【英语卷·2014 届江苏省徐州市第一中学（徐州市）高三考前模拟（201405） 】C8 C Grasshoppers are having to change their song — one of the iconic sounds of summer — to make themselves heard above the noise of ro
ad traffic, ecologists have discovered. The study, published in the British Ecological Society's journal Functional Ecology, is the first to show that human-made noise affects natural insect populations. Animals use sound to communicate for many reasons, including marking out territory, warning of predators and finding mates, and although previous research shows birds, whales and even frogs change their calls in noisy environments, the impact of human-made noise on insects has been neglected until now. Ulrike Lampe and colleagues from the University of Bielefeld in Germany caught 188 male bow-winged grasshoppers, half from quiet locations and half from beside busy roads. The grasshoppers use their song to attract mates. The team then studied the differences in the two groups' songs in the laboratory. To encourage them to sing they exposed the males to a female grasshopper, and then recorded their courtship songs. Analysis of almost 1,000 recordings revealed grasshoppers living beside noisy roads produced different songs to those living in quieter locations. According to Lampe: "Bow-winged grasshoppers produce songs that include low and high frequency components. We found that grasshoppers from noisy habitats increase the volume of the lower-frequency part of their song, which makes sense since road noise can mask signals in this part of the frequency spectrum(频谱)." The team's findings are important because traffic noise could be upsetting the grasshopper's mating system(交配系统). "Increased noise levels could affect grasshopper courtship in several ways. It could preven t females from hearing male courtship songs properly, prevent females from recognising males of their own species, or impair females' ability to estimate how attractive a male is from his song," Lampe explains. Having discovered that human-made noise affects insect communication, the researchers now want to learn more about how the mechanism works, and whether the grasshoppers adapt to noise during their development as larvae （幼虫） , or whether males from noisy habitats produce different songs due to genetic differences. The bow-winged grasshopper is a common species in Central Europe. Adults occur mainly between July and September, preferring dry grasslands. Around 1.5 cm long, they vary in colour from green and browns to red and purple. The male's song consists of 2 second-long phrases that increase in amplitude (振幅) towards the end. The beginning of a phrase is characterised by slower ticking sounds that increase in speed and amplitude, leading to a buzzing sound towards the end of the phrase. A courtship song usually includes 2 phrases. 63. The author wrote the article to _________________. A. introduce how grasshoppers make noises to attract mates. B. raise the awareness of protecting bow-winged grasshoppers. C. inform us of a recent discovery of ecological research. D. warn us that human-made noise has changed ecological system. 64. Which of the following could be the main idea of the passage? A. Bow-winged grasshoppers use their songs to communicate. B. Grasshoppers change their songs to adapt to the noisy environment.
C. Grasshoppers’ songs include both low and high frequency components. D. Bow-winged grasshoppers are a common species in Central Europe. 65. What does the underlined word “impair” in the fourth paragraph mean? A. repair B. develop C. weaken D. improve 66. Which of the following statements is true according the passage? A. Road noise can cover the lower-frequency part of their song. B. Animals make sounds only for the purpose of finding mates. C. Grasshopper larvae learn to adapt to human-made noise. D. Bow-winged grasshoppers grow up into adults in spring. 【答案】 63.C 解析：写作意图 根据第 The study, published in the British Ecological Society's journal Functional Ecology, is the first to show that human-made noise affects natural insect populations. 可知目的是向我们介绍一个研究成果，故选 C 项。 64.B 解析：细节理解题。根据第一段提到 The study, published in the British Ecological Society's journal Functional Ecology, is the first to show that human-m ade noise affects natural insect populations.可知选 B 项。 65.C 解析：细节理解题。根据第四段提到 It could prevent females from hearing male courtship songs properly, prevent females from recognising males of their own species, or impair females' ability to estimate how attractive a male is from his song 如果阻止雄性听到雌性的歌曲，或减弱 他们的能力来评估一下雌性对雄性的吸引力，故选 C 项。 66.A 解析：细节推断题。根据第三段提到 We found that grasshoppers from noisy habitats increase the volume of the lower-frequency part of their song, which makes sense since road noise can mask signals in this part of the frequency spectrum(频谱)."可知选 A 项。 【解析 英语卷·2014 届湖南省长沙市高考模拟试卷（二模）试题（201404） 】C8 A Humans aren’t the only ones getting a buzz from coffee. Caffeine can improve memory among honeybees and lead to better pollination(授粉). According to a recent study published in the journal Science. The study was conducted by a team of researchers at Newcastle University in the United Kingdom. They found that the nectar(花蜜) of some flowers, such as those from grapefruit and lemon plants, as well as certain coffee flowers, contains low doses of caffeine. To get bees to feed on these flowers, the team trained the insects to associate food with the smell of the flowers. They also trained another group of bees to feed on nectar from flowers that were sweetened with a sugar, but did not contain caffeine. After 24 hours, the bees trained on caffeinated flowers returned to these plants three times as often as those trained on the sweetened flowers returned to the uncaffeinated plants. Professor Geraldine Wright led the researchers. “Remembering floral traits (花部特征) is difficult for bees to perform at a fast pace as they fly from flower to flower and we found that caffeine helps the bee remember where the flowers are,” Wright said in a statement. Improved memory led to the better pollination. That’s because once bees sip the caffeine nectar, they continue to look for more coffee plants to pollinate. This also suggests that caffeine plays a role in improving the bees’ ability to search for food. Researchers found that caffeine’s effect on the bee brain is similar to its effect on mammals. “The change is similar to that produced by caffeine in neurons (神经元)”associated with learning and memory in the rat brain,” Wright said.
Bee populations have declining since 2007. The dramatic drop in the insects’ numbers has serious effects for ecosystems and the farming industry. Bees are needed in the reproduction of crops and spreading wild flower species. Understanding what keeps bees buzzing could help to make sure that the insects are able to remember and pollinate their favorite flowers. 56. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage? A. Caffeine has no effect on the rat brain. B. Bee population has been increasing. C. The nectar of lemon plants contains caffeine. D. Bees dislike nectar from sweetened flowers. 解析：细节题。根据第二段第二句话：They found that the nectar(花蜜) of some flowers, such as those from grapefruit and lemon plants, as well as certain coffee flowers, contains low doses of caffeine.可以判断答案选 C。 技巧点拨：细节题一定要根据选项和题干定位出文章中的具体根据，然后进行认真比对。正 确选项就是对原文的同义改写或替换。 57. After reading the passage, John, who works in the farming industry, will probably feel ________. A. annoyed B. angry C. nervous D. excited 解析：态度推断题，根据文章最后一段可知，蜜蜂对生态和农业生产有比较大的影响，所以 当 John 读完这篇文章后当然是 excited 了，生活有希望了。选 D。 技巧点拨：作者的态度倾向往往隐含在文章中，而不会明确说明，因此态度倾向题也是比较 有难度的推理判断题型。这类题目一般分为两类：一是作者对某一具体事物的观点、看 法；另一类是作者对某一人、物的评价。议论文或记叙文往往考查作者的态度倾向。如 果是论文，应该抓住作者的论点和论据；如果是记叙文，应该特别注意作者总结性的文 字(文章最后，所提事物描述的后面)。 58. Which of the following relationship is correct according to the passage? A. improved memory — caffeine nectar — better pollination B. caffeine nectar — improved memory — better pollination C. improved memory — better pollination — caffeine nectar D. caffeine nectar — better poll ination — improved memory 解析：细节排序题，查看先后顺序，根据第三段（caffeine helps the bee remember where the flowers are,） 、和第四段第一句话（Improved memory led to the better pollination.） ，可知答案 选 B。 技巧点拨：细节题一定要根据选项和题干定位出文章中的具体根据，然后进行认真比对。从 而确定顺序。 59. We can know from the passage that ________. A. the rat is a mammal B. caffeine has nothing to do with memory C. bees are good at remembering floral traits D. Geraldine Wright did the research on his own 解析：细节推断题，根据文章第五段第一话中 caffeine’s effect on the bee brain is similar to its effect on mammals. 后面又列举了 rat 的例子，那么就非常自然的选 A 了，老鼠是哺乳动物。 技巧点拨：细节推断题必须找到具体的根据，然后再此基础上进行推断，防止无端推断或推 断 过头。 60. What section of a newspaper may this passage be taken from? A. Science B. Education C. Culture D. Sports 解析：推断题，根据文章内容 Caffeine can improve memory among honeybees and lead to better pollination(授粉).可以判断选 A。
【英语卷·2014 届安徽省合肥市高三第二次教学质量检测】C8 C（2014·合肥第二次质检） Eyeglasses correct many different types of sight problems, including nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism (散光). Trying to understand those different numbers on an eyeglass prescription (验光 单 ) requires understanding the measurements optometrists (验光师) use when fitting you for corrective lenses (镜片). Diopters (屈光度) The numbers on your prescription are given in diopters, whose short form is "D". It is used to measure the focusing power, or amount of correction. O.S. and O.D. Optometrists use the Latin short form O.S. and O.D. to distinguish between your eyes. O.S. refers to your left eye, while O.D. refers to the right eye. Generally, your prescription will show a number for O.S. and O.D. (given in diopters). The farther this number is on a number line from zero, the more correction your eyeglasses should provide. A plus sign means the eye is farsighted, while a minus sign means the eye is nearsighted. Spherical Value This plus or minus number for each eye is called the spherical value, or the degree of nearsightedness or farsightedness you have. Its short form is "S." Cylinder If you have an astigmatism, the optometrist will also measure its degree. The higher the number (given in diopters) marked as the cylinder of astigmatism, (its short form is "C"), the more astigmatism there is in that eye. Axis An astigmatism is also measured in terms of its axis, which is a number between 0 and 180. The axis of the astigmatism does not relate to the amount of cylinder, just the location of the irregularity of the astigmatism on that particular eye. 64. According to the first paragraph, various sight problems ______. A. should be understood by the patients B. can be avoided by wearing corrective lenses C. should be tested by different optometrists D. can be corrected by wearing eyeglasses 65. If you need a pair of corrective lenses, the optometrist will first value the numbers of ______. A. Diopters B. Spherical Value C. Cylinder D. Axis 66. From the prescription above we can learn that Li Hua ______. A. is farsighted B. is nearsighted C. has no astigmatism D. is normal in sight 67. The text is probably taken from ______. A. an education report B. a school bulletin C. a local newspaper D. an encyclopedia (百科全书) 【文章解读】文章介绍了怎样看验光师处方上面的符号和数字是什么含义，让人们更好的了 解自己的眼镜，从而配一副适合自己的眼镜。
64. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】 D 第一段第一句 Eyeglasses correct many different types of sight problems.许多 不同类型的眼睛问题都可以通过带眼镜矫正过来。.直接选 D 65. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】A 第二段 The numbers on your prescription are given in diopters, 可直接选 A。 66. 【知识点】判断推理题 【答案解析】B 根据第四段最后一句 A plus sign means the eye is farsighted, while a minus sign means the eye is nearsighted.加号是远视，减号是近视。李华的处方中 Os 和 Od 的数据都 是减号，可知李华是近视。选 B 67. 【知识点】文章出处题 【答案解析】D 文章介绍了怎样看验光师处方上面的符号和数字是什么含义，让人们更 好的了解自己的眼镜，从而配一副适合自己的眼镜。可知百科全书。选 D
【英语卷·2014 届黑龙江省大庆铁人中学高三考前模拟冲刺（201405） 解析】C8 B It is generally believed that we are getting cleaned when we step under a shower. We are, but we’re also giving a home to lots of tiny little creatures we didn’t even know about. A showerhead carries thousands of bacteria(细菌) called Mycobacterium. These can cause problems like coughs and tiredness, and a general feeling of being sick. When you turn on the water, the bacteria go from the showerhead onto and into your body. This is a finding of Norman R. Pace and his team at the University of Colorado, in the US. Pace’s team looked at 45 showerheads in nine American cities. They discovered that 30 percent of them had large amounts of flying Mycobacterium. But Pace said that they pose few threats to the health．Only those with a weak immune system might need to worry．He told the New York Times that the bacteria are not as unpleasant as might be thought．He said that having a shower is no more dangerous than anything else we do in the morning． But for those who feel sick about the idea of all those microorganisms(微生物), he had some advice. Let the water run for 30 seconds before getting into the shower. Why? The number of bacteria is smaller than that when the water is just turned on. If that seems like a waste of water, he added that you could also change your showerhead every few months. However, Pace had good news, too. He has also been testing the air in US subways. Apart from iron particles(粒子), which are ground off the track by the wheels of trains, subway air is fresh. The reason is that a train’s movement pumps fresh outdoor air into the tunnels. 25. From the finding of Norman R. Pace, after taking a shower, we might cough or feel tired because _______. A. it’s easy to get a cold when taking a bath. B. the showerhead carries many bacteria causing illness C. we don’t get cleaned while showering D. we don’t get a weak immune system 26. We can learn from the third paragraph that ________. A. having a shower in the morning is more dangerous than at other time B. the bacteria always threat people’s health when people have a shower
C. people with strong immune system needn’t fear microorganisms D. it is better to do some exercise in the morning than have a shower 27. The underlined word “pose” in the third paragraph probably means “________”. A. give birth to B. take charge of C. watch out for D. get away with 28. What leads to fresh air in US subways ? A. The train’s movement. B. Iron particles. C. Train wheels. C. Air conditioners on the trains.
【英语卷·2014 届重庆市高三考前模拟试题（201404）word 版解析】 C8 E What is the nature of the scientific attitude, the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics, biology, chemistry, geology, engineering, medicine or any other science? We all know that science plays an important role in the societies in which we live. A great many people believe, however, that the progress of civilization depends on two different aspects of science. The first of these is the application of the machines, products and systems of applied knowledge that scientists and technologists develop, through which we improves the structure of society and helps man to gain increasing control over his environment. The second aspect is the application by all members of society of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work. What are these special methods of thinking and acting? First of all, it seems that a successful scientist is full of curiosity he wants to find out how and why the universe works. He usually directs his attention towards problems which he notices have no satisfactory explanation, and his curiosity makes him look for underlying relationships even if the data available seem to be unconnected. Moreover, he thinks he can improve the existing conditions and enjoys trying to solve the problems which this involves.
He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective and applies logical thought to the observations he makes. He uses the facts he observes to the fullest extent. For example, trained observers obtain a very large amount of information about a star mainly from the accurate analysis of the simple lines that appear in a spectrum(光谱). He is always skeptical--he does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available--and therefore rejects authority as the only basis for truth. Scientists always check statements and make experiments carefully and objectively to test them. These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts. 52. According to the first paragraph, many people hold the view that A. scientists from different fields have different scientific attitudes B. the attitude of scientists contributes to the development of society C. the application of scientific knowledge determines scientific attitude D. all members of a society should use scientific discoveries in their work 53. What can we know about curiosity? A. It provides successful scientists satisfactory explanation. B. It gives rise to an interest in interpersonal relationship. C. It leads to efforts to investigate potential connections; D. It encourages scientists to look for new ways of acting. 54. A successful scientist would A. always question unchecked statements B. easily cooperate with other researchers C. always use imagination in his work D. reject the evidence from the authority 55. The best tide would be A. The Application of Science B. The Nature of Applied Science C. How Scientists Think and Act D. How Can We Develop Science 【全品解析】 E 【文章解读】本文是一篇科普环保类说明文，说明了科学在社会中起着重要的作用，然而 许多人认为，我们的进取取决于科学的两个不同的方面，第一个方面是机器的应用，产品知 识，科学家和技术人人员开发系统。二是思想和行为为科学家在研究中使用特殊方法的应用 52. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】B 由第一段第四 A great many people believe, however, that the progress of civilization depends on two different aspects of science..可以知道答案，故选 B。 53. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】C 由第二段第二句 He usually directs his attention towards problems which he notices have no satisfactory explanation, （排除 A） and his curiosity makes him look for underlying relationships （潜在的关系 排除 B）even if the data available seem to be unconnected.可以推出答案，故选 C。 54. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】 A 由第四段最后一句 He is always skeptical--he does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available 可以知道答 案，故选 A。B、C 没有提及 rejects authority（拒绝权威） as the only basis for truth 由此可知 D 答案理解片面。选 A 55. 【知识点】主旨大意题（标题确定题）
【答案解析】 C 第一段最后一句 the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work.第二段第一句 What are these special methods of thinking and acting? 文章最后一句 These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts.故选 C。 【考点点拨】这种题一般都可以在第一段与最后一段找到答案。很多时候是第一段第一 句或最后一句。记叙文则多在最后一段。抓住段落或文章主题的捷径之一就是在段落或文章 中寻找主题句。 主题句是指能表达或概况段落主题或文章主要内容的句子， 通常是一个简洁、 完整、具有概况性的句子，较多出现在说明文和议论文中，而其他句子则围绕着主题句展开 进行说明解释或扩展。 主题句在文中的位置: 1) 开门见山：提出主题----细节支撑阐明主题 2) 段末点睛：细节描述----归纳要点---概括主题 3) 段中点旨：细节描述---归纳主题---进一步解释 4) 无主题句:考生需根据文章中所叙述的事实或提供的线索来概括和总结文章的大意
【英语卷·2014 届重庆市高三考前模拟试题（201404）word 版解析】 C8 C Werewolves(狼人) aren't the only creatures thrown off by the moon's cycles. A full moon subtly disrupts people's sleep, reports a Swiss team of scientists. Even people dozing(打盹儿}l,) in a lab without windows experienced a small shortfall in sleep once a month. To test the moon's effect, 33 adult volunteers of both sexes and various ages spent several nights in a sleep lab. As they dozed, researchers monitored their brain activity, eye movements and hormone(荷尔蒙) levels. On nights closer to a full moon, the subjects took an average of five minutes longer to fall asleep, and slept for 20 minutes less. In addition, brain activity decreased by 30 percent during the sleep stage that the brain normally uses to recover from its daylight work. And levels of melatonin, the hormone that helps control sleep cycles, dropped. On these nights, the sleepers complained of poor sleep quality even though they were unaware of the lunar cycle. On the bright side, not a single participant turned into a werewolf. These new data suggest the moon's cycles can subtly affect sleep cycles. These internal cycles may be similar to the roughly 24-hour rhythms driven by the body's internal "clock". One big difference: The body's clock is set by sunlight. The Swiss team doesn't know how the moon affects sleep. The gravitational attraction of the moon causes ocean tides to rise and fall. But that force is too weak to affect sleep, Cajochen says. He suspects some internal body clock may be tied to the moon cycles. Lunar cycles have been noted in sea animals that keep track of the tides. There may be another explanation, says David Dinges. This sleep researcher at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia says that the body clock is very sensitive to light at night. Volunteers' sleep could have been altered by exposure to extra moonlight before arriving at the lab. 44. The writer mentioned "werewolves" in the first paragraph? A. give an example of the existence of the moon's cycle B. draw people's attention to the finding of the research C. warn people of the danger of sleeping alone in a lab D. find the similarity between werewolves and humans 45. What happened to the volunteers during the experiment on a full moon?
A. They slept for about five minutes longer than usual. B. Their brains were not so active as they normally were. C. Their brains never recovered from the daylight work. D. They complained that they were too tired to sleep. 46. The last paragraph is mainly developed by A. analyzing causes C. examining differences 47. The passage is mainly about A. the moon and its effects on our sleeping habits B. the causes of people's sleeping problems C. the possible reasons why sleep suffers once a month D. the ways to improve our sleep quality on a full moon
B. making comparisons D. following the time order
【全品解析】 44. 【知识点】判断推理题 【答案解析】B 第一段 Werewolves(狼人) aren't the only creatures thrown off by the moon's cycles…从狼人讲到人也受到月球周期的影响。第二段 To test the moon's effect 可知选 B。 45. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】B 第二段 brain activity decreased by （减少了）30 percent during the sleep stage that the brain normally uses to recover from its daylight work. 可知 B 正确。the subjects took an average of five minutes longer to fall asleep 被试者平 均用了 5 分多钟入睡 A （测试者比平时多睡了 5 分钟） 错误 the sleepers complained of poor sleep quality 抱怨睡眠质量不好 D 错 46. 【知识点】篇章结构题 【答案解析】A how the moon affects sleep. some internal body clock may be tied to the moon cycles. There may be another explanation,可判断出主要是分析影响睡眠的 原因。选 A。 47. 【知识点】主旨大意题 【答案解析】C A full moon subtly disrupts people's sleep, 满月巧妙地会打乱人 们的睡眠 These new data suggest the moon's cycles can subtly affect sleep cycles. 月亮的周期可以潜移默化地影响睡眠周期 可知选 C
【英语卷（解析） ·2014 届江西省师大附中高三三模考试（201405） 】C8 C Running like the wind, roaring (咆哮) like thunder, tigers have long been feared and respected as a king of the animal world. But last week a report said that there are no more than 30 wild tigers left in south China. This was the conclusion of a team of scientists from China's State Forestry Administration and the World Nature Fund. The South China tiger, also known as the Chinese tiger, is native to southern China. In the 1950's, there were over 4000 tigers found in mountain forests in the country. But due to the
destruction of their natural habitat and uncontrolled hunting, it has been pushed on to the list of the world's top ten most endangered species. Sixty-six of the big cats can be found in the c ages of a dozen zoos around China. But they are nothing like their wild cousins. They have lost their natural skills such as hunting and killing. If they were set free they could not look after themselves. “Breeding has damaged the quality of the species”， said Pei Enle, deputy director of the Shanghai Zoo. To reintroduce the species into the wild, the country started a programme to send five to ten young tigers to South Africa. Four of them have already arrived. Progress has been made as two elder tigers have recovered some of their instincts(本能) and can hunt wild animals by themselves at the African base. “South Africans are very experienced in reintroducing big animals to the wild. The country has very good natural conditions for the tigers to learn in”， said Lu Jun, office director of the National Wildlife Research and Development Center.“We tried in Fujian Province, but it was not successful as there was not a complete eco-chain(生物链) and there was a lack of space.” The tigers should return to China in 2007 when the reservations in Fujian are ready. 66． What is the main reason for the South China tiger becoming one of the world's top ten most endangered species? A. Because it has lost its natural instincts. B. Because there is not a complete ecochain. C. Because there is no space for it. D .Because uncontrolled hunting has destroyed its natural living conditions. 67．How is the programme of sending several tigers to South Africa getting on? A. Its effect still remains to be seen. B. Two tigers can already compete with their wild cousins. C. Some of the tigers are already on the road to recovering their natural skills. D. The tigers should be able to recover their instincts completely by 2007. 68．By saying “but they are nothing like their wild cousins”， the writer means that________. A. they are no longer feared by other wild animals B. they don't know how to hunt or kill C. a complete change has resulted in the species because of breeding D. to reintroduce them into the wild has become an urgent task 69．What is the purpose of sending young tigers to South Africa?
A. To help the tigers recover their ability to live in the wild. B. To provide them with a better environment. C. To get the tigers to go on a tour. D. To find a complete eco-chain for them. 70．Which one is NOT the reason for South Africa being chosen as the training place? A. Because the tigers can hunt wild animals by themselves at the African base. B. Because South Africans are skilled at dealing with the tigers. C. Because there is a complete eco-chain and enough space there. D. Because the country has good natural conditions for the tigers to learn in. 【答案】 66. D。解析：细节题，根据文章第一段 But due to the destruction of their natural habitat and uncontrolled hunting, it has been pushed on to the list of the world's top ten most endangered species.可知。 67. C。解析：细节题，根据文中倒数第三段的 Progress has been made as two elder tigers have recovered some of their instincts(本能) and can hunt wild animals by themselves at the African base 可知这些老虎正在逐渐恢复自然本性，故选 C。。 68. B。解析：细节题，根据文中该句话后的 They have lost their natural skills such as hunting and killing 可知选 B。。 69.A。 解析： 细节推断题， 根据文中第六段的 To reintroduce the species into the wild, the country started a programme to send five to ten young tigers to South Africa 判断为了这些老虎恢复本性 故选 A。 70.A． 解析： 推断题。 根据文中最后一段的 South Africans are very experienced in reintroducing big animals to the wild.排除 B；根据 The country has very good natural conditions for the tigers to learn in”排除 D；根据 We tried in Fujian Province, but it was not successful as there was not a complete eco-chain(生物链) and there was a lack of space 推断排除 C。由此判断选 A。
【英语卷（解析） ·2014 届宁夏银川一中高三下学期第三次模拟考试（201405） 】C8 C Everybody needs blood Have you ever seen buses on the street for donating blood? Medical workers on board collect blood from volunteers. The blood is then stored up and given to people who have lost a large amount of it due to accidents or diseases. Blood is one of the most important substances (物质) supporting our lives. But for now, the only way we can get more of it is through donation. And donated blood has its own problems. First of all, certain blood types are extremely rare. Type O negative blood (O-), for example, only exists in 7 percent of people, according to Sunday Times. There are fewer donors and therefore there isn’t enough of this type of blood for everybody who needs it. In addition, donated blood comes from various people, which means that it has to be examined carefully for disease such as hepatitis (肝炎) and HIV to make sure that it’s safe for transfusion.
This is why scientists all over the world have been trying to make blood in labs. And now, someone finally succeeded—Marc Turner at the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service has produced blood fit for transfusion, reported Forbes. Unlike many other scientists, who have tried to make blood substitutes by mixing up
different ingredients together, Turner chose to grow blood directly from human stem cells (干细胞). He developed a special technique to create a chemical environment similar to that in our bone marrow (骨髓). This environment encourages stem cells to develop fully into red blood cell. According to Turner, his version of artificial blood is unlikely to contain disease viruses or produce side effects. And the best part is that what he managed to produce was type O- blood. Not only is it a rare blood type, it’s also a universal type, which means it can be transfused into any patient. The new blood is scheduled for human tests in 2016. However, Turner stressed that the new study should not be taken as a signal for people to stop donating blood because it could be another 20 years before the artificial blood can be manufactured on a large scale. “It is one thing to bake a cake and another thing to bake a cake 100 times the size,” said Turner. “It’s not just a matter of putting in 100 times the ingredients.” 28．According to the text, a potential danger of blood transfusion is that_____. A. it is impossible to store up large amounts of blood B. blood transfusion may lead to some terrible infections C. it is very hard to find matches for certain blood types D. blood transfusion often leads to serious side effects 29．The study Marc Turner did is different from those of many other scientists in that _____. A. he grew artificial blood using human stem cells B. he was able to discover the special function of type O- blood C. he produced the first artificial blood in the world D. he used special ingredients to produce artificial blood cells 30．We can know from the text that__________. A. people with type O- blood can receive blood transfusion from anyone B. the practice of blood transfusion will end in 20 years C. the new blood produced by Turner has been experimented on human beings D. the artificial blood produced by Turner will be a safe and universal type 31. Which of the following words best describes Turner’s attitude towards the application of his artificial blood? A. Pessimistic. 解析： 28.选 B。 细节题， 根据第二段最后一句话： In addition, donated blood comes from various people, B. Doubtful. C. Cautious. D. Uninterested.
which means that it has to be examined carefully for disease such as hepatitis (肝炎) and HIV to make sure that it’s safe for transfusion.中的 which means that it has to be examined carefully for disease such as hepatitis (肝炎) and HIV to make sure that it’s safe for transfusion 可知“输血”是 会感染肝炎和艾滋 29.选 A。 细节题， 根据第四段第一句话： Unlike many other scientists, who have tried to make blood substitutes by mixing up different ingredients together, Turner chose to grow blood directly from human stem cells (干细胞).可知 Turner 直接从人类干细胞中造血，即培植造血干细胞。这是不 同于其他科学家的。 30.选 D。综合细节题，根据第五段第一句话：his version of artificial blood is unlikely to contain disease viruses or produce side effects.可知 Turner 的人造血是安全的， 没有病毒和副作用。 根据 第三句话：Not only is it a rare blood type, it’s also a universal type, 可知他的人造血是一种通用 形式，任何人都可以接受。故选 D。 31.选 C。态度推断题，本题型要基于描述态度、看法、观点的词句，根据文章最后一段可知 答案。再需二十年才能大规模生产人造血，尽管现在已经发明了，那么不就是小心谨慎了吗？
【解析英语卷·2014 届福建省漳州市八校高三第四次联考（201405） 】C8 D People in several American states may be surprised to see cars on city streets without a driver. Experimental driverless vehicles now are legal in Florida, Nevada and California. They are pointing the way to a future that is not far down the road. The high-tech company Google has a number of self-driving cars, which had covered 480,000 kilometers by August. Volvo is among the companies doing road tests and says it plans to sell driverless cars by 2020. In September, California Governor Jerry Brown signed an act to allow autonomous vehicles on the roads of his state. " Today we're looking at science fiction becoming tomorrow's reality-the driverless car. " The technology for these cars includes cameras, radar and motion sensors. The systems have been improved through competitions sponsored by the U. S. government agency DARPA. Engineer Richard Mason of the Rand Corporation helped design driverless vehicles for DARPA challenge races. Cars have become much more fuel-efficient, and new electronic features are' making Hondas safer, said Angie Nucci of Honda America. " A camera on the passenger-side mirror actually engaged on your guiding screen so you can safely change lanes. " Other safety features include warning systems on the front and the sides of the car s. These systems help drivers , but don't replace them. Curator Leslie Kendall of the Petersen Automotive Museum said autonomous cars will make the high ways safer． "By taking out drivers, you also remove most risks of an accident," Kendall said. He said consumers, however, may be unwilling to lose control. "It may take them time to come to realize that the technology is indeed reliable, but it will have to prove itself first. " Mason said the technology already works and the biggest challenge now is getting down the cost for driverless vehicles from hundreds of thousands of dollars to something more affordable. He said this will happen as the technology is improved.
68. What can we learn from Paragraph l? A. Driverless vehicles are now legal in the whole USA. B. Volvo will be the first to sell driverless cars. C. Driverless cars are pointing us' a faraway future. D. Google's self-driving cars have covered a long distance. 69 .We learn that Governor of California Jerry Brown_________. A. helped design self-driving cars. B. supports self-driving cars on roads. C. considers self-driving cars science fiction. D. improved the self-driving car systems. 70. What is the role of the systems mentioned in Paragraph 3? A. They can help people drive more safely. B. They can take the place of drivers now. C. They can make cars run without fuel. D. They can help cars run much faster. 71. According to Richard Mason, what is the biggest challenge for driverless cars? A. They are not allowed to run on the road. B. Their technical problems remain to be solved. C. They are now too expensive for consumers. D. They are more dangerous for people on the street. 【文章解读】文章介绍无人驾驶汽车已经经过研发阶段，现在正在试用阶段，在不久的将来 无人驾驶汽车将不是科幻而成为现实。文章还介绍了这些汽车的系统设计和有待改进的地方。 68. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】 D 从第一段的句子： The high-tech company Google has a number of self-driving cars, which had covered 480,000 kilometers by August.可知谷歌的无人驾驶车已经可以 开很长距离，选 D 69. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】 B 从文章第二段的句子： In September, California Governor Jerry Brown signed an act to allow autonomous vehicles on the roads of his state. 可知加力福利亚的州 长 Jerry Brown 支持无人驾驶汽车上路，选 B 70. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】A 从文章第三段的句子：A camera on the passenger-side mirror actually engaged on your guiding screen so you can safely change lanes. " Other safety features include warning systems on the front and the sides of the cars. 可知这些系统的作 用是它们可以帮助人们更安全的驾驶，选 A 71. 【知识点】细节题 【答案解析】C 从文章最后一段的句子：Mason said the technology already works and the biggest challenge now is getting down the cost for driverless vehicles from hundreds of thousands of dollars to something more affordable.可知 Richard Mason 认为无人驾 驶汽车最大的挑战是它们现在对消费者来说太贵了。选 C
【英语卷（解析） ·2015 届四川省成都市 2 高三摸底（零诊）考试（201407）word 版】C8 E British scientists say they have developed a new material called Armourgel that could help protect older adults from breaking bones when they fall. Scientists say it is soft enough to be put in normal everyday clothing. As people get older, many of them develop the disease osteoporosis（骨质疏松症） ．It makes their bones so weak that even a minor fall can cause a bone to break．In some cases, older adults can die from breaking bones or from problems resulting from them． Armourgel is a combination of two new man-made materials． These materials quickly take in or absorb energy when they hit something, this protects whatever is behind the material． "It's sof t and flowable so it moves with the musculature of the body but when you impact it it momentarily goes rigid,"（僵硬的）said Daniel Plant, the leading researcher,and his team have joined the material with a substance whose cells collapse when they are hit． Daniel Plant says, it is the combination of these materials that makes Armourgel special．The new product is said to be much thinner than other protective materials currently being sold． However, “Bone protectors, no matter how good, are not the best solution．"The key is to prevent the bones from losing their mineral content, staying healthy．And then even if you fall, you won't break your bone," said Gambert． 47．The passage mainly talks about . A．some British scientists B．a medical experiment C．a new bone protector D ． ways to protect the old 48．What makes Armourgel different from other protective materials? A．The light weight of the materials. B．The combination of some materials. C．The adoption of advanced technology. D．The convenience for the old adults to use it. 49．What does doctor Gambert talk about in the last paragraph? A．How to prevent the old from falling down. B．How to stay healthy when we are getting old. C．The key point to prevent bones from breaking. D．The difference of a newspaper can we read the passage? 50．In which section of a newspaper can we read the passage? A．Sports. B．Health. C．People. D．Education. 解析： 47.选 C，主旨题，根据文章第一段：British scientists say they have developed a new material called Armourgel that could help protect older adults from breaking bones when they fall. Scientists say it is soft enough to be put in normal everyday clothing.一般情况下文章第一段所提到的事物 或事件是文章所主要说明的对象。 48.选 B，细节题，第五段第一句话：Daniel Plant says, it is the combination of these materials that makes Armourgel special． 49.选 C，细节题，根据最后一段第二句话：The key is to prevent the bones from losing their
mineral content, staying healthy． 50.选 B，由于文章谈论的是一种保护老年人骨折的新材料，所以文章应当会出自于报纸的 健康板块。
【英语卷（解析） ·2015 届四川省成都市 2 高三摸底（零诊）考试（201407）word 版】C8 D The Ivy League is a name for eight schools in the northeastern America. All but one were established many years ago, when England had colonies in this area. The oldest schools are Harvard Yale, Columbia, Dartmouth, Princeton, Brown and University of Penn. The newest is Cornell founded in 1865. Originally ,the term Ivy League was used to describe a sports grouping of the eight schools . And many language experts believe that the term first appeared in the media. In the 1930s a ports reporter called the schools in the grouping, the "Ivy League．s" The group also had an unofficial name -- "The Ancient Eight．" Now both names are used． Why the reporter used the term is not completely clear．Some people say the term is linked to the ivy plant．And ivy does cover some of the grounds and buildings at the schools．Other people say the term dates back to when only four of the schools were part of the sports group．Because in Roman numerals, the number “4” was written in letters “I” and "V． " However, most historians say that explanation is incorrect． The term Ivy League is sometimes said in a disapproving way．Some people think the eight sch ools and their students value themselves too highly．Admission to the schools is very competitive ．Only as little as 7% of students who seek admission are accepted. The educational offerings of Ivy League schools are considered among the best and most demanding in the world．On the one hand ,all the eight schools are also private and extremely costly．A four year degree from Harvard, for example, can cost more than$2000,000 On the other hand, however, admission equality opens its door for all top students around the world. 43．Which of the following universities has the shortest history? A．Brown University. B．University of Penn. C．Cornell University. D．Harvard University. 44．It’s believed that the person who first used the term Ivy League was . A．a sportsman B．a journalist C．a language expert D．a historian 45．When introducing Ivy League schools, the writer speaks . A．curiously B．proudly C．happily D．objectively 46．It can be inferred that . A．Ivy League refers to the eight schools’ sports clu bs B．the English founded the first eight Ivy League schools C．excellent students have equal chances to study in Ivy League D．the origin of the term Ivy League has become acceptable to all 解析 43.选 C，细节题，根据第一段最后一句话：The newest is Cornell founded in 1865. 44.选 B，细节题，根据第二段第二三句话：And many language experts believe that the term first appeared in the media. In the 1930s a ports report er called the schools in the grouping, the "Ivy League．
45.选 D，作者的态度是客观地，既没有褒也没有贬。只是陈述事实。 46.选 C，推断题，根据最后一段最后一句话：A four year degree from Harvard, for example, can cost more than$2000,000 On the other hand, however, admission equality opens its door for all top students around the world.
【英语卷 （解析） · 2014 届山东省日照一中 （日照市） 高三 5 月校际联合检测 （二模） （201405） 】 C8 E The preventive measures for forest fires include some preemptive(抢先)methods that can help reduce the risks of fires and control their severity and spread， and thus, maintain ecological balance and protect resources．Close monitoring of forest fires caused by natural factors can help prevent their spread to a large extent．To contain forest fires，fire departments usually use water and chemical fire retardants(抑制剂)that can be dropped from planes and helicopters．To control the spread of a wildfire．firefighters usually create a control line by removing all fuel from an area so that the fire cannot travel across it． Controlled burns are often employed by government authorities to reduce fuel buildup，and clean up the fallen leaves，and thus，prevent the spread of forest fires to a vast area．Regular controlled burns can also help maintain biodiversity(生物多样性)， as the smoke and heat produced in the process can facilitate(促进)the growth of seeds of certain plant species．Apart from these， responsible human behavior can help reduce the number of forest fires to a great extent．In fact， we can reduce the number of wildfires dramatically by not leaving behind any source of fire in the forest. Forest fires can affect climate and weather to a great extent， besides causing severe damage to valuable trees．Wildfires can increase the level of greenhouse gases(water vapor, carbon dioxide， etc)， and therefore increase pollution and global warming． However, they are also an important part of the ecosystem，and many plants depend on the heat and smoke generated by wildfires for their growth and reproduction．But large wildfires can cause extensive damage to the ecosystem，which again highlights the importance of effective control and prevention of forest fires· 61．What may be the best title for this passage? A．Control and Prevention of Forest Fires B．How to Keep Ecological Balance C．Effects of Forest Fires D．Methods of Fire Spread Control 62．Firefighters get rid of all fuel in all area in order to ____________． A．keep close monitoring of forest fires B．prevent the forest fire from occurring C．protect the animals there D．stop the wildfire from spreading 63．The government arranges some controlled burns to_______________． A．burn the rubbish and keep the forest clean B．help keep ecological balance of nature C．reduce fuel buildup and limit forest fires spread
D．provide reasonable conditions for some plants’growth 64．A controlled forest fire may play a positive role because ________________. A．a new forest will appear soon B．it promotes the development of some seeds C．nature keeps its balance only by wildfires D．it makes the trees grow faster than before 65．The last paragraph tells us that _______________． A．the greenhouse gases are caused mainly by wildfires B．wildfires have both positive and negative effects C．people should be aware of the necessity of wildfires D．all the valuable trees disappear owing to wildfires 【答案】 61.A。解析：主旨大意题。文章从对林火的预防和发生后如何控制两方面做了介绍，所以 A 项最能全面概括文章内容。 62.D。 解析： 细节理解题。 从文章第一段最后一句 “…control the spread of a wildfire, firefighters usually create a control line by removing all fuel from an area so that the fire cannot travel across it.” 得知。 63.C。解析：细节理解题。从第二段“…and thus, prevent the spread of forest fires to a vast area” 得知。 64.B。解析：细节理解题。从第二段“controlled burns can also help maintain biodiversity”以及 最后一段“and many plants depend on the heat and smoke generated by wildfires for their growth and reproduction”得知。 65.B。解析：推理归纳题。该段介绍了林火的危害：affect climate and weather，increase the level of greenhouse gases， cause extensive damage to the ecosystem 等； 但也有积极的一面： they are also an important part of the ecosystem。所以 B 项客观得对 forest fires 做了表述。
C We all know how a photocopier works: you press a button and a copy of a page comes out. Simple! 3D printers work on a similar basis…but instead of printing out a page, you get a 3D copy of a real object. But just how practical are they? You can make just about anything with a 3D printer as long as it ’s plastic: cups, toys, plates, bottles, spoons, knives…Scientists are even experimenting with 3-D printing techniques to create replacement body parts (including ears and noses) and possibly even internal organs one day. 3D printers can also be used to make complex machines. For example, Ivan Sentch of Auckland, New Zealand, printed off car parts so he could build a replica of an Aston Martin D84 sports car. And high tech gunsmith group Defense Distributed built and test-fired the world’s first 3D-printed firearm. So, how practical are 3D printers? Unfortunately, there are several issues. For a start, they’re pretty expensive. Even a fairly basic one can cost about $1,000, with more complex versions costing up to $500,000! 3D printers are also pretty difficult to use. Unless you’re really into technology, you’re going to have a hard time with them. On
top of that, 3D printers can’t create fully-formed gadgets( 小配件 )complete with moving parts. To do that, you’ve got to print off the parts, then put them together yourself, adding in anything that can’t be printed: screws (metal ones), rubber bands, circuit boards…and so on. Finally, there are also potential legal issues. Will we be able to print off Lego blocks for our kids? And what about spare parts for the dishwasher, or a new handle for the fridge? The companies who own the copyright for these products won ’t be happy about this, and could start legal proceedings for copyright infringement. 53. What does the author mainly want to tell us in the passage? A. To inform the readers what is a 3D printer B. To remind the readers 3D printers are becoming more and more popular C. To tell the readers the advantages and disadvantages of 3D printers D. To discuss the usage of a 3D printer 54. The underlined word “replica” in Paragraph 2 probably means “________”. A. part B. copy C. print D. picture 55. Which of the following statement is true? A. With a 3D printer, you can make just about anything. B. With 3-D printer, scientists can create replacement body parts now. C. Lego may accuse you if you print off Lego blocks for you kids. D. It ’s not very difficult to use the 3D printers. 56. What the writer ’s attitude towards 3D printers? A. positive B. critical C. indifferent D. neutral 53. 【知识点】主旨大意题
【答案解析】 C 从每段句首判断。 第二段第一句 You can make just about anything with a 3D
printer…讲述 3D 打印的优点；第三段 Unfortunately, there are several issues 和第四 段 Finally, there are also potential legal issues.讲述了它的缺点，选 C。 54. 【知识点】词义推断题 【答案解析】B 第二段 For example, Ivan Sentch of Auckland, New Zealand, printed off car parts so he could build a replica of an Aston Martin D84 sports car.选 B，复制品。 55. 【知识点】细节理解题 【答案解析】C 第二段第一句 You can make just about anything with a 3D printer as long as… 从句子后面 as long as(只要)判断出 A 错误；第二段第二句 Scientists are even experimenting with 3-D printing techniques to create replacement body parts (including ears and noses) and possibly even internal organs one day.可知是 one day , 而不是 now,排除 B；第三段 3D printers are also pretty difficult to use.排除 D；最后 一段 Finally, there are also potential legal issues. Will we be able to print off Lego blocks for our kids?...可知选 C。 56. 【知识点】观点态度题 【答案解析】D positive 积极的，critical 批判的，indifferent 漠不关心的， neutral 中立的。整篇文章，作者从客观的角度介绍了 3D 打印技术的优点和缺点，选 D。
【考点点拨】作者态度题的解题技巧 作者对某一事物的看法,要么支持,要么反对,要 么带中立色彩，漠不关心类词语一定不对,既然
写文章就不会不关心；不要把自己的态度揉入其中,也要区分开作者的态度和作者引用的别人 的态度 ；当作者的态度没有明确提出时 ,要学会根据作者使用词语的褒贬性去判断作者的态 度。
【英语卷·2014 届江西省师大附中、鹰潭一中高三 5 月联考（201405） 解析】C8
How could we possibly think that keeping animals in cages in unnatural environments－mostly for entertainment purposes－is fair and respectful? Zoo officials say they are concerned about animals. However, most zoos remain “collections” of interesting “things” rather than protective habitats. Zoos teach people that it is acceptable to keep animals bored, lonely, and far from their natural homes. Zoos claim to educate people and save endangered species, but visitors leave zoos without having learned anything meaningful about the animals’ natural behavior, intelligence, or beauty. Zoos keep animals in small spaces or cages, and most signs only mention the species’ name, diet, and natural range(分布区). The animals’ normal behavior is seldom noticed because zoos don’t usually take care of the animals’ natural needs. The animals are kept together in small spaces, with no privacy and little opportunity for mental and physical exercise. This results in unusually and self-destructive behavior called zoochosis. A worldwide study of zoos found that zoochosis is common among animals kept in small spaces or cages. Another study showed that elephants spend 22 percent of their time making repeated head movements or biting cage bars, and bears spend 30 percent of their time walking back and forth, a sign of unhappiness and pain. Furthermore, most animals in zoos are not endangered. Captive breeding( 圈养繁殖 ) of endangered big cats. Asian elephants, and other species has not resulted in their being sent back to the wild. Zoos talk a lot about their captive breeding programs because they do not want people to worry about a species dying out. In fact, baby animals also attract a lot of paying customers. Haven’t we seen enough competitions to name baby animals? Actually, we will save endangered species only if we save their habitats and put an end to the reasons people kill them. Instead of supporting zoos, we should support groups that work to protect animals’ natural habitats. 71. How would the author describe the animals’ life in zoos? A. Dangerous. A. remain in cages B. behave strangely C. attack other animals D. enjoy moving around B. Unhappy. C. Natural. D. Easy. 72. In the state of zoochosis, animals _________.
73. What does the author try to argue in the passage? A. Zoos are not worth the public support. B. Zoos fail in their attempt to save animals. C. Zoos should treat animals as human beings. D. Zoos use animals as a means of entertainment. 74. The author tries to persuade readers to accept his argument mainly by _________. A. pointing out the faults in what zoos do B. using evidence he has collected at zoos C. questioning the way animals are protected D. discussing the advantages of natural habitats 75. Although he argues against zoos, the author would still agree that __________. A. zoos have to keep animals in small cages B. most animals in zoos are endangered species C. some endangered animals are reproduced in zoos D. it’s acceptable to keep animals away from their habitats 试题分析：文章讲述了作者对动物园的看法，表明动物园的动物并不快乐，而且呼吁我们去 支持那些真正为保护野生动物栖息地的工作。 71.细节题。从第二自然段 Another study showed that elephants spend 22 percent of their time making repeated head movements or biting cage bars and bears spend 30 percent of their time walking back and forth, a sign of unhappiness and pain.可知， 作者认为动物们在动物园并不开心， 故选 B 72.细节题。从第二自然段 Another study showed that elephants spend 22 percent of their time making repeated head movements or biting cage bars and bears spend 30 percent of their time walking back and forth, a sign of unhappiness and pain 可知有动物精神病的动物行为非常的怪 异，故选 B 73.细节题。从最后一句 Instead of supporting zoos, we should support groups that work to protect animals’ natural habitats.可知作者的态度是不要去支持动物园而应该支持那些为保护动物自然 栖息地的工作，故选 A 74.推断题。从第二，三自然段可知作者通过指出动物园的错误来证明自己的观点。 75. 推断题。从第三段 Zoos talk a lot about their captive breeding programs because they do not want people to worry about a species dying out.可知虽然作者反对动物园，但是动物园也确实进 行了圈地繁殖来保证动物不会灭绝，故选 C
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