Module 1 Basketball
英语中构词法主要有三种：转化 （Conversion）、派生（Derivation）以 及合成（Compounding）。 转化即由一种词性转化为另一种或几种 词性；派生指一个词根通过加前缀或后 缀构成另一个词；合成指由两个或更多 词构成一个词。
英语中, 有的名词可作动词, 有的形容词可 作副词或动词, 这种把一种词性用作另一种 词性而词形不变的方法叫作转化法。 1) 动词转化为名词 ①Let’s go out for a walk. 我们到外面去散散步吧。 很多动词可以转化为名词, 大多意思没有 多大的变化(如①);
②He is a man of strong build. 他是一个体格健壮的汉子。 有时意思有一定变化(如②); ③Let’s have a swim. 咱们游泳吧。 有的与一个动词和不定冠词构成短 语，表示一个动作(如③)。
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2) 名词转化为动词 ①Did you book a seat on the plane? 你订好飞机座位了吗? 很多表示物件(如①) ②Please hand me the book. 请把那本书递给我。 身体部位(如②)
③She nursed her husband back to health. 她看护丈夫，使他恢复了健康。 ④We lunched together. 我们在一起吃了午餐。 某类人(如③)的名词可以用作动词来表 示动作，某些抽象名词(如④)也可作动 词。
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3) 形容词转化为动词 有少数形容词可以转化为动词。例如： We will try our best to better our living conditions. 我们要尽力改善我们的生活状况。 4) 副词转化为动词 有少数副词可以转化为动词。例如： Murder will out. (谚语)恶事终必将败露。
5) 形容词转化为名词 ① You should be dressed in black at the funeral. 你在葬礼中该穿黑色衣服。 表示颜色的形容词常可转化为名词
② The old in our village are living a happy life. 我们村的老年人过着幸福的生活。 某些形容词如old, young, poor, rich, wounded, injured等与the连用，表示 一类人，作主语时，谓语用复数
1. Read the sentences and answer the questions. 1) Chamberlain averaged over 50 points a game for and entire season. Averaged is a verb describing what Chamberlain did. 2) During this time, his average was more than 30 points a game. Average is a noun telling us what we are talking about.
3) Jordan was the second player to score more than 3,000 points in a season. Score is part of “to score” the infinitive of the verb telling us what Jordan did.
4) The final score was 169-147. Score is a noun telling us what we are talking about.
a) What’s the difference in the way average and score are used in these sentences? b) Does the meaning of the words change when they are used differently? No, it doesn’t.
2. Rewrite the sentences and tell the differences between them.
1. The Chicago Bulls won their first
championship in 1991.
There was a first championship ____ win
for the Chicago Bull in 1991.
2. Jordan surprised everyone when he retired. It was _________ a surprise for everyone when Jordan retired. 3. They changed the rules of the game to try to stop him. a change in the rules to There was ________ try to stop him.
3. Decide which type of word is missing from the sentences and complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in the box.
dream question result star work dream v. 1. A lot of young boys ____________ about playing in the NBA. 2. The __________ result n. of the game was incredible ---169-147.
3. Michael Jordan was the biggest ______ star n.
of the Chicago Bulls for many years.
4. My uncle __________ worked v. as a trainer for
the Shanghai Sharks.
5. The teacher often asks us questions ___________ n.
4. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in the box.
break head play record
1. He _____ broke his arm playing basketball. 2. Yao Ming injured his _____ head during a game. 3. Jordan’s total of points is a world ______. record
played for four 4. Chamberlain _______ different NBA teams. 5. After the game, the fans ______ headed for the
6. We recorded _______ the commentary of the
game on a cassette.
7. Has there ever been a film or a _____ play
about basketball? 8. There was a ten-million ______ break in the game because a player was injured.
一、形容词后缀 1. I’m hopeful that we can reach a compromise. -ful 变为形容词，表 ▲名词后加_____ 示“充满……的，具有……性质的” 。
2. My son’s teacher says that his work is often rather careless. ▲名词后加_______ -less 变为形容词，表示 “没有……的”（如句2）。 3. Economic reform is needed. 4. Mrs. Hicks often wore large comical hats. ▲名词后加-ic, -ical变为形容词，表示 “与……有关的，动作/行为……的” （如句3-4）。
5. It’s dangerous to take more than the recommended dose of tablets. ▲名词后加_______ -ous 变为形容词，表示 “有……性质的”（如句5）。 6. I don’t feel comfortable in high heels. ▲动词后加_______ -able 变为形容词，表示 “可……的，能……的，具有…… 性 质的”（如句6）。
▲其他一些形容词后缀如：-an （African）, -ant（important）, -ary （imaginary）, -ate（fortunate）, -ed （excited）, -en（woolen）, -ent （different）, -ese（Chinese）, -ing （interesting）, -ish（childish）, -ive （active）, -like（lifelike）, -ly （friendly）, -some（troublesome）, wide（worldwide）, -y（rainy）。
二、名词后辍 7. High-performance cars are the most expensive. -ance 变为名词，表示状态 ▲动词后加_______ 或行为（如句7）。 8. My husband is good at cake decoration. ▲动词后去不发音的-e加-tion或直接加tion变为名词，表示状态或过程（如 句8）。
9. Lucy has starred with many leading actors. ▲动词后加-er或-or变为名词，表示人 （如句9）。 10. Their employees worked a ten-hour day. ▲动词后加-ee变为名词，表示动作的承 受者（如句10）。
11. My aunt Jennifer is an actress. ▲动词后加-ess变为名词，表女性或 雌性（如句11）。 12. Their friendship goes back to when they were at school together. ▲动词后加_______ -ship 变为名词，表示 状态、性质、品质、地位、资格等 （如句12）。
13. What are your current child-care arrangements? ▲动词后加-ment变为名词，表示 “……的行为”（如句13）。 14. It was only later in life that she found happiness and peace of mind. ▲形容词后加-ness变为名词，表示 “……的性质、状态或特点”（如句 14）。
▲其他一些名词后缀如：-ability （stability）, -age（shortage）, -ary （commentary）, -cy（efficiency）, hood（childhood）, -ian（historian）, -ibility（possibility）, -ing （shipping）, -man（fireman）, ware（glassware）。
三、动词后辍 15. Regular physical exercise can strengthen one’s resistance against illness. -en ，表示“使成为，变得”（如 ▲_____ 句15）。 16. Planting flowers along the street will help to beautify the town. -fy ，表示“使……化，使成为” ▲_____ （如句16）。
17. Some doctors specialize in one type of disease. -ize ，表示“……化”（如句17）。 ▲____
四、副词后缀 18. You need to think very carefully about which course you want to choose. 19. Most of these people are paid monthly. ▲形容词或名词后加-ly变为副词（如 句18-19）。
20. She looked backward(s) over her shoulder. ▲表示地点或方位的词后加-ward， -wards变为副词（如句20）。
前缀 (prefix) ： 1. 表示否定的前缀： un- unfair, unhappy non- nonsmoker, non-violent in- inactive, inhuman, indirect dis- disagree, disappear im- impolite, impossible il- illegal ir- irregular
2. 表示错误或失当的前缀: mis-misjudge, misdirect(误导) 3. 表示向背的前缀: pro- pro-Chinese, pro-American anti-antiwar, anti-Japanese war
4. 表示程度、大小的前缀 super- superstar, supermarket, superman, superpower over- overhead, overeat, overuse mini- minibus, miniskirt, minicar under- underground, underdevelop semi- semicircle, semiskilled, semisteel
5. 表示时间的前缀 pre-prewar post-postwar fore-foretell, forecast, foresee, weatherforcast
6. 表示方位的前缀： sub-subway, submarine inter-international, intercity, interclass trans- translate, transatlantic
用所给词的正确形式完成下列句子。 beauty care hope pain power wonder
1. The Chicago Bulls are not as ________ powerful as they were when Michael Jordan played for them. 2. When Yao Ming hurt his head, it was very ______. painful
careful when he played 3. He had to be very ______ after the accident.
4. The fans are all _______ hopeful that the team
will do well this year.
5. It’s terrible when we lose, but it’s wonderful when we win. _________
根据句意用所给单词的正确形式填空。 1. There is some _________ possibility (possible) that our team will win the basketball match. 2. We must take measures to prevent poisonous factories from sending out ________ (poison) gases into the air. disappointment(disappoint), he 3. To my _____________ failed to pass the college entrance exam this year.
4. It is much more _____________ comfortable (comfort) to travel by air than by ship. 5. It was because of his ___________ carelessness (care) that the car accident happened. 6. She had done something wrong and truly (true) sorry told us she was ______ about it.
7. On his ________ arrival (arrive) at the airport, he received a warm welcome from the teachers and students. 8. Many of his answers are ________ incorrect (correct), so the teacher asked him to do the exercises again. 9. She was going to take part in the party, unexpected (expected) guest but an ___________ dropped in on her.
10. The meeting supposed to be successful (success) turned out to __________ be a failure in the end.
将下列单词加前缀或后缀派生出一个新 词。 1. argue argument 2. spoon spoonful 3. advantage disadvantage 4. polite impolite/ politely 5. pleasant unpleasant / pleasantly 6. attract attractive / attraction 7. sleep asleep / sleepy / sleepless
8. courage encourage / encouragement 9. discuss discussion 10. visit visitor
合成词是由两个或两个以上的词合成的 一个新词。 一. 合成名词, 如: workforce, haircut, postman, X-ray, mailbox, landowner, farmland, handstand, handshake, coastline, gunfire, short-wave, gentleman, newcomer, tightrope, best-seller, mainland, freeway, second-hand
二. 合成形容词, 如: worldwide, nationwide, duty-free, snow-white, worldfamous, lifelong, English-speaking, noisekilling, hand-made, peace-loving, horsedrawn, fun-loving
三. 合成代词, 如: himself, herself, themselves, something, someone, anything, nobody 四. 合成动词, 如: overthrow, output, input, uphold, uplift, downgrade, sleep-walk, typewrite, brainwash, handpick精选, daydream, whitewash, deep-freeze 五. 合成副词, 如: meanwhile, midway, everywhere, somewhere, anyway, otherwise, sometime, beforehand, onshore, inside, offhand, headfirst头朝下地, daylong
构词法的综合练习 单项填空 1. That man was ________ enough not to tell the manager that he would not do the job. A. care B. B careful C. careless D. carelessness
2. The soldier died for saving the child, so his ____is heavier than Mount Tai. A. die B. dead C. died D. D death 3. We stood there _____ at the _____ sight. A. A frightened; frightful B. frightening; frightful C. fright; frightening D. frightful; fright
4. He is an expert at chemistry. We all call him a ________. A. chemistry B. chemical C. D. physician C chemist 5. The three- ________ chair isn’t suitable for a young child. He may fall off. A. legging B. B legged C. legs D. leged
6. Stephenson became the ________ railway engineer in the world. A. lead B. leader C. D. leadership C leading 7. When the teacher praised him for working out the maths problem, Jack looked ________ about at his classmates. A. proud B. B proudly C. pride D. pridely
8. To everyone’s ________, the girl finished the job quite well. A. satisfied B. satisfactory C. satisfying D. D satisfaction 9. No one should enter the spot without the ________ of the police. A. permit B. B permission C. permitting D. permittence
10. — What are you doing here? — Oh, my teacher asked me to write a passage about ________ in English. —You can write ________ passage in English? A. 600 words; a 600-words B. 600-word; a 600-words C. C 600 words; a 600-word D. 600 words; a 600-words
11. You must come with us to the police ________. Our head is waiting for you. A. B. headline A headquarters C. headmaster D. headache 12. Canada is mainly an ______ country. A. A English-speaking B. speak-English C. spoken-English D. English-spoken
13. His father possesses a ________ factory, which does most of the pollution to this river. A. paper-make B. B paper-making C. papers-made D. paper-made
14. The doctor said that the old man’s condition was ________ and that they had tried their best. A. hope B. hoped C. hopeful D. D hopeless 15. The black people were against slavery and fought for their ________ bravely. A. free B. freely C. D. frees C freedom
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