Unit 2 English around the world
Look at the pictures. Can you speak them in American English and British English?
actually at present rule in fact now govern 实际上, 事实上 现在的、出席的 统治
vocabulary words and expressions 词汇、词汇量 gradually by degrees 逐渐地
official voyage native actually latter identity fluent frequently
官方的 航行, 航海 本国的, 本地的 事实上 后者的 身份 流利的 频繁地
be based on
culture identity government rapidly Singapore Malaysia
文化 、文明 身份 政府 迅速地 新加坡 马来西亚
Read the title “The Road to Modern English” and predict (预测) what the passage is mainly about?
The road to modern English The road
the development of English language
Para1: More and more people speak English.
① At the end of… ② Later in the next century… ③ Today…
Para2: Native English speakers can understand each other but
Para 3-4: English is changing over time. (cultures & places)
English is spoken as a foreign or second language in many countries.
Choose the main idea of the text. B
A. How to learn English well B. The brief history of Modern English C. The way to England
D. The difference between Modern
English and Old English
Careful reading: Para 1--Development of English
today the end of the 16th century
the next century More people speak in more countries
Many other countries
If an American is talking to an Englishman, A _______. A. They will have almost no difficulty in understanding B. They will have a lot of misunderstandings between each other C. The American finds it difficult to understand the Englishman D. The English man finds it difficult to follow the American
Read Para 3 and answer the question:
Why does English change over time?
Because of cultural communication.
Para 3-4 How has English changed over time?
AD 450-1150 was based more on German
more like French (rule)
In the 1600’s Shakespeare made use of a wider vocabulary American Dictionary of the English American English (identity) Language
British people went to Australia
Find out the characteristics of each time according to the time axis.
AD450-1150 800-1150 In the 1600’s The time ADEL was written
German less like German; more like French
American English Australian English
The history of the English language
The road to modern English AD 450- English was based more on German _______. 1150
less like German AD 800- English became _____ ruled England 1150 Because those who _____ spoke first Danish and later French.
In the 1600s
Shakespeare made use of a wider _____________ vocabulary than ever before.
The road to modern English In 1620 Some British settlers moved to _________. America Later in Some British people were taken the 18th to __________. Australia
English became the language for government and education _________________________.
By the 19th century
The road to modern English The English language was settled. Two big changes in _______________ English spelling happened: Samuel dictionary and Johnson wrote his __________ Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of _____________________________ the English Language. ____________________ English is also spoken as a foreign or second language _____________ in South Asia South Africa _______ _____________ China and so on.
Two important persons in Para 4
Born: September 18, 1709
Write a dictionary
One of the English language’s most profound influences.
Noah Webster Born: October 16, 1758 Died: May 28, 1843 When Noah was 43, he started writing the first American dictionary. He did this because Americans in different parts of the country spelled, pronounced and used words differently.
Why is India mentioned in the last paragraph? A. Because India is a typical country who A speaks English as a second language because of its long being ruled by Britain. B. Because India has a very large number of English speakers. C. Because India is a country where English plays a very important role in social life. D. Because India has a long history of communication with Britain.
English is used as…
A first language in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, South Africa, Ireland and New Zealand and so on. A second language
in India, Pakistan, Nigeria the Philippines, and HK and so on. A foreign language
in China, and so on.
Language can change with time.
Language can change when cultures communicate with each other.
The Road To Modern English
English speakers increasing
The end of 16th C The next century Based on German
English is not English spread in all the same Asia and Africa
English changes Today over time
India Other countries China Australian English Am E More Shakelike speare’s French time
Choose the correct answer.
1. English has/had the most speakers____. A A. now B. when the British ruled many parts of the world C. in the time of Shakespeare D. in the 12th century 2. Which of the following statements is true? A. Languages always stay the same. D B. Languages change only after wars. C. Languages no longer change. D. Languages change when cultures change.
3. From AD 450 to 1150, English sounded more like _____. C A.French B. Chinese C. German D. Russian 4. Shakespeare’s English was spoken around _____. D A. 1400’s B. 1150’s C. 450’s D. 1600’s 5. Which country has the fastest growing number of English speakers in the world? A. Australia B. China B C. India D. Britain
True or False
1. Most English speakers in the 16th century lived in England. T 2. More and more people use English as their first or 2nd language. T 3. English began to be spoken in other counties in 17th century. T
4. Native English speakers can’t understand each other because they don’t speak the same kind of English. F 5. As English is widely used, it will be more and more important to T have a good knowledge of English. 6. Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of the English Language. T
7. From 1765 to 1947 English became the language for government and education in India. T 8. America has the largest number of English learners. F 9. English had the most speakers in the 17th century. F 10. English developed when new settlers and rulers came to Britain. T
11. Languages frequently change. F 12. The language of the government is always the language of the country.F
13. English is one of the official
languages used in India. T 14. This reading describes the development of the English
Read the text carefully and answer the following questions. 1. What is the clue of the passage? Time. 2. When did people from England begin to move to other parts of the world? In the 17th century.
3. Why does India have a large number of English speakers? India was ruled by Britain from 1765 to 1947. And during that time English became the language for government and education.
Retell the text.
At first, only people in ________ England spoke English.
Later, people from England _______ moved to other
parts, so English began to be spoken in
______ many _____ other _________. countries Today, _______ more people
first second or foreign speak English as their _____,
language. _______ Native English speakers _____ can not ___________. everything understand each other but ____
cultures All languages change when ________ communicate with one another. So there are British English, American English, Australian English and so on. They all have their own ________. identity English is also spoken as a foreign or second language in _____ _______. many ____ other countries Maybe one day Chinese English will become one of the world English.
Will Chinese English become one of
the world Englishes?
“Only time will tell”.
1. Do you think it matters what kind
of English you learn? Why?
2. Why do you think people all over
the world want to learn English?
To use for business
To use in school
To talk to native speakers
Why do so many people want to learn English ?
To read English books
To write to pen friends
To listen to English music and movies
1. Nearly all of them lived in England. nearly和almost 用法明辨： (1)两者通用的场合 a. 在肯定句中 b. 修饰all, every, always 等时 c. 在行为动词的否定式前时 e.g. He is almost/ nearly 80 years old.
(2)只用almost 的场合 a. 和any, no, none, nothing, nobody, nowhere, never 等连用时。 b. 和too, more than 等连用时。 c. 和表示感觉或心理活动的静态 动词连用时。 e.g. There is almost none left. (3)只用nearly的场合 a. 被 very, not, pretty等修饰时。 b. 和具体数字连用时(nearly常用)。如: Nearly 100 students attended the meeting.
2. voyage 在此为可数名词, 意为“旅行, 航行”。如： ① The Titanic went under on its first voyage. ② They supplied this ship with enough food and necessities for a long voyage. ③ I don’t want to make the voyage without help.
[拓展] ? voyage还可用作动词, 意为“(乘船) 航行, 航海”。如： They planned to voyage across the Pacific Ocean. ? 注意区别名词travel, journey, trip 和voyage: travel用作不可数名词, 只用于泛指从 某地去另一地, 如果某人在某段时间里 到处走, 可用travels； journey用作可数名词, 表示去某地所花
的时间和旅行的距离, 尤指较长距离 的或定期的旅行; trip用作可数名词, 表示非定期的, 也许较短的往返旅行; voyage则常指海上旅行或太空旅行。 ① Air travel is becoming cheaper. ② He’s on his travels again. ③ Lily had a long and difficult journey through the mountains last year. ④ The kids are going on a trip to the castle.
3. because of 后边加名词或动名词短语 because 是连词, 所以后边跟句子 因为你的关心, 我发现生活充满了希望。 Because you are concerned about me, I find that life is full of hope. Because of your concern, I find that life is full of hope.
因为雨下得很大, 那个男孩穿过树林 回家了。 Because it rained heavily, the boy went back home through the woods. Because of the heavy rain, the boy went back home through the woods.
4. than ever before “比以往任何时候更” than ever before可看作是than they ever speak English before 的省略形式。
在比较级结构中, 副词 ever 与比较级
You’ll speak English much better than
Jane looks much prettier than ever before.
ever在不同句型中的意义： 1)曾经; 以前 (用于疑问句) 2)无论什么时候都(不) (用于否定句)
4)到底; 究竟 (用于特殊疑问句)
5)永远; 老是 (用于肯定句)
5. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. even if =even though “即使”, 用来引导 一个让步状语从句, 后面既可以用陈述 语气, 也可用虚拟语气, 但是even if / though 引导的从句不用将来时。如: Even if it rains tomorrow, we will leave for Beijing.
用if, as if, even if填空。 (1) _________ Even if I had money, I wouldn’t buy it. If (2) _______ I had money, I would buy it. (3) It looks __________ it is going to rain. as if (even if 引导让步状语从句; if 引导条件 状语从句; as if/ though “似乎是…” 引导方式状语从句)
注意: (1) even if (= even though): in spite of the fact; no matter whether 即使; 尽管 是连词词组, 用来引导让步状语从句; 若主、 从句皆表示将来情况, 从句中可用一般现在 时代替将来时。 (2) even if 从句所说的不那么肯定。 even though 从句是事实。 e.g: Even if he is poor, she loves him. (=He may be poor, yet she loves him.) (Even) though he is poor, she loves him. (= He is poor, yet she loves him.)
When talking to a friend over the telephone , you feel that you are close _______ the actual distance B is not shortened. A. but B. even if C. so D. because
6. come up 上来, 走近; 发芽; 被提出; 升起 ①A child came up to me and showed me the way to the station. 走近, 上来 ②the sun comes up in the east. 升起 ③New shoots of bamboo will come up from around the roots of the old ones. ④Your question came up at the meeting. 被提出讨论 come about 出现; 发生
come across 偶然遇到或找到 come around 恢复; 还原; 改变某人的 意见或立场 come down 传承; 按习惯通过或处理 come out 成为众所周知; 发行或发表; 结果; 自己公开宣布 come over 过来; 偶然拜访 come up with 宣布或发现 The doctor came up with a cure for the disease.
7. So why has English changed over time? 那么, 英语在一段时间里为什么会起变化呢？ over 贯穿, 经过(一段时间) e.g. Over the years, he has become more patient. 经过这些年, 他变得更有耐心。 周末她会来杭州。 She will come to Hangzhou over the weekend. 圣诞节时你在家吗？ Will you stay at home over Christmas? over 超过(=more than), 再三 (again) over 2 minutes over and over
8. It was based more on German than the English we speak at present.
1) base v. 意为“以……为根据,
base sth. on/upon sth。如：
This novel is based on fact.
The paper had intended to base itself
This film is based on a novel by D. H.
Lawrence. [拓展] ?base还可用作名词, 意为“底部, 基地, 基础”等。如:
There is a door at the base of the tower.
How many military bases are they maintaining on foreign soil? Many languages have Latin as their base.
be off base 完全错误, 大错特错
touch base (with) sb
2) more…than… 是…而不是…; 与其说…不如说…; 中间接相同成分。 He is more a friend than a teacher. He is more lazy than stupid. 扩展: more than 不仅仅; 多于; 十分
e.g. He is more than a teacher in our school. He made more than ten friends in this club.
She is more than beautiful. rather than 而不是; less than少于； other than 除……之外
3) present adj. 当前的, 现在的 (作前置定语)
Did you see the present national leaders?
Can you tell us something about the
Our teacher was present at the meeting.
All the people present agree to my plan.
n. 目前, 现在; 礼物 I can’t spare time because I am busy at present. What present did you receive from your parents? at present: now; at this time/moment She’s busy at present and can’t speak to you. 她现在很忙, 不能跟你谈话。 At present he is a professor of mathematics at Cambridge. 目前他是剑桥大学的数学教授。
vt. 赠与, 赠给予, 给, 提出 present sb. with sth.或present sth. to sb. 把…交给, 颁发, 授予 如: Mother presented a gift to me just now. On his birthday, his friends presented him with a series of readers. /presented a series of readers to him. (送给他一套读本)
9. Shakespeare made use of a wider vocabulary than ever before. 莎士比亚使用了比以往任何时候更为 广泛的词汇量。 make use of 利用, 使用 make good / full use of 充分使用 make no use of sth. 没有利用 We could make good use of our resources. 我们应该充分利用好我们的资源。 Every minute should be made good use of. 每一分钟都应该很好地利用。
She makes use of people she meets as
heroes for her novel.
We should make good use of time to
make构成的常见短语: make of，
make from 通常用于被动语态,
构成be made of, be made from 都
其中be made of 表示在产品中能够看出 原材料; be made from 表示在产品中 看不出原材料。 make up 编写, 编造;和解 make up of 由……组成/构成； make up for 弥补, 补偿 make out 理解, 弄懂; 看清, (勉强) 辨认出; 假装, 装成 make into 制成…… make it 成功, 办成; 及时赶到
10. the number of/ a number of the number of “…….的数目”, 接可数 名词复数, 其后谓语动词用单数。 The number of undergraduates has increased over the years. a number of 许多, 大量 (后接复数名词), 其后谓语动词用复数。 (a great number of /a large number of / a small number of ) A number of teachers are on leave.
The number of people invited _____ C fifty, but a number of them ___ absent for different reasons. A. were; was B. was; was C. was; were D. were; were 注意: 只能修饰可数名词的 a large/ great/ good number of, a good/ great many, dozens of, scores of, quite a few
a great deal of, a large amount of,
quite a little, a large sum of 既可修饰可数也可修饰不可数名词的： plenty of, a lot of, lots of, a large quantity of
11. such as & for example
such as 用来列举事物时, 一般列举同类 人或事物中的几个例子且所列举事物的 数量不能等于它前面所提到的总和, 一旦相等, 要用that is 或namely. I have three good friends, such as John, Jack and Tom. × He can speak four languages, such as English and French.
for example: 用来举例说明某一论点或 情况, 一般只举同类人或物中的 “一个” 为例, 作插入语,可位于句首, 句中或句 尾, 通常与所给的例子用逗号隔开, 其 后的例子可以是从句.
Ball games, for example, have spread around the world. There are many kinds of pollution(污染). Noise, for example, is a kind of pollution.
用such as, for example, namely填空 (1) Students, _______ such as Tom and Mary, should be learnt from. (2) Wear something simple, ___________, for example a skirt and blouse. (3) He knows six languages, ________ namely Chinese, French, English, Spanish, Russian and Portuguese.
12. Only time can tell. 惟有时间将能证明。 tell vi. 显示出; 发生影响; 起作用; 判断 tell A from B: 区分, 分别 Can you tell Tom from his twin brother? 13. frequently adv. 经常地, 频繁地 e.g. He was frequently drunk. Stores of grain are frequently attacked by pests.
?frequently的形容词是frequent, 意为 “经常的, 频繁的”。如： He is a frequent visitor to our house.
Her headaches are becoming less frequent.
?frequent还可用作动词, 意为“常到, 常去”。如： The bar was frequented by actors from the nearby theatre. These woods are frequented by all kinds of birds.
1. Memorize the new words.
2. Retell the passage.
3. Finish exercises in Learning about language.
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