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高考英语语法填空题考点分析与解题技巧


高考英语语法填空题考点分析与解题技巧

语法填空题的设臵是全国卷高考英语试题的一项创新,它将语法知识的考查臵于 一篇英语短文中,通过设臵纯空格题填空和给词填空两种形式来表现,突出考查了学 生通过语境运用语法知识的能力,更能客观、准确地考量学生的语法知识水平。此题 虽然只有 15 分,占英语全卷分数的十分之一,但也是英语考卷的重要组成部分,不容 忽视。要想此题有

好的发挥,学好语法,注重运用必不可少,这是基础;了解考点, 掌握解题技巧才是确保得分的关键。 一、语法填空题命题原则及考点分析。 (一)命题原则: 1.短文题材:题材多样,或体现文化内涵、文化交往,或给人以启迪等。 2.短文长度:约 200 词,一般不超过 12 句话,设 10 个空,句首不设空。 3.短文难度:没有超出课标的生词,但有课标单词的派生词,此题考查考生在特 定语境中语法的分析和运用能力。 4.考点设臵:只能填一个词的纯空格题:设 6-7 个小题;用所给的词填空题:设 3-4 小题。纯空格题通常考冠词、介词、代词和连词等词;给词填空通常考谓语动词的 时态和语态、非谓语动词、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级、此类转换等,答案可能 是一个单词、两个单词或两个以上单词。 5.常常会出现所填词位于句首,目的是考查该单词的第一个字母要大写。 (二)考点分析:语法填空题主要考查的是语法和上下文的连贯性,而语法是重 点。它主要考查的内容为高中英语大纲要求的基本语法知识、词汇、习语和较为简单 的英语表达方式的掌握情况。具体考点和命题特点如下: 1.每一个空格的设臵都必定涉及到某一条或某几条语法规则,不会单纯考查单词 的拼写和词组的用法。
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【例 1】In Greece women had little freedom.Wealthy women hardly left their houses,but they ___(allow) to attend weddings and some festivals. 【解析】 因 allow 与 they 在逻辑上是动宾关系, 要用被动语态, 用 be allowed; 由 had 和 left 可知 be 是过去式;主语是复数 they, be 的过去式应是 were, 答 案就是 were allowed. 此题就涉及到动词的时态、语态和主谓一致三条语法规则。 【例 2】The ___ why I was sad was that he didn’t understand me. 【解析】因为 why 引导的定语从句,前面的先行词一定是 reason.此题看起来是考 查填入适当的名词。但实际上是考查定语从句. 2.考虑语境。既然采用短文形式来考查语法,其目的就是要利用短文以较强的语 境特点来命题,否则,就不如用单句来考查语法了,考生要想填出正确答案,至少要 理解整个句子的意思或各分句之间的逻辑关系,或者需要理解前后几个句子,甚至整 个段落或篇章。 【例 3】Several changes have brought wild animals to the ____.Foremost, air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970 ’ s pollution control efforts. 【解析】 :在冠词 the 后必定是名词,再根据下句确定填 cities。本题若只根据设 空格本身,而不阅读并理解下文。是无法填出正确答案的。 3.考点分散。基本上一个空格代表一个语法点,十个空格有可能涉及十个或十个 以上的语法点。至少也得有 7 个语法点。因此,重复考查某项语法的可能性较小,填 词相同的空格几乎没有可能。 4.适当提示。涉及到动词的时态,语态、非谓语动词、词类转换等需要词形变换 的空格, 要紧扣上下文的信息提示。 【例 4】 Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year,____(reach) a record $57.65 a barrel on April 4. 【解 析】reach 及后面的内容是伴随着谓语动词的发生而产生的自然结果。用现在分词作状
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语,故填 reaching。 【例 5】It would be _____(believe) that such an honest fellow should have betrayed his friends!【解析】因为在系动词 be 后作表语。要用 believe 的形容词形式 believable,由句意“这样一个老实人竟会出卖朋友,真难以臵信”可 知,要加前缀变为反义词。故答案是 unbelievable。 5.考题一般涉及到的语法项目: 1)动词与介词或副词搭配构成的固定动词短语; 2)冠词的用法<有时要填的词是名词,但往往考的是冠词的用法>; 3)连词的用法,包括从属连词和并列连词; 4)派生词的用法。 5)动词的适当形式(包括谓语动词的时态和语态以及非谓语动词的用法等) ; 6)情态动词的用法; 7)定语从句。名词性从句、状语从句的引导词等。 8)代词的用法:人称代词、指示代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词等。 特别提醒:1)适当注意倒装句中的助动词和强调谓动词的助动词的用法;2)名 词的数和所有格有可能在给词填空中考察;4)要填写的词位于句首要注意大写;5) 考生需要具备句子结构分析的能力:首先,应熟练掌握简单句的五大基本句型;其次, 要充分了解词类及语法功能;再次,要会分析并列句,主从复合句等;要懂得两个简 单句间不用分号或句号,就必须用连词,否则句子结构不完整。 二、语法填空题解题思路和做题技巧。 通过对命题思路和考点的分析。考生对此题要“考什么”和“怎么考”有了明确 的认识。接下来要弄清楚的是“如何做题”和确保考试得分的问题了。下面就谈一谈 这方面的事。 (一)解题思路。做语法填空题时,可以用一种由大及小的思路去(其根据是此 题的特点---语境与语法相结合)思考答案。也就是说,可以从“篇章,句子,词汇”
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三个层面去思考。 1.通读全文,了解大意,弄清文脉。 考生不要读一句就填一个答案,首先要把括号有提示的空格视为已知条件,通读 全文,了解文段内容及要点。 2.结合语境,试填空格,先易后难。 基本了解文章大意后,就可以动手填空了。分析句子结构与空格、边读边填,遇 到一时想出来的答案,不要用太多时间停留在此题上,先跳过去,做后面的题,待填 完其他空格后,再回过头来细细推敲此空的语义,填入最佳单词。具体体现为八条思 路: 思路 1:根据语法知识填空。根据已学语法,分析空格及句意,填入正确答案。 【例 1】He must be _____ (mental) disabled. 【解析】disabled 是形容词,修饰它的词应是副词,作状语,故填 mentally. 【例 2】lots of rescue workers were working around the clock,_____(send) supplies to Yushu, Qinghai province after the earthquake. 【解析】根据句意和句子结构可知 were working 为谓语,空格表示伴随,因此答 案为 sending. 思路 2:根据逻辑关系填空。通读全文,把握作者的思路,联系上下文语义,分析 归纳,填入符合词义、句意和上下文情景的正确答案。 【例 3】On Sunday morning in August I went to local music festival. I left it early because I had an appointment _____ (late) in the day. 【解析】根据上下文内容可知,作者“先去音乐节,随后早些离开因为要去赴约” , late 要用其比较级 later,表示赴约在后。 思路 3:根据语篇的标志填空。语篇是指比单个句子长的语言单位(句群、段落、 篇章等) 。语篇间往往有标明内在关系的词,我们称这些词为“语篇标志词” 。如表示
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结构层次的有 first , second , third , finally 等;表示转折关系或变换话题的有 however,but,by the way 等; “语篇标志词”对迅速理清文章脉络,弄清上下文关系 很有帮助。 【例 4】Because when money is spent, we can earn it back. However, when time is _____ , it it will never return. Therefore we should make _____ use of our time to study hard so as to serve our country in the future. 【解析】由表示转折的 However 可知,第一个空格是表示时间的“失去” ,应填 gone/lost;由表示结果的 Therefore 可知,应充分利用时间,第二个空格应用 full 或 good 来修饰名词 use. 思路 4:根据固定词组填空。熟练掌握一些常见的词组,如:as a matter of fact, make up one’s mind, take part in depend on/upon, by the way, keep in touch with, earn one’s living,等,对解题有很大帮助。 【例 5】It is easy for him to make up _____ mind and also easy to change it. 【解析】表示“下决心”是固定词组 make up one’s mind, 因此答案是 his. 思路 5:根据句型搭配,如 so/such…that…;It is…(for sb) to do sth; There is no doubt that…; There is no sense in doing sth 等来解题。 【例 6】_____ is known to all that the time we can use is limited. 【解析】是 It is…that 主语从句的句型,作形式主语要用 it,故填 it. 【例 7】He feels it his duty _____ (help) others. 【解析】句中 it 是形式宾语。要用 to help (others)作真正宾语,故填 to help. 思路 6:根据词汇知识填空。指根据某些词语在用法上的特殊搭配来解题。如下列 各类动词必须牢记:只能接动词-ing 形式作宾语的动词; 只能接 to do 作宾语的动 词; 接 to do 作宾语补足语的动词;接 to do 作宾语补足语的动词;接 done 作宾语 补足语的动词;对句式搭配要求较为特别的词语等。
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【例 8】The temple in bad condition needs _____ (repair). 【解析】need 实义动词是“需要”的意思,其后如果表示主动,用 to do,如果表 示被动,就用 v-ing 或 to be done,故答案为 repairing 或 to be repaired. 思路 7:根据生活常识填空。 【例 9】Do not put off what can be done today _____ tomorrow. 【解析】结合生活常识,不难理解句意为“不把今天能做的事情推迟到明天去做” , 答案自然是表示“直到”的 till/untill. 思路 8:根据文化背景填空。 【例 10】After the flood Mr Deng was as poor as a church _____. 【解析】这句话的意思是“水灾后邓先生一贫如洗了” 。as poor as a church mouse 是谚语“一贫如洗”的意思。因此此处填 mouse. 3.验证复查,清除难点。将所有答案填入空格,并把整篇文章从头至尾读一遍,对 所填写的内容进行检查修正,以最后确定答案。 (二)解题技巧。所谓解题技巧指的是:遵循一般规律,分析具体情况,结合语境 做出正确判断。 1.纯空格题的解题技巧。首先,分析句子结构,确定填哪类词;然后,根据句子意 思确定填什么词或根据两句间的逻辑关系,确定用什么样的关联词。具体有以下七种 技巧: 技巧 1:缺主语或宾语,一定是填代词或名词(代词考的更多) 。 【例 1】i can send a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and _____ gets there in almost a second. 【解析】and 连接前后两个句子,and 后面的句子缺主语,应填名词或代词;结合 前一个分句,不难推知,空格处应填 it, 代替前句的 message. 技巧 2:名词前若没有限定词(冠词,形容词性物主代词,不定代词等) ,很可能
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要填限定词。 【例 2】…the head of the village was tying his horse to my car to pull it to_____ small town some 20 kilometres away where there was a garage. 【解析】因单数可数名词 town 前还没有限定词,应填限定词,根据句意,天不定 冠词 a,表示“一个” 。 技巧 3:句子不缺主语、表语,动动词后不缺宾语的情况下,名词或代词前面一定 是填介词。 【例 3】…who should have the honour of receiving me _____ a guest in their house. 【解析】 完全符合技巧 3 的情况, 填介词无疑, 根据句意可知, 此介词的意思是 “作 为” ,用介词 as. 技巧 4:若两个或几个单词或短语之间没有连词,可能填连词。 【例 4】…these paintings by two world-famous artists,Pablo Picasso _____ Candido Portinarni, which are worth millions of dollars. 【解析】空格之后两个名词之间没有连词,再根据句意,这里需要并列连词 and. 技巧 5:若两句之间没有连词,也没有分号或句号,一定是填并列连词或从属连词。 【例 5】I wanted to see as much of the city as possible in the two days _____ I was to return to Guangzhou. 【解析】空格前后是两个句子,它们之间要填连词,根据两句之间的逻辑关系,可 知“参观”在“回广州”之前,故填 before. 技巧 6:若结构较完整,空格后的谓语动词是原形,特别是与上下文的时态不一致 时,很可能是填情态动词或表示强调或倒装的助动词(do,does,did 等) 。 【例 6】What is acceptable in one country _____ be considered extremely rude in another.
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【解析】符合技巧 6 的情况,再根据句意及语气,填 may(表示“可能”)。 技巧 7:由特殊的句式结构来判断空格应填的词。这些特殊句式有:强调句式、倒 装句、it 用作形式主语或形式宾语、so/such…that…句型和 more…than…等。 【例 7】…and _____ was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’t eat MSG(味精)! 【例 8】_____ with hard work can you expect to get a pay rise. 【例 9】Dating sites also make _____ easy to avoid someone when you are not interested in. 【例 10】This made the goat so jealous _____ it began plotting the donkey. 【解析】 例 7 是强调句式, 应填 it;例 8 是倒装句, 根据句意应填 only;例 9 考查 to avoid(真正宾语)的形式宾语 it;例 10 是 so…that…句型,应填 that. 2.给出动词填空的解题技巧。首先,判断要填的动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。 然后按照以下两点进行思考: 技巧 8:若句中没有别的谓语动词,或者虽然已有谓语动词,但需填的动词与之是 并列关系时,所给动词就是谓语动词;若是谓语动词,就要考虑时态和语态。 【例 11】He _____ (pretend)that a tiger toy was real and giving it a voice. 【解析】 此句没有谓语动词,pretend 应是谓语动词,它与主语 He 是主动关系; 再根据从句中谓语动词 was 可知,要用一般过去时,故填 pretended. 【例 12】In Logan, three people _____ (take) to a hospital, while others were treated at a local clinic. 【解析】 因主语 three people 与 take 是被动关系, 故用被动语态; 由 were treated 可知,要用一般过去时,故填 were taken. 技巧 9:若句中已有谓语动词,又不是并列谓语时,所给动词就是非谓语动词。若 是非谓语动词就要确定用-ing 形式、-ed 形式,还是用不定式形式。
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【例 13】_____ (speak) out your inner feeling won’t make you feel ashamed, on the contrary… 【解析】此句已有谓语 won’t make,所以 speak 要用非谓语动词;谓语之前应为主 语,故填 Speaking. 【例 14】_____ (complete) the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. 【解析】 因句中已有谓语 will have to work,所以 complete 是非谓语动词;根 据句意,非谓语动词在这里作目的状语,用动词不定式 to complete. 【例 15】I got on the bus and found a seat near the back,and then I noticed a man _____ (sit) at the front. 【解析】此句的谓语动词是三个并列的动词 got on,found 和 noticed,表示接连发 生的动作,所以 sit 要用非谓语动词;通过分析可知 sit 应是宾语补足语,它与宾语 a man 是主动关系,用 sitting. 【例 16】 The headmaster went into the lab, _____ (follow) by the foreign guests 【解析】此句的谓语动词 went,所给动词与谓语不是并列关系,应用非谓语动词形 式; the headmaster 与 follow 是被动关系,故填 followed,作伴随状语。

在语法专项训练中,把握好语法填空题的命题动向,熟悉考查内容,理清做题的思 路,掌握做题的技巧,就可以做到:有的放矢、有章可循、事半功倍,从而提高做题 的效率和准确性。希望此文能对广大考生有所启发。

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语法填空高考试题汇编 2007 年广东 I was on my way to the Taiyetos Mountains. The sun was setting when my car ___31___ (break) down near a remote and poor village. Cursing my misfortune, I was wondering where I was going to spend the night when I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to ___32___ should have the honor of receiving me ___33___ a guest in their house. Finally, I accepted the offer of an old woman who lived alone in a little house. While she was getting me ___34___ (settle) into a tiny but clean room, the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to ___35___ small town some 20 kilometres away___36___there was a garage. I had noticed three hens running free in my hostess?s courtyard and that night one of them ended up in a dish on my table. ___37___ villagers brought me goat?s cheese and hone. We drank together and talked ___38___ (merry) till far into the night. When the time came for me to say goodbye to my friends in the village, I wanted to reward the old woman ___39___the trouble I had caused ___40___.

2008 年广东 Chinese proverbs are rich and they are still widely used in Chinese people?s daily life. ___31___ these proverbs there are often interesting stories. For example, the proverb, “plucking up a crop ___32___ (help) it grow”, is based on the following story. It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960—1279) was very anxious to help ___33___rice crop grow up quickly. He was thinking about ___34___ day and night. But the crop was growing much slower than he expected. One day, he came up with an idea ___35___ he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches. He did so the next day. He was very tired ___36___ doing this for a whole day, ___37___ he felt very happy since the crop did “grow” ___38___ (high)。 His son heard about this and went to see the crop. Unfortunately the leaves of the crop began to wither. This proverb is saying we have to let things go in their ___39___ (nature) course. Being too anxious to help an event develop often ___40___ (result) in the contrary to our intention. 2009 年广东 Jane was walking round the department store. She remembered how difficult ___31___ was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father. She wished that he was as easy ___32___ (please) as her mother, who was always delighted with perfume.
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Besides, shopping at this time of the year was not ___33___ pleasant experience:people stepped on your feet or ___34___ (push) you with their elbows(肘部), hurrying ahead to get to a bargain. Jane paused in front of a counter ___35___ some attractive ties were on display. “They are real silk,” the assistant tried to attract her. “Worth double the price.” But Jane knew from past experience that her ___36___ (choose) of ties hardly ever pleased her father. Jane stopped where a small crowd of men had gathered. She found some good quality pipes ___37___ sale. She did not hesitate for long: although her father smokeda pipe only once in a while, she knew that this was a present which was bound to please ___38___. When Jane got home, with her small but well-chosen present in her bag, her parents were already ___39___ table having supper. Her mother was excited. “Your father has at last decided to stop smoking,” Jane ___40___ (inform).

(2011 广东) One Sunday morning in August I went to local music festival. I left (http://www.unjs.com)it early because I had an appointment me 17 16 (late) that day. My friends walked me to the bus stop and waited with 18 20

the bus arrived. I got on the bus and found a seat near the back, and then I noticed a man 19 (pretend) that a tiger toy was real and giving it a voice. He must be

(sit) at the front. He (mental) disabled.

Behind him were other people to

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he was trying to talk, but after some minutes

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walked away and sat near me, looking annoyed I didn?t want to be laughed at for talking to him but I didn?t like leaving him 23 his own either.

After a while I rose from my seat and walked to the front of the bus. I sat next to the man and introduced myself. We had 24 amazing conversation. He got off the bus before me and I felt very

happy the rest of the way home. I?m glad I made a choice. It made 25 of us feel good. (2012 广东) Mary will ever forget the first time she saw him. He suddenly appeared in class one day , sun glasses . He walked in as if he from New York City . For some reason he sat beside Mary. Mary felt 18 (please), because there were many empty seats in 19 last 17 16 (wear)

(buy) the school ,And the word quickly got around that he was

the room .But she quickly realized that it wasn?t her, it was probably the fact that she sat in row.
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20 little

he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back, he was wrong. It might have made it a 21 (hard) for everybody because it meant they had to turn around, but that didn?t stop the kids 22 made her feel

in the class. Of course whenever they turn to look at him, they had to look at Mary , like a star .

“Do you need those glasses for medical reasons ?” the teacher asked .The new boy shook his head .”Then I?d appreciate it if you didn?t wear them in class .I like to look at your eyes when I?m speaking to you.” The new boy looked at t he teacher boy would do .Then he took 23 25 a few seconds and all the other students wondered off , gave a big smile and said “That is cool.” (2014 广东) Last year, my brother and I went to Miami for a vacation. Some of my friends who had been there before said_16_____ was a wonderful holiday destination. Before we went, we had planned for months. When the day came, we were ready. After our plane landed, we went to the hotel. We had made our reservation six months__17____ (early), but the man at the front desk said there had been a mistake. We 18_____(tell)that our rooms hadn?t been reserved for that week, 19_____ for the week after. I didn?t understand 20____ this would happen and my credit card had already been charged______ the reservation. What?s worse, the hotel had been fully booked. When we were wondering what to do, the manager came out. She was 22_____ (surprise)helpful. She apologized for the mistake and gave us a spare VIP room on 23_____ top floor. We had never stayed in such an amazing room, and we weren?t charged extra. The next day, my brother and I went to the beach 24____ we watched some people play volleyball. We got a little_____(sunburn) ,but the day had been so relaxing that we didn?t mind. (2014 全国卷) Are you facing a situation that looks impossible to fix? In 1969, the pollution was terrible along the Cuyahoga River Cleveland, Ohio. It __61__(be) unimaginable that it could ever be cleaned up. The river was so polluted that it __62__(actual)caught fire and burned. Now, ears later, this river is one of __63__ most outstanding examples of environmental cleanup. But the river wasn?t changed in a few days __64__ even a few months. It took years of work __65__ (reduce) the industrial pollution and clean the water. Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is __66__(clean) than ever. Maybe you are facing an impossible situation. Maybe you leave a habit __67__ is driving your family crazy. Possibly you drink too much or don?t know how to control your credit card use. When you face such
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24

the

an impossible situation ,don?t you want a quick fix and something to change immediately? While there are __68__(amaze)stories of instant transformation, for most of us the __69__(change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. Just be (2015 广东) Mr. Johnson lived in the woods with his wife and children. He owned ___16___ farm, which looked almost abandoned. ___17___ (lucky), he also had a cow which produced milk every day. He sold or exchanged some of the milk in the towns nearly ___18___ other food and m ade che ese and butter for the family with what ___19___ (leave). The cow was their only means of support, in fact. One day, the cow was eating grass ___20___ it began to rain heavily. While ma king great efforts to run away, she ___21___ (fall) over the hill and died. Then the Johnson tried to make a living ___22___ the cow. In order to support his family, Mr. Johnson began to plant herbs and vegetables. Since the plants took a while to grow, he started cutting down trees ___23___ (sell) the wood. Thinking about his children?s clothes, he started growing cotton too. When harvest came around, he was already selling herbs, vegetables and cotton in the market ___24___ people from the town met regularly. Now it occurred to ___25___ that his farm had much potential and that the death of the cow was a bit of luck. (2015 全国卷) Yangshuo, China It was raining lightly when I__61__(arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. But I didn?t care. A few hours__62__, I?d been at home in Hong Kong, with __63_ fresh, even with the rain. I?d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River_64__are pictured by artists in so many Chinese _65__(painting). Instead, I?d headed straight for Yangshuo. For those who fly to Guilin, it?s only an hour away__66_ car and offers all the scenery of the better-known city. Yangshuo__67__(be) really beautiful. A study of travelers _68__(conduct) by the website (it) choking smog. Here, the air was clean and _70 (patience) .

TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world. And the town is fast becoming a popular weekend destination for people in Asia. Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it __69_ (regular) arranges quick getaways her e for people _70__(live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong.

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