主动语态 一般式 进行式 完成式
to do to be doing to have done to have been done to be done
语 to do -ing form pp
1. to do 表示具体的动作，-ing form表示泛指的动作。
eg.I like skating,but I don’t like to skate today.
Playing with fire is dangerous. Look out！To play with fire is dangerous. 2.“there is no +主语”句型中，多用-ing form. eg.There is no joking about such matters.
1.从时态上看，-ing form表示正在进行的动作 pp表示已经完成的动作，to do表示将来的动作。
eg.He attends the meeting being held in the room now. He attended the meeting held yesterday. He will attend the meeting to be held tomorrow.
2.表示被修饰词的内容时， 用to do. eg.She has a strong wish to go to college.
-ing form,pp表示时间、原因、条件、方式、伴随情况等等, to do表示1.目的; 2.结果—表示出人预料的情况或结果。常用only强调。 3.原因—表示造成情感变化的原因。
eg.they worked hard to pay for the necklace. 目的 I went to see him only to find him out. 结果 I am glad to see you.
1.for sb. to do sth. 2.of sb. to do sth.
→sb.is/are adj.to do sth.
常见的形容词有：good=nice/bad, kind/cruel=rude, clever=wise/stupid=silly, right /wrong，sensible
↗主语 1.形容词性物主代词/名词所有格+ing form →表语 2.代词宾格/名词+ing form →宾语 ↘宾语
1.To do the job is impossible. =It is impossible to do the job.
—For a child to do the job is… 2.It is necessary to study a foreign language. —It is necessary for students to study a… 3.To do such a thing is stupid. =It is stupid to do such a thing.
—It is stupid of you to do such a thing. —You are stupid to do such a thing. 4.It is wrong to tell a lie. —It is wrong of him to tell a lie. —He is wrong to tell a lie.
1. We agreed _____ here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet. C
(95 N) A. having met B. meeting C. to meet D. to have met 2. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what _____ B to my new job. (00 N) A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects
注意1：仅带不定式作宾语的动词有：agree, refuse, offer, promise, decide, determine, intend, manage, fail, hope,
expect, long, wish, tend, desire, plan, pretend, 等；
注意2：动词 know, show 等常带疑问词加 to do 作宾语。
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