,现在完成时和过去完成时)以及三大热点时态(现在完成进行时、 过去完成进行时和将来完成)的有关知识。考生在复习过程中,要侧重对语境的分析,提高 对语境的理解能力,且要重视正确分析语言材料中的时态交互信息和对有特殊用法的动词的 灵活运用。 2.建立时态的时、体概念。 “时”即现在时、过去时、将来时、过去将来时;每个“时”又分四个“体” ,即一般体、进 行体、完成体、完成进行体)。 。 3.解答时态和语态类问题时,要遵循如下思路: (1)说的是什么时间的事情或情况,即定“时” 。 (2)这个动作是什么状态, 是完成了、 还是未完成、 还是既不表示完成又不表示进行, “体” 即定 。 (3)这个动作与主语之间的关系,是主动还是被动,即定“语态” 。 4.做有关语态的题目可以分两步走:第一步确定正确的时态,第二步确定正确的语态。判断 用主动语态还是用被动语态的根据是看主语与谓语动词之间的关系:如果是主谓关系则用主 动语态,如果是动宾关系则用被动语态。 二、主从句时态呼应 近年来的高考试题一般不再单纯考查主从句的时态呼应, 而是将其放在真实的语境中进行 考查,也会结合强调结构等其他语法现象进行考查。解答此类试题时,要把握以下几点: 1.在时间、条件等状语从句中,用一般现在时代替将来时,用一般过去时代替过去将来时, 用现在完成时代替将来完成时。 2.正确认定主句动词和从句动词两个动词发生的时间,并认真体会命题人所给出的语境。 3.解答宾语从句与主句时态呼应题时,考生应熟知以下规则:如果主句动词为现在时态,则 从句动词可根据具体情况使用任何时态;如果主句动词为过去时态,则从句动词须用合适的 过去的某种时态(表示客观真理时用一般现在时)。 【考点例析】 (2013 全国卷 I)22. They might just have a place _____ on the writing course — why don’t you give it a try? A. leave
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B. left

C. leaving
8

D. to leave

(2013 全国卷 I)24. If we ____ now to protect the environment, we’ll live to regret it. A. hadn’t acted B. haven’t acted C. don’t act D. won’t act

(2013 全国卷 I)27. When I first met Bryan I didn’t like him, but I ____ my mind. A. have changed (2013 全国卷 II)7. We A. leave B. change C. had changed D. would change

very early so we packed the night before. B. had left C. were leaving D. have left

(2013 北京卷)23. Shakespeare’s play Hamlet ________ into at least ten different films over the past years. A. had been made B. was made C. has been made D. would be made

(2013 北京卷)25. — Do you think Mom and Dad ________ late? — No, Swiss Air is usually on time. A. were B. will be C. would be D. have been

(2013 北京卷)28. Hurry up! Mark and Carl ________ us. A. expect B. are expecting C. have expected D. will expect

(2013 北京卷)32. — So what is the procedure? — All the applicants ________ before a final decision is made by the authority. A. interview interviewed (2013 上海卷)27. Bob called to tell his mother that he couldn’t enter the house, for he ________ his key at school. A. had left B. would leave C. was leaving D. has left B. are interviewing C. are interviewed D. are being

(2013 上海卷)29. The school board is made up of parents who ________ to make decisions about school affairs. A. had been elected B. had elected C. have been elected D. have elected one of

(2013 天津卷)13. The water supply has been cut off temporarily because the workers the main pipes. A. had repaired B. have repaired C. repaired

D. are repairing

(2013 江苏卷)25. —Could I use your car tomorrow morning? —Sure. I ______ a report at home. A. will be writing B. will have written C. have written D. have been writing

(2013 江苏卷)30. I should not have laughed if I ______ you were serious.
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A. thought

B. would think

C. had thought

D. have thought

(2013 江苏卷)34. —What about your self-drive trip yesterday? —Tiring! The road is being widened, and we ______ a rough ride. A. had (2013 安徽卷)28. I A. went B. have C. would have D. have had

to my cousin’s birthday party last night, but I was not available B. had gone C. would go D. would have gone

(2013 湖南卷)22. ―What do you want to be?‖ asked Mrs. Crawford. ―Oh, I ________ president,‖ said the boy, with a smile. A. have been B. am C. was D. will be

(2013 湖南卷)24. Around two o’clock every night, Sue will start talking in her dream. It somewhat ________ us. A. bothers B. had bothered C. would bother D. bothered

(2013 湖南卷)26. If nothing ________, the oceans will turn into fish deserts. A. does B. had been done C. will do D. is done

(2013 湖南卷)27. — Have you heard about the recent election? — Sure, it ________ the only thing on the news for the last three days. A. would be B. is C. has been D. will be

(2013 湖南卷)34. — I don’t understand why you didn’t go to the lecture yesterday afternoon. — I’m sorry. But I ________ my homework. A. had done B. was doing C. would do D. am doing

(2013 福建卷)23. The famous musician, as well as his students, ____ to perform at the opening ceremony of the 2012 Taipei Flower Expo. A. were invited B. was invited (2013 福建卷)26. C. have been invited D. has been invited

The girl has a great interest in sport and ____ badminton classes twice a week

over the last three years. A. took B. is taking C. takes D. has been taking a late night film at home when, right in the middle of a thrilling scene,

(2013 陕西卷)17. Jim the television went blank. A. watched

B. had watched

C. was watching

D. would be watching

(2013 陕西卷)11. On Monday mornings it usually the actual distance is only 20 miles.
第页 10

me an hours to drive to work although

A. takes

B. is taking

C. took

D. will take

(2013 山东卷) 24. I didn’t think I’d like the movie, but actually it _____ pretty good. A. has been B. was C. had been D. would be

(2013 山东卷) 27. — Oh no! We’re too late. The train _______. — That’s Ok. We’ll catch the next train to London. A. was leaving B. had left C. has left D. has been leaving

(2013 重庆卷) 21. I felt very tired when I got home, and I ________ straight to bed. A. go B. went C. had gone D. have gone

(2013 重庆卷)33. A Midsummer Night’s Dream ________ at the Theatre Royal on 19th June, and then tours throughout Scotland A. opens B. is opened C. will open D. will be opened

(2013 四川卷)3. Hurry up, kids! The school bus _______ for us! A. waits B. was waiting C. waited D. is waiting

(2013 江西卷)35.I ________ to visit you later that day, but I had to phone and cancel. A. come B. came C. am coming D. was coming

(2013 浙江卷)10. During the last three decades, the number of people participating in physical fitness programs ________ sharply. A. was increasing B. has increased C. had increased D. will be increasing

(2013 辽宁卷)22. He was unhappy when he sold his guitar. After all, he _________if for a very long time. A. has had. B. had had C. has D. had

(2013 辽宁卷)23. The accident caused some _______to my car, but it’s nothing serious. A. harm B. injury C. ruin D. damage

(2013 辽宁卷)30. We are confident that the environment ______by our further efforts to reduce pollution. A. had been improved B. will be improved C. is improved D. was improved

1.--Look! Somebody

the sofa.

--Well, it wasn’t me. I didn’t do it. 【2012 江西卷】 A.is cleaning B.was cleaning C.has cleaned D.had cleaned 1. C
第页

本题考查时态.。句意为: “看,有人已经打扫了沙发”“是的,不是我,我没有做.” 。 。强调
11

过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响故用现在完成时,正确答案为 C。

2. Don't worry. The hard work that you do now ____ later in life. 【2012 湖南卷】 A. will be repaid B. was being repaid C. has been repaid D. was repaid

2.A 本题考查动词时态。从 don't 可知语境为现在,排除 B、D;而 later in life 可知为将来的 动作,故选 A。

3. Food supplies in the flood-stricken area ______.We must act immediately before there’s left. 【2012 重庆卷】 A. have run out B. are running out C. have been run out D. are being run out

3. B 本题考查动词的时态。分析题干语境可知,食品供应即将耗尽。run out 为不及物动词短 语,不能使用被动形式,由此可排除 C 和 D 两个选项。B 选项为现在进行时态,可以表示将 来,符合题意。因此,正确答案为 B 选项。

4.-kevin,you look worried. Anything wrong? 【2012 重庆卷】 -Well, I____ a test and I’m waiting for the result. A. will take B. took C. had taken D. take

4. B 考查动词的时态。根据答语的后半句可知,现在 Kevin 正在等待测试的成绩,参加测试 为一个过去的动作,应该使用一般过去时态。因此,正确答案为 B 选项。

5.Mum, I was wondering if you could lend me a few dollars until I _____on Friday. 【2012 辽宁卷】 A. get paid B. got paid C. have paid D. had been paid

5. A 考查动词时态和语态。在时间状语从句中用一般现在时表将来,且 I 与 pay 之间是动宾 关系,所以选 A。

6.—Did you catch what I said? —Sorry. I ______ a text message just now. 【2012 四川卷】 A. had answering 6.D B. have answered C. would answer D. was answering

本题考查动词时态。句意为: “你听懂我所说的了吗?” “对不起。我刚刚在回短信。 ”

根据句意及时间状语 just now 可知,回短信的动作正好是发生在问话人说话的那一时间点, 即表示过去某一时间点正在发生的动作,故正确答案 D。
第页 12

7. They are living with their parents for the moment because their own house ____.【2012 四川卷】 A. is being rebuilt B. has been rebuilt C. is rebuilt D. has rebuilt

7.A 本题考查动词的时态和语态。句意为:他们现在暂时和父母一起居住,因为他们自己的 房子正在重建。根据句意可知,应使用被动语态,且 house 与动词 rebuilt 之间为被动关系, 故使用现在进行时态的被动语态。 【专题训练】 1. I called Hannah many times yesterday evening, but I couldn’t get through. Her brother ________ on the phone all the time! A. was talking B. has been talking C. has talked D. talked

2. ----Where did you put the broom, Tom? -----I _______it behind the door.But now it is gone. A.do put B.do putting C.did to put D.did put[

3. Once harm ______ to the environment, it takes years to have the system recovered. A. does B. is done C. will be done D. be done

4. I fixed my eyes upon the newcomer, wondering whether I ________ him somewhere before. A.saw B.has seen C.had seen D.would see

5.My toothache is killing me.I _____ it _____ away.But now it’s getting worse and worse. A.think; is going B.thought; was going D.had thought; had gone

C.have thought; is going

6. My friend, Tom, left New York in 1976 and since then he_______. A.hadn’t been heard of C.hasn’t heard of B.hasn’t been heard of

D.hadn’t heard of

7.–You speak very good Chinese. --Thanks. I _______ it for 4 years before I came to China. A. studied B. study C. was studying D. had studied

8. Travelers______ that they should bring their ID cards with them. A. have reminded B. are reminded C. were reminding D. had been reminded

9. ―Look! Everything here is under construction.‖ ―What is the small building that________for?‖ A. is being building B. has been built C. is built D. is being built

10. A red sky in the morning ________to be a sign of bad weather.
第页 13

A. says B. is saying C. has said 【参考答案】 1-5 ADBCB 6-10 BDBDD

D. is said

第页

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