非 谓 语 动 词
Smoking may cause cancer.
He tried to avoid answering their questions. One of her duties
is typing letters. The man sitting next to you is our headmaster. Being angry,he can’t say a word. I saw him running down the street.
(not)being + V-ed
(not)having V -ed (not)having been V -ed
v-ing 形式在句子中可作主语、宾语、表语、 定语、状语和宾补。
e.g.Finding work is difficult theses days. 后只接动名词做宾语的一些常用特殊动词 It was a waste of time reading that book.
It’s no use/good worrying about it.
e.g. Would you mind waiting a few minutes？
They are looking forward to Mary’s coming.
英语中有些动词或动词短语的后面只能跟上动名词。如 admit,appreciate,avoid, consider , give up, enjoy, regret, insist on, practise , finish, put off , mind , escape,excuse, stand(忍受) , imagine, miss,risk,suggest,can’t help(禁不住), set about,
英语中有些动词可以接动名词也可以接不定式,但含义 不同. to do to do forget remember doing doing
regret go on to do(遗憾要做某事) doing(后悔做了某事) to do(继续做另外一件事) doing(继续做同一件事) try to do(设法…) doing(尝试着做…) to do doing
to do(停下手中的事去做另外一件) stop doing(停止做正在做的事情)
1.---What do you think made Mary so upset? ---___ her new bicycle.
A. As she lost B. Lost C. Losing D. Because of losing
2.She can’t help ____ the house because she’s busy making a cake. (97 上海12) A. to clean B. cleaning C. cleaned D. being cleaned 3.While shopping, people sometime can’t help ____ into buying something they don’t really need. (96上海14) A. to pursue B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded
e.g.One of her hobbies is growing flowers. The speed of the horses was amazing.
e.g. There are no swimming pools in our school.
Do you know the three children walking towards us? =who are walking towards us 1.v-ing 作定语时，单个的v-ing 形式放在所修饰的 名词前；若是v-ing短语则要放在所修饰的名词之后
2.动名词作定语，仅表被修饰的名词的用途，解释 为“供给…….之用”;现在分词说明的是被修饰的 名词执行现在分词所表示的这个动作,可用相应的定 语从句换.
e.g. Suddenly I heard someone knocking gently on the door.
I’m sorry to have kept you waiting so long.
V-ing 形式作状语,可表时间、原因、方式、结果、条件、 让步、伴随或陪衬等含义,相当于一个对应的状语从句所 表达的意思.
Walking in the street, I came across an old friend. = When I was walking in the street, I came across an old friend. Being ill, he didn’t go to school. =As he was ill, he didn’t go to school.
Laughing and talking, they went into the classroom.
If you use your head, you will find a way. =Using your head, you will find a way.
Though weighing almost one hundred jin, the box was lifted by him with one hand. = Though it weighes … We were sitting by the window,talking about what happened yesterday.(伴随） 1.当v-ing形式作状语时，若它所表示的动作发生 在谓语动作之前，需用having done 2. v-ing形式作状语时，其逻辑主语必须和主语保 持一致；否则必须带有自己的逻辑主语
e.g. Having finished my homework,I went to watchTV.
e.g.________a reply, he decided to write a sixth letter. A. Not receiving B. Not to receive C. Not having received D. Having not received
没收信的动作发生在决定写信这一动作之前 所以应该用having done ;此题又是表否定含 义，分词的否定式为not doing/not having done; 故选 c
European football is played in 80 countries, ___ it the most popular sport in the world. （NMET1998）
A. making B. makes
D. to make
He rushed to the train station, only ____ the train had gone
A. finding B. found C. finds
D D. to find
动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性动作， 不定式作主语表示具体的或一次性的动作， 特别是将来的动作。例如： ?_______ is a good form of exercise for B both young and old．（MET 1992） A．The walk B．Walking C．To walk D．Walk
主语一样。动名词表示一般或抽象的多次 性动作，不定式表示具体的或一次性的动 作，特别是将来的动作
?His job is building houses． ?Our task now is to increase food
的内容，现在分词作表语表示主语所具有的 特征，过去分词作表语表示主语所处的状态。 ?The real problem is getting to know the needs of the customers． ?The most important thing is to put theory into practice． ?He is interested in English. ?The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier，_______ it more B difficult．（NMET 1999） ?A．not make B．not to make C．not making D．do not make
want，wish，hope，manage，demand， promise，refuse，pretend，plan， offer，decide，agree，expect等。 ?We agreed _______ here，but so far C she hasn't turned up yet．（NMET 1995） ?A．having met B．meeting ? C．to meet D．to have met
（2）有些动词后只跟动名词作宾语， ?The squirrel was so lucky that it just missed_______ ．（MET 1987） C A．catching B．to be caught C．being caught D．to catch C ?I would appreciate_______ back this afternoon．（MET 1992） A．you to call B．you call C．you calling D．you're calling
—The light in the office is still on． —Oh，I forgot _______ ．（MET 1991） C A．turning it off B．turn it off C．to turn it off D．having turned it off —You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting． —Well，now I regret _______ D that．（NMET 1995） A．to do B．to be doing C．to have done D．having done
或主语补足语，如：ask，tell，order， want，wish，warn， allow，advise， permit，forbid等。 C ?The patient was warned _______ oily food after the operation．（NMET 1996） ?A．to eat not B．eating not ?C．not to eat D．not eating
词作宾语补足语或主语补足语，但意义不同，如： see，watch，notice，observe，hear，feel， have， make等，且不定式不带to，但在被动结 构中必须带to。不定式指动作的全过程；现在分 词指正在进行的动作的一部分，且表主动意义； 过去分词指已经完成的动作，且表被动意义。 ?We heard her sing this song before we went in.我们听她唱完这首歌才进去。 ?We heard her singing this song when we got there.我们到达时，听见她在唱这首歌。 ?We often hear this song sung by her.我们 经常听见她唱这首歌。(歌是被唱)
表示“正在”或主动，过去分词表示“已 经”。 c ?The Olympic Games，_______in 776 B．C．，did not include women players until1912．（NMET 1997） ?A．first playing B．to be first played C．first played D．to be first playing
swimming pool动名词作定语， swimming fish现在分词作定语。
6.动词不定式作状语修饰动词、形容词， 表示原因、目的和结果，分词作状语修饰 动词和句子，表示时间、原因、条件、方式、 伴随和结果。
A ?_____late in the morning，Bob turned off the alarm．（NMET 2001） ?A．To sleep B．Sleeping ?C．Sleep D．Having slept
heavy pollution already，it may now be too late to clean up the river．（NMET 2000） ? A．Having suffered B．Suffering C．To suffer D．Suffered A ?_______more attention，the trees could have grown better．（MET 1990） ?A．Given B．To give C．Giving D．Having given
单个分词在词前，有时此规有颠倒。 分词短语在词后，“定从”和它互对照。 “现分”动作进行时，“过分”动作完成了。 注：“定分”：做定语的分词；“定从”：定语从句；“现 分”：现在分词；“过分”：过去分词。） 分词做状语在句子中所表示的意义 分词做状语，概有七意义。“ 时间”和“原因”，“结果”与“目的”。 “方式”加“伴随”，“条件”常出席。
1. He never expected the professor’s lecture was so ________ boring (bore).
2. Disappointed ____________ (disappoint) at the results, she didn’t say a word. 3. The trousers are much worn _____ (wear). Why not change a new pair? fallen (fall). There must 4. Look, the trees are ______ ___________ have been (be ) a strong wind last night.
puzzling (puzzle) expression on her face. 5. I noticed a ________
raised (raise ) by the student beat the 6. The question ________ teacher.
using (use) the phrases ______ given (give) 7. Make sentences, ______ below. rising/risen (rise) sun and some 8.The child painted a ___________ flying (fly) birds. _______ 9. I felt a great weight _______ taken (take ) off my mind. parked (park) 10.Fred found many cars and trucks _______ outside his shop. buried 11.The man lay on his back, with his whole body ________ ( bury ) in the sand.
thinking (think) . 12. His question set all of us _________
sent 13. I’ll have the message ______(send ) to the headquarters
14.______ Trying (try) to make himself ______ heard (hear), he shouted at the top of his voice. mentioned 15. He didn’t wanted his family history ___________ (mention) at the meeting. 16.I won’t have that sort of thing happening _________ (happen). Cooking (cook) in the kitchen, I heard my name 17.__________ called (call). _______ Working (work) with Tom , you’ll come to like him. 18. ________ Not having been (not be) in the city long, I was still 19._______________ a stranger there.
Arriving (arrive) at the hotel, he found the guests 20. _________ had left.
21.This is a theory accepted ________ (accept) by most of the people here. 22. _____ Hit (hit ) by a bullet, the soldier fell from the ________ running (run) horse. 23.______ Left (leave ) in charge of the hotel, he did better than anyone else.
24.Cooked ________ (cook) in wine, the meat will taste better.
25. Having ___________________ been warned (warn ) several times, they became more careful in doing the job. 26.Many people being ______ (be) absent, the meeting had to be cancelled.
27. There ______ being (be) no bus, I had no choice but ________ to wait (wait).
28.The bookcase is full of books _______ written (write) for high school students.
29. _________ Guided (guide) by the fisherman, we rowed the boat to the shore. 30.People ________ living (live) comfortably in the towns hardly feel the pleasure of living in the country. 31.Modern zoos are different from zoos ________ built (build) fifty years ago.
32. He sat there, ________ watching (watch ) the children at play listening (listen) to the old men talking. and _________
eating 1. It’s difficult for foreigners to get used to _________ (eat) with chopsticks.
smoking (smoke). 2. They don’t allow _________
not to touch (not touch) to wire. 3. He warned her _____________
4. I can’t imagine _______ living (live) with somebody who talking (talk). never stops ________
5. Is there anything worth ________ buying (buy)? to know (know) the laws of your 6. You are expected _________ own country.
to wait (wait) here all night if 7. I’m prepared _________ necessary.
8.I can’t understand her __________ behaving (behave) like that.
to risk getting (risk, get) your feet wet. 9.It is silly ______________ 10. I feel like _________ (ski) through the forest. skiing setting (set ) up more schools for 11. He is devoted to _______ poor children. the children(‘s) playing (the children, 12. I don’t mind _____________________ play ) in the garden, but I can’t have them ________ walking (walk) over my flowers.
13. I hatebeing __________ looked (look ) at when I am doing lessons.
being left 14.The boy was afraid of ____________ (leave) alone in the room at night.
15.Something has been done to prevent workers from _____________ being injured ( injure) when they are working. their/them being forbidden (they, 16. I can’t understand _________________________ forbid) to go to the meeting. 17.He couldn’t stand ____________ being made (make) fun of when his wife was present.
18.This novel is not worthy of ___________ being made (make) into a film.
19.The patient insisted on ______________ being operated (operate) on even if there is little hope of success. 20.The robber was sentenced to death for______________ having robbed (rob) the bank.
21.I can’t remember ____________________________ anyone(‘s) having ever written (anyone, ever, write) about the subject.
22. He regretted __________________ making/having made (make) the decision too hastily. 23. Mother was angry at ______________ his/him telling (he, tell) a lie.
watching (watch). 24.Don’t leave. The baby wants ___________
to watch (watch) the baby’s behaviors The nurse wants __________ when there are no adults nearby.
25.If you can’t open the door by turning the key in this turning (turn) the key another way. way, try_________ He tried ________ to turn (turn) the key only to find it got stuck in the lock.
to go (go) by train tonight as there is no 26.I’d prefer ______ flight because of the fog. telling (tell) her 27.Mrs. Frost was worried. I regretted _______ that her son was in the police station. to tell (tell) you that your son is in the police I regret_______ station. taking (take) us to the circus last 28.Can’t you remember _______ month? to tell (tell) them my new address. You must remember _______
29. He forgot _______ to post (post) the letter his wife asked him to.
He didn’t feel in the pockets. He’d quite forgotten _______ putting
(put) the key there.
30.My suggestion couldn’t help________ improve (improve) their service. I couldn’t help_________ making (make) apologies when I realized I had caused him a lot of trouble.
31. He walked quietly, afraid of ___________ frightening (frighten) the snake. Thinking he would be fired, he was afraid _______ to see (see) his boss.
32.Obeying means______ doing (do) what one is told to do. to train (train) the boy to be a good swimmer. He meant ________ 33.She loved _______ acting (act) than anything else. to act She’d love _________ (act) a part in the short play. ironing 34.Does your suit need __________ (iron)?
He needs ____________ to practise (practise) typing at least two hours a day.
to be (be) wise after the event. 1.It is easy _______ 2.I’m sorry to ____________ disappoint (disappoint) you but I can’t let know (know) the result of the exam until the end you________ of the week.
To complete (complete) that book in three months 3.____________ was a great achievement.
run (run) the mile in four minutes. 4.I saw him _______
5.He made me ______ tell (tell) him the whole story.
He was made to ______ tell (tell) the whole story.
to take (take) the money. 6.The boy was seen ________
7. _________ To tell (tell) you the truth, I don’t know what the answer is. 8.He’s working late ________ to make (make) up for his absence yesterday. 9._________ To learn (learn) about English is one thing; to ________ know (know) English is quite another. 10.Why didn’t you try__________ to persuade (persuade) him to come (come) with us? _________
11.We don’t want anybody ________ to know (know) that we are here.
12.I could do nothing but ________ pretend (pretend) that I didn’t know.
13.We cannot but _______ (do) as he tells us. do 14.Can I help_________ (to) carry (carry) that heavy box? 16.Why don’t you get your wife __________ to explain (explain) it to you? 17. He decided to telephone rather than write ____ (write). 18.Why not _______ wear (wear) that hat to the ball? 19.The man was let ______ (to) go (go). 20.All you have to do is (to) _______ keep (keep) all the results.
15.He rarely left the house except________ to attend (attend) a party.
21.I noticed Diana _____ talk (talk) with David for a while.
22.He is known ________(get) angry easily. to get
23.Hook was looking for someone _______ to help (help) him.
to ask (ask) the conductor where 24.I advised him ________ _____ to get (get) off.
to tell 25.I had meant _______(tell) you the truth but I was too frightened.
go (go) without her. 26. We might as well _____ 27.He knows better than _____ to do (do) such a silly thing.
to accept (accept) the fact. 28.We have no choice but _________
29.Try _________ knocking (knock) at the door once more. 30. This medicine will help you ________ to sleep (sleep).
31.The questions _____________ to be answered (answer) are on page 30.
to understand 32.The theory of relativity is hard _____________ (understand).
to have missed (miss) the train today, we 33.As we seem ______________ may as well go back to the hotel. to have been built (build) already. 34.The palace is said ________________
35.There are always one or two problems _________ to think (think) about. 36.He got to the station only ________ to be told (tell) that the train had left.
37. He stood outside so as ____________ not to disturb (not disturb) me.
to be punished (punish). 38.We thought it wrong for her ______________ 39.The Olympic Games __________ to be held (hold) in Athens in 2004 will be exciting. 40.Be quiet. They appear ____________ to be having (have) an English lesson. 41.I want my typewriter __________ to be fixed (fix) right now.
to be shipped(ship) to the 42. Those goods are believed ___________ countryside the day after tomorrow.
not to have given (not give) you much help. 43.Sorry _______________
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