当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> 主旨大意Main idea

主旨大意Main idea


Main Idea
阅读技巧

阅读中主旨大意题的题型分类
标题类

主旨题

文章主旨 段落主旨

第一步:识别文体,找主题句
新闻报道 议论文

导语提携全文
总--分--总
(论点-论据-结论)

说明

文 记叙文

主题句
(首--中--尾)

记叙文六要素

寻找主题句的方法
(一) 记叙文: 文中一般没有明显的题句 夹叙夹议文: 主题句常在议论中 说明文: 一般在首段 议论文: 一般为总分总模式, 即主题句(作 者的观点) 常在首段或末段(作 者观点的重申)。当然,由于写 作需要,主题句偶尔也可在一段 文章中间。

寻找主题句的方法
(二) 文中出现的连词(转折but/ however, 因果 so/ therefore,或一些常见但在文章中 间出现有一定目的的词(in fact, the study shows that…, for example, in short), 这 些词后面所阐述的往往就是主题句 。

寻找主题句的方法
(三)有的文章无明显主题句,主题句隐含在 段意之中,这就需要读者对每段文章的段 意进行归纳,在段落大意的基础上再进一 步加工概括了。 (四)首段出现疑问句时,对该问题的解答就是 文章主旨. (五)关注高频词 (常为名词)

第二步: 推敲选项, 排除干扰
推敲选项正误的5个小窍门: ⑴ 根据第一步寻找主题句,找出关键词,与四 个选项进行匹配,选出最合适恰当的答案 ⑵ 正确选项常含有概括性的词语 ⑶ 正确选项一般不含绝对意义的词 ⑷ 正确选项应能概括全文,内容全面,含义深 刻或说明道理 ⑸ 四个选项中,内容相近或完全相反的两个 选项中往往有一个是正确答案

第二步: 推敲选项, 排除干扰
干扰项的特点: ⑴概括范围太窄,常为文中具体信息或某个段 落大意 ⑵概括范围太宽,所表达内容常超出文章阐述 的内容 ⑶无关信息:即文中未提到或找不到语言依据 的信息,但看起来又是对的.

第二步: 推敲选项, 排除干扰
标题的特点: 简练, 全面, 范围合理, 常为名词. 忌: 范围太大, 过于笼统, 范围太小 (常用文中细节或某段段落大意 来混淆).

如何寻找主题句
Sample 1 People have different tastes in food. Some feel that they haven't eaten a meal unless they have had steak or other red meat. Some prefer chicken or fish and eat one or the other at every meal. Others prefer vegetables and fruits or grains and would enjoy a meal of spaghetti, eggplant, and fresh fruit. Others could live on what were called fast--foods: a hamburger or hot dog, French fries and a soft drink.

(1)主题句在段首 一个主题句常常是一个段落的开头,其后的 句子则是论证性细节。在论说文,科技文献和新 闻报道中多采用这种格式。

Sample 2 Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time.

( 2 )主题句也会出现在段尾。作者先摆出事
实依据, 层层推理论证, 最后自然得出结论, 即段落的主题。本段的中心思想在结尾句得到 体现,它是此段内容的结论。

Sample 3 Nothing is as useful as a flashlight on a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark situations. Finding something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand . A camper also needs one after the light of the campfire has been out.

(3)在短文中间 当主题句被安排在段中间时, 通常前面只提出 问题, 文中的主题由随之陈述的细节或合乎逻 辑的引申在文中导出, 而后又作进一步的解释, 支撑或发展.

Sample 4 (无主题句) Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida. What is the main idea of the passage? A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer. B. Bingham is a diligent student. C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education. D. A good lawyer needs good education.

Sample 5 The study on the impact of light on teenagers’ sleeping habits finds that insufficient daily morning light exposure contributes to teenagers not getting enough sleep. ……… 50. What would be the best title for the passage? A.Lack of Morning Light Keeping Teenagers up at Night B. Light Therapy Can Reduce Health Risks of Teenagers. C. Measures Impact of Reduced Morning Light Exposure. D. Students Wears Special Glasses to Guarantee Sleep.

Sample 6 Do you want to live with a strong sense of peacefulness, happiness, goodness, and selfrespect? The collection of happiness actions broadly categorized as "honor" help you create this life of good feelings. Here's an example to show how honorable actions create happiness. Say a store clerk fails to charge us for an item. If we keep silent, and profit from the clerk's mistake, we would drive home with a sense of sneaky excitement. Later we might tell our family or friends about our good fortune.

On the other hand, if we tell the clerk about the uncharged item, the clerk would be grateful and thank us for our honesty. We would leave the store with a quiet sense of honor that we might never share with another soul. Then, what is it to do with our sense of happiness? In the first case, where we don't tell the clerk, a couple of things would happen. 50. Which of the following can be the best title of this passage? A. How to Live Truthfully B. Importance of Peacefulness C. Ways of Gaining Self-respect D. Happiness through Honorable Actions

A new eight-kilometer road is under construction that links the port area with motorway system. It is expected to carry 20,000 trucks and cars a day, which greatly reduces the overcrowded traffic in the center of the city. As part of the project, two four-kilometer road tunnels are being built below the central area of the city, one for traffic to the north and the other for the traffic to the south. The two tunnels are about 20 meters below the surface and are 12 meters wide, providing for two lanes of traffic in each direction. In the upper part of the tunnel two air-conditioning pipes remove the waste gas of trucks and cars and keep the quality of air inside the tunnel. The lighting is at the top of the tunnel, practically at its highest point. There will also be electric signs at frequent intervals. They show traffic conditions ahead and can be seen clearly by drivers. The wall is made up of four main elements, which include a waterproofing covering and, on the inside of the tunnel, a concrete lining.

Each tunnel is roughly round and the lower part of the tunnel is somewhat flat. The surface of the road lies on the base, which is made of concrete and steel. The drainage system, just below the road surface on one side, removes any extra liquid, particularly water. In the event of fire, the fire main, which is made of steel, pipes water to many fire hydrant stations at regular intervals along the length of the tunnel. The fire main is at the side of the tunnel and at the level of the road surface. Other systems in the tunnel will include emergency phones.

75. The passage is mainly about _____. A. the construction of a road B. the design of a road C. the construction of two tunnels D. the design of two tunnels

A new eight-kilometer road is under construction that links the port area with motorway system. It is expected to carry 20,000 trucks and cars a day, which greatly reduces the overcrowded traffic in the center of the city. As part of the project, two four-kilometer road tunnels are being built below the central area of the city, one for traffic to the north and the other for the traffic to the south. The two tunnels are about 20 meters below the surface and are 12 meters wide, providing for two lanes of traffic in each direction. In the upper part of the tunnel two air-conditioning pipes remove the waste gas of trucks and cars and keep the quality of air inside the tunnel. The lighting is at the top of the tunnel, practically at its highest point. There will also be electric signs at frequent intervals. They show traffic conditions ahead and can be seen clearly by drivers. The wall is made up of four main elements, which include a waterproofing covering and, on the inside of the tunnel, a concrete lining.

Each tunnel is roughly round and the lower part of the tunnel is somewhat flat. The surface of the road lies on the base, which is made of concrete and steel. The drainage system, just below the road surface on one side, removes any extra liquid, particularly water. In the event of fire, the fire main, which is made of steel, pipes water to many fire hydrant stations at regular intervals along the length of the tunnel. The fire main is at the side of the tunnel and at the level of the road surface. Other systems in the tunnel will include emergency phones.

75. The passage is mainly about _____. A. the construction of a road B. the design of a road C. the construction of two tunnels D. the design of two tunnels

在做主旨题时,我们要注意以下几点:
第一,注意段首,段尾。 一般来说,文章的第一段首句或末段尾句往 往是文章中心思想的体现处,有时段首或段尾 的话就是该文章的中心思想。 第二,特别关注结论性或者转折性的语言。 这些表达方式有:therefore, as a result, thus, so, for example, in fact, moreover, furthermore, what’s more, most important of all, but, however, rather, yet 等等。

在做主旨题时,我们要注意以下几点:
第三,在选择正确答案的过程中,尽量要避 免选择过于绝对的选项。例如:选项中包含 有all, completely, only, almost, absolutely, definitely等。通常正确的答案有一定的概括 性和结论性,过于细节的选项往往不是正确 答案,而过于笼统的选项则往往缺乏准确性, 或者过于片面,需要我们在选择时注意。 第四,标题须简练,涵盖主要内容,忌其确定的 范围太大或太小 ,设题伎俩常为用文中细节, 或段落大意来混淆视听.

2010高考

Passage 1

2010 辽宁 C Too much TV-watching can harm children’s ability to learn and even reduce their chances of getting a college degree, new studies suggest in the latest effort to examine the effects of television on children. One of the studies looked at nearly 400 northern California third-graders. Those with TVs in their bedrooms scored about eight points lower on math and language arts tests than children without bedrooms TVs. ……..

2010高考

67. What would be the best title for this text? A. Computers or Television B. Effects of Television on Children C. Studies on TV and College Education D. Television and Children’s Learning Habits

Passage 2

2010浙江 C

The term “multitasking” originally referred to people’s ability to carry out several tasks one time. For many people ,multitasking has become a way of life and even a key to success .In fact, some excellent mental acrobic exercises(大量训 练)involve engaging the brain in two or more challenging activities at a time. Although checking email while taking on a phone and reading the newspaper may be second nature for some people ,many times multitasking can make us less productive , rather than more ,But studies show that too much multitasking can lead to increased anxiety and memory loss. …………

Passage 2

2010浙江 C

52. What is the main idea oh the passage? A.Multitasking has become a way of life. B. Multitasking often leads to efficiency decline. C. Multitasking describes need to be improved. D. Multitasking enables people to remember things better.

Passage 3

2010湖南 C

People from East Asia tend to have more difficulty than those from Europe in distinguishing facial expressions--and a new report published online in Current Biology explains why. Rachael Jack, University of Glasgow researcher, said that rather than scanning evenly( 均匀的) across a face as Westerners do, Easterners fix their attention on the eyes. "We show that Easterners and Westerners look at different face features to read facial expressions," Jack said. "Westerners look at the eyes and the mouth in equal measure, whereas Easterners favor the eyes and neglect (忽略) the mouth."

70. What can be the best title for the passage? A. The Eye as the Window to the Soul B. Cultural Differences in Reading Emotions C. Effective Methods to Develop Social Skills D. How to Increase Cross-cultural Understanding

Passage 4 (10· 福建B篇) Forget Twitter and Facebook, Google and the Kindle. Television is still the most influential medium around. Indeed ,for many of the poorest regions(地区)of the world, it remains the next big thing——finally becomes globally available. And that is a good thing, because the TV revolution is changing lives for the better. Across the developing world, around 45% of families had a TV in 1995; by 2005 the number had climbed above 60%. …… Television’s most powerful effect will be on the lives of women. In India, …… Too much TV has been associated with violence, overweight and loneliness. However, TV is having a positive influence on the lives of billions worldwide.

63.What would be the best title for the passage?
A.TV Will Rule the World

B.TV Will Disturb the World
C.TV Will Better the World

D.TV Will Remain in World

Passage 5 2010 重庆A篇 One morning more than thirty years ago, I entered the Track Kitchen, a restaurant where everyone from the humblest(卑微的) to the most powerful came for breakfast. I noticed an empty chair next to an elderly, unshaven man, who looked somewhat disheveled. He was wearing a worn-out hat and was alone. I asked if I might join him. He agreed quietly and I sat down to have my breakfast. We cautiously began a conversation and spoke about a wide rang of things. We never introduced ourselves. I was concerned that he might have no money and not be able to afford something to eat. So as I rose to go back to the counter and buy a second cup of coffee,

I asked, “My I get you something ?”“A coffee would be nice.” Then I bought him a cup of coffee, We talked more, and he accepted another cup of coffee, Finally, I rose to leave, wished him well, and headed for the exit. At the door I met one of my friends. He asked, “How did you get to know Mr. Galbreath?” “Who?” “The man you were sitting with. He is chairman of the Board of Churchill Downs.” I could hardly believe it. I was buying, offering a free breakfast, and feeling pity for one of the world’s richest and most powerful men. My few minutes with Mr. Galbreath changed my life. Now I try to treat everyone with respect, no matter who I think they are, and no matter another human being with kindness and sincerity.

59. What is the message mainly expressed in the story? We should learn to be generous. B. It is honorable to help those in need. C. People in high positions are not like what we expect. D. We should avoid judging people by their appearances.

Passage 6 2010全国卷1 C Along the river banks of the Amazon and the Orinoco there lives a bird that swims before it can fly, flies like a fat chicken, eats green leaves, has the stomach of a cow and has claws(爪)on its wings when young. They build their homes about 4.6 m above the river, an important feature (特征) for the safety of the young. It is called the hoatzin. In appearance, the birds of both sexes look very much alike with brown on the back and cream and red on the underside. The head is small, with a large set of feathers on the top, bright red eyes, and blue skin. Its nearest relatives are the common bires, cuckoos. Its most striking feature, though is only found in the young.

Baby hoatzins have a claw on the leading edge of each wing and another at the end of each wing tip. Using these four claws, together with the beak(喙),they can climb about in the bushes, looking very much like primitive bires must have done. When the young hoatzins have learned to fly, they lost their claws. The drier months between December and March hoatzins fly about the forest in groups, but in April, when the rainy season begins, they collect together in smaller living units of two seven birds for producing purposes.

63.What is the test mainly about? A. Hoatzins in dry and rainy seasons. B. The relatives and enemies of hoatzins. C. Primitive birds and hoatzins of the Amazon. D. The appearance and living habits of hoatzins.

Passage 7 2010安徽 E The need to feed a growing population is putting much pressure on the world’s supply of water. With 97% of the world’s water too salty to be drunk or used in agriculture, the worldwide supply of water needs careful management, especially in agriculture. Although the idea of a water shortage(短缺)seems strange to someone fortunate enough to live in a high rainful country, many of the world’s agricultural industries experience constant water shortages. Although dams can be built to store water for agricultural use in dry areas and dry seasons, the costs of water redistribution(重新分配)are very high.

Not only is there the cost of the engineering itself, but there is also an environmental cost to be considered. Where valleys(山谷)are flooded to create dams, houses are lost and wildlife homes destroyed. Besides, water many flow easily through pipes to fields,but it cannot be transported from one side of the world to the other. Each country must therefore rely on the management of its own water to supply its farming requirements.

This is particularly troubling the countries with agricultural industries in areas dependent on irrigation(灌溉). In Texas, farmers’ overuse of irrigation water be resulted in a 25% reduction of the water stores. In the Central Valley area of south eastern USA, a huge water engineering project provided water for farming in dry village, but much of the water use has been poorly managed. ………. 75.The text is mainly about . A. water supply and increasing population B. water use management and agriculture C. water redistribution and wildlife protection D. water shortages and environmental protection.

( 09湖北 C ) Passage 8 When I was seven my father gave me a Timex, my first watch. I loved it, wore it for years, and haven’t had another one since it stopped ticking a decade ago. Why? Because I don’t need one. I have a mobile phone and I’m always near someone with an iPod or something like that. All these devices(装置)tell the time—which is why, if you look around, you’ll see lots of empty wrists; sales of watches to young adults have been going down since 2007. But while the wise have realized that they don’t need them, others—apparently including some distinguished men of our time—are spending total fortunes on them.

Brands such as Rolex, Patek Philippe and Breitling command shocking prices, up to ? 250,000 for a piece. ……… Watches are now classified as “investments”(投 资). A 1994 Philippe recently sold for nearly ? 350, 000, while 1960s Rolexes have gone from ?15, 000 to ?30, 000 plus in a year. But a watch is not an investment. It’s a toy for self-satisfaction, a matter of fashion. Prices may keep going up—they’ve been rising for 15 years. But when fashion moves on, the owner of that ? 350, 000 beauty will suddenly find his pride and joy is no more a good investment than my childhood Timex.

62. Which would be the best title for the passage? A. Timex or Rolex? B. My Childhood Timex C. Watches? Not for Me! D. Watches—a Valuable Collection


更多相关文档:

新主旨大意

归纳主旨大意阅读理解首先是对文章中心思想的理解,明确主旨。因此,要求考生归纳全文的中心思想或段落大意 是常考题。主旨大意题包括:主要内容:main idea 型、文章标题...

阅读理解-主旨大意

阅读理解-主旨大意_英语_高中教育_教育专区。英语阅读理解题型专项复习---主旨大意...二、主要设题方式 1、 主题型主旨大意题的题干表现形式 ? The main idea of...

阅读 主旨大意

高考英语阅读理解专题---主旨大意及长难句分析撰稿人:张旻 审稿人: 蒋孟君 Step I.Question forms: 1.主题类 (1).The main idea of the passag ...

主旨大意

The title that best expresses the main idea is . 针对目的 The main (...2.主旨大意题命题规律 (1) 段首、段尾句常考 一般来说,短文中第一段首句...

主旨大意

主旨大意题一般是要求考生归纳段落或文章 的中心大意(main idea)和为文章选择标题(title)。 一、题型特点与命题方式【设题类型】 1、___;2、___;3、___; ...

阅读技能之主旨大意授课程序

阅读技能之主旨大意授课程序_英语_初中教育_教育专区。主旨大意指导课件使用教案How to get the main idea / best title of a passage Teaching Procedures Step Ⅰ...

英语阅读主旨大意题目技巧

Main Idea 主旨大意题 阅读技巧 主旨大意题的特征及设题 这类试题要求对文章的整体或局部(如段落)进行分析、概括,归纳相关部分的中心大意 (Main idea),选择标题(...

主旨大意题

The main (general) idea of the passage is ___. From the passage we know...how to deal with school conflicts 50.【答案】D 【试题解析】主旨大意题。...

高三英语二轮阅读专题复习(main idea)

高三英语二轮阅读专题复习(main idea)_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高三英语二轮专题复习英语阅读理解技巧—主旨大意题 课前练习: Going green seems to be ...

主旨大意法解阅读理解题

主旨大意法解阅读理解题 1.常见的提问形式: What does the writer mainly tell us? The passage is mainly about ... The main idea of the passage is......
更多相关标签:
英语阅读主旨大意题 | 主旨大意题 | 阅读理解主旨大意题 | 主旨大意题解题技巧 | 阅读理解之主旨大意题 | 高考英语主旨大意题 | 英语主旨大意题 | 高中英语阅读主旨大意 |
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com