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译林牛津模块3语法汇总


一)名词性从句——that,if whether
引导名词性从句:名词性从句就是具有名词特点的从句。它包括主语、宾语、 同位语以及表语从句,掌握名词性从句首先需要掌握它的引导词。引导名词性 从句的连接词分为三类,即连接代词、连接副词、以及连词。 1)连接代词有 what,whatever,which,whichever,who,whoever,whom, whomeve

r,whose。 2)连接副词有 why,when,where,how 等。 3)连词有 that,whether,if。
一、 引导名词性从句的连词 1.that 无词义,在句子中不作成分,只起连接作用,在宾语从句 中可以被省略。 2.whether,if 的区别:whether 通常可以引导所有的名词性从句, 而 if 通常只引导宾语从句,引导主语从句时不能放在句首。 二、主语从句 1.主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在句子的谓语 动词之前或由形式主语 it 代替,而本身放在句子的末尾。在口 语中 it 作形式主语时,that 可以省略。 It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not. 你来不来没有关系。 2.that 引导主语从句在句首不能省略。 That he suddenly fell ill last week surprised us all. 上周他突然生病使大家都很惊讶。 3.if 引导主语从句不可置于句首,而要用 whether。 Whether you are right has to be proved in the future. 你是否正确还有待在将来证明。 三、表语从句 表语从句是在复合句中充当表语的从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是:主语+系动词+ 表语从句。可以接表语从句的系动词有:be,look,seem 等。 The problem is whether we can make good preparations in such a short time. The reason why he is late for school is that he missed the early bus. It looks as if it is going to rain. 主语是表示建议, 命令, 请求的名词时, 其后的表语从句要用虚拟语气, 动词形式是: should do,should 可被省略。 My suggestion is that he(should)be sent to the hospital at once. 四、宾语从句 1.宾语从句就是在复合句中充当宾语的从句,通常放在主句 谓语动词(及物动词)或介词之后。有些形容词如:sure, afraid,anxious,aware,certain,confident, convinced,determined,glad,proud,surprised, worried,sorry,thankful,ashamed,disappointed,

annoyed,pleased,satisfied,content 等后面也可跟宾语 从句。引导宾语从句的连词 that 一般可以被省略掉,但如 果主句的谓语动词含有两个或两个以上的 that 引导的宾语 从句时,第二个宾语从句以及后面的宾语从句的 that 不可 省略。 I hope(that)everything is all right. I am afraid(that)I have made a mistake. She promised(that)she would come and see him sometime and that she would never forget him. 2.介词后的宾语从句不可用 if 连接,只用 whether。 I am interested in whether you have finished your work. 3.whether 和 if 引导宾语从句常可以互换,但在下面的情 况下不可互换: (1)宾语从句是否定句时只用 if 不用 whether I wonder if it doesn’t rain. (2)用 if 引起误解时要用 whether Please let me know whether you want to go. (用 if 的话会误解为条件句) 当宾语从句中有 or not 时只可与 whether 搭配。 (3)介词后的宾语从句要用 whether 引导,whether 可与不定式连用。whether 也可 引导主语从句,表语从句,同位语从句,还可引导让步状语从句,以上均不能用 if 代替, 但引导条件状语从句时只能用 if 表示“如果”。 It depends on whether he has enough time. Whether you will accept or not,I should give you my advice. Please come to see me if you have time. 4.否定转移 (1)think,believe,suppose,expect,fancy,imagine 等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句 的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。 I don’t think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。 I don’t believe he will come.我相信他不会来。 注意:若谓语动词为 hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能 转移。 I hope you weren’t ill.我想你没有生病吧。 (2)将 seem,appear 等后的从句的否定词转移到前面。 It doesn’t seem that they know where to go. 看来他们不知道往哪去。 It doesn’t appear that we’ll have a sunny day tomorrow. 看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。 (3)有时将动名词、介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓 语动词的否定。 I don’t remember having ever seen such a man. 我记得从未见过这样一个人。(not 否定动名词短语 having...)

It’s not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street. 在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。 (anyone 作主语,从句中的谓语动词不能用否定形式。) 5.doubt(怀疑)的肯定句接 if/whether 引导的宾语从句,但否 定句和疑问句接 that 引导的宾语从句。 I doubt whether/if he will succeed.我怀疑他是否会成功。 I do not doubt that he can recite the poem. 我相信他能把这首诗背下来。 Do you doubt that he will win? 你不相信他会获胜吗? 6.虚拟情况: (1)在 suggest,insist,order,demand,request, require,command,propose,desire 等表示建议、 命令、要求、欲望的动词后面的宾语从句中,用虚 拟语气,即 should+动词原形,should 常被省略。 He suggested that we should have a further discussion about the final decision. 他建议我们对最后的决定作进一步讨论。 She insisted that they should show her their passports. 她坚决要求他们向她出示护照。 五、同位语从句 同位语从句用于对前面的名词作进一步解释,说明名词 的具体内容。同位语从句一般由 that 引导,但也可以由 whether 以及连接代词和连接副词引导。 1.同位语从句一般跟在名词的后面。如:fact,hope, idea,news,doubt,suggestion,information, opinion,decision,discovery,truth,promise, statement,problem,rule 等。 They were all very much worried over the fact that you were sick.对你生病这件事,他们都很焦虑。 Where did you get the idea that I could not come?你在哪 儿听说我不能来? I have no idea whether he’ll come or not.我不知道他是否来。 We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation. 到哪儿去度暑假,这个问题我们还没有决定。 It is a question how he did it.那是一个他如何做了此事的问题。 There is no doubt that we will win.毫无疑问我们会赢的。 注意:当含有同位语从句的主句谓语部分过短时,可以把谓语动词提前,使同位语从句与名 词隔开,以避免头重脚轻的现象。 Word came that Mr.President would come and inspect our school himself.有消息说 总统先生将亲自来视察我们学校。

2. 使用虚拟语气的同位语从句 在一些表示建议、命令、要求的名词后的同位语从句中, 谓语动词用 should+动词原形表示,should 可省略。 This is our only request that this(should)be settled as soon as possible.尽快解决这个 问题,这是我们唯一的请求。 He made the suggestion that we go by train. 他建议我们坐火车去。

2)名词性从句:连接代词,连接副词
上个单元我们讲解了引导名词性从句的连接词:that,whether 和 if,这个单元我们重点讨 论连接代词,连接副词。 1)连接代词有:who,whose,whom,what,which,whoever,whatever,whichever。 有词义,在从句中担任主语,表语,定语或宾语等。 2)连接副词有:when,where,why,how。有词义,在从句中担任状语。 一、主语从句 1.主语从句在复合句中作主语,通常放在谓语动词之前, 或由 it 充当形式主语,而本身放在句末。 Who will go is not important.谁去不重要。 It doesn’t matter so much when he will come.他什么时候来 没有关系。 Whoever breaks the law should be punished.任何违法的人 都要受到惩罚。 2.it 作形式主语,代替主语从句放在句首,主要是为了平衡 句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。而 it 引导的强调 句则是对句子的某一部分进行强调,无论强调的部分是 什么都用连词 that 连接,而被强调部分如果是人,则可以 用 who 连接。 It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film.(主语从句) It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not.(主语从句) It was in the morning that the murder took place.(强调句) It was John that/who broke the window.(强调句) 3.单个的主语从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如果 是两个或两个以上的主语从句作主语时,谓语动词则用 复数形式。 When and where he was born has not been found. When the person was murdered and why he was murdered are still unknown. 4.what 和 that 在引导主语从句时的区别。 what 在主语从句中充当句子成分,如主语,宾语,表语 或定语,而 that 则不然。 What you said yesterday is right. That he is still alive is a wonder.

二、表语从句 表语从句由连接代词与连接副词引导。 1.Guilin is not what it used to be. 2.She wants to know which dress she should buy. 3.This is where Tom used to live. 4.That is why he didn’t pass the exam. 三、宾语从句 1.宾语从句由连接代词与连接副词引导。 (1)He asked me why I was absent yesterday. (2)You may elect whoever you like. (3)Do you know when we’ll have a sports meeting? 2.介词之后的宾语从句,不可用 which,要用 what。 I am interested in what you have said. 3.it 可以作形式宾语 it 不仅可以作形式主语,还可以作形式宾语,而真正的宾 语则放在句尾。 We are glad at it that she will get married next year. 不能直接跟宾语从句,必须借助形式宾语 it 的动词有: like,appreciate,hate,dislike,love,see to 等。I like it in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. 四、同位语从句 同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从 句。关系代词和关系副词引导的同位语从句比较少,通 常会在 idea 后面。 I have no idea why he always complained that nothing came out the way he had expected.

3)宾语补足语
一、定义: 宾语补足语通常紧跟在宾语之后,对宾语进行补充说明。 二、句子结构是:主+谓+宾+宾补 三、两种结构 1.主表型 (1)make our country beautiful(adj.) (2)call him Lao Li (noun) (3)find sb.out(adv.) (4)find sb.at home(prep.phrase) 2.主谓型 (1)ask sb.to do sth.(有 to 不定式) (2)have sb.do sth.(无 to 不定式) (3)see sb.doing sth.(现在分词) (4)have sth.done.(过去分词) 四、接宾语补足语的动词 1.在表示心理状态的动词后作宾语补足语。 这类动词有:consider,think,believe,discover,find,

imagine,judge,suppose,prove 等。这类动词后的不定 式通常是“to be+形容词或名词”结构,think,consider, find 后的 to be 常可省略。 We consider him(to be)a good teacher. 我们认为他是一个好老师。 He proved that theory(to be)very important. 他证明那个理论是很重要的。 I thought her(to be)nice and honest the first time I met her. 我第一次见到她的时候就认为她人很好,很诚实。 2.在表示情感状态的动词后作宾语补足语。 这类动词有:love,like,prefer,hate,want,wish, expect 等。 I’d prefer you to leave him alone.我希望你不要打扰他。 I don’t want there to be any trouble.我不想有任何麻烦。 3.hope,demand,suggest 等动词后面不能接不定式作 宾语补足语。 I hope you can give me a hand.我希望你能帮我一把。 I wish you to give me a hand.我希望你能帮我一把。 He required us to be present at the meeting. 他要求我们出席会议。 Mr Li suggested that she should not go there alone. 李先生建议她不要独自去那里。 五、可作宾语补足语的形式 不定式,现在分词,过去分词,名词,形容词,副词,介词 短语都能作补足语。 六、具体说明 1.副词作宾语补足语 如:I found him in yesterday. 2.常接形容词作宾语补足语的动词有:keep,make,find 等。 如:We must keep our classroom clean. 3.常接名词作宾语补足语的动词有:call,name,make,think 等. 如:We call them mooncakes. 4.常接动词 ing 形式作宾语补足语的动词有:see,watch,hear, find,keep 等。 如:In the country,we can hear birds singing. 5.常接介词短语作宾语补足语的动词有:keep,find,leave 等。 如:I left my pen on my desk at home. 6.不定式作宾语补足语 (1)常接带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有: want,teach,wish,advise,allow,ask,beg, command,tell,invite,force,oblige,get,help, encourage,persuade,permit,remind,request, order,warn,cause 等。 She often asks me to help her.

We don’t allow such things to happen again. Most of the parents agree to forbid their children to smoke. She asked me to answer the phone in her absence. Please remind me to leave her this note. She requested him to go with her. (2)接不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:see,watch,hear,make,let 等。 I often see him play football. (3)用不定式作宾语补足语的几点说明: ①help 后面作宾语补足语的动词不定式可以带 to 也可以不带 to. 如:I often help my mother(to)do some housework. ②在使役动词后作宾语补足语,不定式不带 to。 有些动词跟不定式作宾语补足语时省去了 to,这些动词有: 一感二听三让四观看。 一感:feel 二听:hear,listen to 三让:let,have,make 四观看:observe,see, watch,look at 转为被动语态时,其后通常都用带 to 的不定式(have、 let 没有被动语态)。 What would you have me do?你要我做什么? She made him give up smoking.她让他戒了烟。 Let him do whatever he wishes to do.他想干什么就让他干吧. Though he had often made his little sister cry,today he was made to cry by his little sister. 虽然经常是他弄哭小妹妹,但今天他却被小妹妹弄哭了。 (4)掌握“使役动词 have+宾语+过去分词”的几种含义。 在“have+宾语+过去分词”结构中,过去分词作宾语补足语,have 也可用 get。这一结构 具有以下几种含义: ①意为“主语请别人做某事”。 He wants to have his eyes examined tomorrow. 他明天想去检查眼睛。(“检查”的动作由医生来进行) ②意为“主语遭遇、遭受某一不愉快、不测的事情”。 Be careful,or you’ll have your hands hurt. 当心,否则会弄伤手的。 ③意为“使完成某事”,事情既可以是别人做完,也可以由主语参与完成。 He had the walls painted this morning. 他今早把墙漆了。 (主语自己可能参与) (5)动词不定式也可作一些短语动词的宾语补足语。 I’m waiting for James to arrive.我正等着詹姆斯的到来。 He’s arranged for a car to pick them up at the station. 他已安排了一辆汽车去车站接他们。 The UN has called on both sides to observe the cease fire. 联合国号召交战双方遵守停火协定。 7.分词作宾语补足语

用现在分词作宾补,说明宾语是动作的发出者,形成 逻辑上的主谓关系;用过去分词作宾补,表示宾语是 动作的承受者,构成逻辑上的动宾关系。 (1)跟分词作宾补的动词有:catch,have,get, keep,hear,find,feel,leave,make,want, start,notice,observe,watch,set 等。 There was so much noise that the speaker couldn’t make himself heard. 由于十分吵闹,讲话人没法让人听到他的声音。 When he awoke,he found himself being looked after by an old woman. 他醒来的时候发现一位老大娘正在照顾他。 (2)几种用过去分词作宾语补足语的情况说明: ①表示“意欲;命令”的动词如 like,want,wish,order 等,可用过去分词作宾语补足语。 The father wants his daughter taught the piano. 这位父亲想让女儿学钢琴。 ②感官动词 see,hear,notice,observe,watch,feel,find 等后,可用过去分词作宾语补 足语。 I saw an old man knocked down by a car just now. 刚才我看到一位老人被车撞倒了。 ③使役动词 have,get,make,leave,keep 等后,可用过去分词作宾语补足语。 Have you got your films developed? 你拿胶卷去冲洗了没有? ④“with+宾语+过去分词”结构中,过去分词用作介词 with 的宾语补足语。这一结构通常 在句中作时间、方式、条件、原因等状语。 The murderer was brought in,with his hands tied behind his back. 凶手被带进来了,他的双手被绑在背后。(表方式) With water heated,we can see the steam. 水一被加热,我们就会看到水蒸汽。(表条件) With the matter settled,we all went home. 事情得到解决,我们都回家了。(表原因) 注意:①在这一结构中,当宾语为某一身体部位,且作宾补的动词是及物动词时,身体部 位通常是过去分词的逻辑宾语,因而用过去分词。 She stood in front of him, with her eyes fixed on his face.她站在他面前, 眼睛注视着他。 (fix one’s eyes on 为固定短语,因此,不可将句中 fixed 换为 fixing) He stood for an instant with his hand still raised. 他仍然举着手站了一会儿。 ②当用某些不及物动词的分词形式作身体部位的宾补时,用现在分词的形式。 She stood there with her heart beating fast. 她站在那里,心跳很快。 (beat 意为“心跳”,是不及物动词) (3)作宾语补足语的过去分词与宾语之间的关系 ①及物动词(短语)的过去分词用作宾语补足语时,宾语即是过去分词的逻辑宾语,宾语和过 去分词之间存在逻辑上的被动关系。

I want the letter posted.我想把这封信寄出去。 ②少数不及物动词如 go,change,fall 等的过去分词作宾语补足语时,仅表示动作完成。 因此,宾语与过去分词之间不存在逻辑上的被动关系。 She found her necklace gone on her way home.在回家的路上,她发现项链不见了。 ③动词 seat,hide,dress 等的过去分词作宾语补足语一般作状语而不表示被动的意义,因 此,虽然宾语与它们存在逻辑上的主动关系,但也只能用它们的过去分词作宾语补足语。 When I came in,I found a strange girl seated in the corner. 我进来时,发现一个陌生的女孩坐在角落里。

4)主谓一致
1.单词本身以 s 结尾的某些名词作主语时,主谓一致的关系如下: (1)学科名称:以 s 结尾的学科名词如 physics, mathematics(maths),politics,economics 等作主语时,如果看 作一门学科,谓语动词用单数,如果不是指一门学科,而是指 其含义,谓语动词可用复数。 Politics is taught in our school.Economics is an important subject. 但在以下句中应使用复数谓语。 His mathematics are weak.他的数学能力弱。 (2)某些专有名词:以 s 结尾的某些专有名词如 the United States,the United Nations 等作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 The United States is in North America. (3)以 s 结尾的词如 news, means, works 等词作主语时, 谓语用单数, 但如果 means, works 指复数意义时,谓语用复数。 A chemical works is being built now.Two chemical works have been built in my hometown. (4)由成双部分构成的器具及衣物等作主语时,谓语用复数。 若前边有 a pair of...或 a suit of...等词来修饰时,谓语动词用单数。 The clothes were made by herself. 常见这样的词有:trousers,glasses,scissors(剪刀),tongs(钳) 2.用 and 连接的两个名词作主语 (1)and 并列两个单数名词,构成复数主语时,谓语动词用复数。 (2)用 and 连接两个单数名词在意义上指同一个人、物或概念 时,谓语动词使用单数。 The worker and writer is coming to our school. (3)用 and 连接两个物质名词作主语时,若看作一种混合体 时,谓语用单数。 Much mud and sand has been washed away by the flood. 若看作两种不同物质时,谓语用复数。 Water and air are what we must need. (4)用 and 连接的两个名词,如果表示两个部件构成的物品组 成一副用具时,谓语应使用单数。 A knife and fork is very useful for a foreigner. 3.集合名词的主谓一致:集合名词如:family,team,class, group,government,court,committee,population,

audience 等作主语时,若看作整体时用单数谓语,若看作个 体时用复数谓语。 The family is a large one. The family are all music lovers. 但一些集体名词如 police,people,cattle 等作主语时,谓语 用复数。 4.the+adj.或分词作主语时,若指一类人,谓语用复数,若指 抽象的含义时,谓语动词用单数。 The blind usually trust their sense of touch. The good is beautiful,but the beautiful is not always good. 5.由连词 or;either...or...;neither...nor...;not only...but also...等连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词单复数用 就近原则。 You or he is to blame. Either you or I am right. Are either you or he right? 7.表示时间、重量、长度、价值的复数名词作主语时,若 看作整体时,谓语用单数。 Three years is a long time. 但如果强调具体多少年时,谓语用复数。 Three years have passed. 9. 被 each 或 every 限定的词作主语时,谓语用单数。 Every student is working hard. 但 each 若作主语的同位语时,或于句尾作状语时,不影响主 语的数。 They each have an English dictionary. They were given an English book,each. 10.在定语从句中,关系代词作主语时,谓语与先行词一致。 He is one of the students who have passed the exam. He is the only one of the students who has passed the exam. 11.当 more than one 或 many a 引导主语时,谓语用单数。 Many a student is going there. 12.在 there be 句型中,若有几个主语并列时,谓语用复数或 同与 there be 最近的主语一致。 There is(are)a book,a pen and some books on the desk. 13.不定代词的主谓一致,不定代词如 everything,nothing, no one,everyone,someone 等作主语时谓语用单数。 none 作主语时,谓语可用复数可用单数。当 either 或 neither 作主语时谓语常用单数(在非正式文体,口语中有 时用复数);当 some;all;most;the rest of...作主语时, 根据意义来确定。 All are there.大家都在这。 All is clear.一切都清楚了。 14.加、减、乘、除算式中,谓语常用单数,但在非正式文体

中也有用复数的情况。 Two plus two is four.(plus,minus,times,divided by 相 当于介词用) 15.分数(百分数)+of+名词作主语时,谓语动词根据情况来确定. One third of the apple is rotten. One third of the apples are green ones. 16.不定式、动名词、从句作主语时,谓语常用单数。但 what 从句则根据情况确定。 What we need here is an English teacher. What we need here are two English teachers. When and where we shall hold the meeting has not been decided yet. 17.who,which 作主语时,谓语根据其意义可用复数可用单数. 18.强调句型的主谓一致,在强调句中,谓语与被强调部分一致. It is I who am for the plan. It is he who is to blame.


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