the science of the stars
How much do you know about the universe?
Think about these questions and then discuss them with your partner
. 1 In our solar system eight planets circle around the sun. What are they? Can you match the names with the planets?
solar system 太阳系
How to remember the order of the eight planets around the sun? My Very Excellent Mother Just Sent Us Nine Pizzas
Mercury Jupiter Venus Earth Mars Neptune
水星最接近太阳，是太阳系中第二小行星。水星的英文名字 Mercury来自罗马神墨丘利。墨丘利也就是希腊神话中的 Hermes。或许由于水星在空中移动得快，才使它得到这个名 字。 金星是离太阳第二近，太阳系中第六大行星。古希腊人称之为 Aphrodite(阿芙罗狄蒂)，是希腊神话中爱与美的女神。而在 罗马神话中爱与美的女神是维纳斯—Venus ，因此金星也称 做“维纳斯”。 地球是距太阳第三颗，它是太阳系类地行星中最大的一颗，也 是太阳系第五大行星，行星年龄估计大约有45亿年 (4.5×109)。地球是唯一一个不是从希腊或罗马神中得到的 名字。Earth一词来自于古英语及日耳曼语。这里当然有许多 其他语言的命名。在罗马神话中，地球女神叫Tellus－肥沃 的土地。 火星为距太阳第四远，也是太阳系中第七大行星。因为火星在 夜空中看起来是血红色的，所以在西方，以罗马神话中的战神 Mars命名它。
木星是离太阳第五颗行星，而且是最大的一颗。木星是 天空中第四亮的物体。木星是自转最快的行星。在西方 称它为朱庇特—Jupiter，是罗马神话中的众神之王， 相当于希腊神话中的宙斯（Zeus）。 土星是离太阳第六远的行星。是太阳系中仅次于木星的 第二大行星。中国古代称之为镇星或填星。土星的英文 名字Saturn（以及其他绝大部分欧洲语言中的土星名称） 是以罗马神的农神萨杜恩命名的。希腊神话中的农神 Cronus是Uranus（天王星）和该亚的儿子，也是宙斯的 父亲。
天王星是太阳系中离太阳第七远行星，颜色为灰蓝 色，是一颗巨型气体行星(Gas Giant)。以直径计 算，天王星是太阳系第三大行星；天王星的命名， 是取自希腊神话的天神乌拉诺斯— Uranus。乌拉 诺斯是古希腊神话中的宇宙之神，是最早的至高无 上的神。他是该亚的儿子兼配偶，是Cronus（农神 土星）、独眼巨人和泰坦（奥林匹斯山神的前辈） 的父亲。 海王星为太阳系九大行星中的第八个，是一个巨行 星。海王星。目前海王星是太阳系内离太阳第二远 的行星。海王星的名字是罗马神话中的海神涅普顿 （Neptune）。古希腊神话中海神叫波塞冬 (Poseidon)。
What interests you in astronomy? Do you know any questions that astronomers are interested in?
Invented seismography and the Armillary Sphere (浑天仪) so as to observe the universe and predict earthquake
张衡(78 AD - 139 AD), earliest astronomer in China Later Han Dynasty
Galileo made a series of
profound discoveries using his new telescope, including the moons of the planet Jupiter and
the phases of the planet
Venus (similar to those of Earth’s moon).
Copernicus 哥白尼 sun-centered or heliocentric (以太阳为 中心) theory
Isaac Newton, 牛顿 1642—1727
Universal gravitation 万有引力 gravity 地心引力, 重力
Einstein, Albert (1879-1955) 爱因斯坦
Relativity (相对论) and the Cosmos (宇宙)
The theory about black holes (黑洞理论)
Space flights (太空飞行)
Float Weightless Carbin
1. Do you know the origin of life on earth? 2. Each religion or culture has its own ideas about how life began on earth.
In Chinese culture…
earth Pangu 盘古 separates(分) the sky ____________ from the earth.
_____________ Nuwa (女娲) made human beings.
In western countries:
God (上帝) ______________ created
the world and all living things.
The Biblical Account
Day 1: God spoke and separated light from darkness creating Day and Night Day 2: God spoke and separated the water creating sky and ocean
Day 3: God spoke and created dry
Day 4: God spoke and created the sun, moon and stars Day 5: God spoke and created living creatures in the air and sea Day 6: God spoke and created the land animals and man Day 7: God rested and blessed this day calling it Holy
How Life Began on the Earth
The Big Bang
A solid ball
The earth’s atmosphere
It was full of water.
The cells in the water began to separate.
Plants on land
Plants in the water
Shellfish and fish
Insects and amphibians
Man had evolved from apes.
Choose the best answer. 1. Why was the earth different from other planets? B A. It produced a lot of heat. B. The water remained. C. The water disappeared. D. It was the oldest planet.
2. Why was life able to develop on the earth but not on other planets? C A. The earth had a solid shape. B. The earth did not have harmful gases in its atmosphere. C. The water stayed on the earth but not on other planets. D. The earth was not too hot and not too cold.
3. Why was it necessary for plants to grow before animals? B A. Animals needed plants to protect them from the sun. B. Plants provided oxygen for animals to breathe. C. Animals could hide from hunters in the forest. D. It was easier for plants to grow.
4. It can be inferred from the text that ___. D A. after “Big Bang”, what the dust was to become remained a mystery B. plants appeared before the animals C. plants multiplied and filled the oceans with oxygen D. plants played an important part in the appearance of the animals
The main idea for each paragraph. Para.1 A widely accepted theory about the formation of the universe Para. 2 The formation of the earth Para. 3 The importance of water for life Para. 4 The development of plants and animals on the earth Para. 5 The arrival of humans and their impact on the earth
Put the events into a timeline.
1. Insects and amphibians 2. Dinosaurs appeared. appeared. 4. Small plants grew 3. The earth became a solid on the water. ball. 6. Plants began to grow 5. Reptiles appeared. on dry land. 7. The earth was a cloud of 8. Water appeared on dust. the earth. 9. Shellfish and other fish appeared. 10. The universe began 11. Clever animals with with a “Big Bang”. hands and feet appeared. 12. Mammals appeared.
Keys: 10 7 3 8 4 9 6 1 5 2 12 11
Para 1-3 Finish the following form.
Big Bang Energetic dust
a violent solid ball
Explode with fire and rock Cool down
dissolve harmful gases
oceans and seas
A cloud of energetic dust 4
A solid ball
Explode with fire and rock
dissolve harmful gases
A world full of water
How life began
on the earth
1 small plants in water 2 shellfish and all sorts of fish
green plants on land
3 insects (on land) 4 amphibians (on land and in water) 5 reptiles (on land) 6 dinosaurs (on land) 7 mammals (on land) small clever animals with hands and feet 8 human
arrival of small plants in water plants
all sorts of fish many kinds
A few kinds
Plants on land
Plants in the water
Fill in the blanks.
The arrival of ___________ small plants encouraged the development shellfish and all sorts of fish ____________of early ________________________. Many millions of years later __________________ the first green plants began to appear _________. on land Later ____________ land animals insects Others called appeared. Some were________. __________, amphibians were able to live on lands well as __________. in the sea When the plants grew into forests, dinosaurs _________appeared for the first time. After they disappeared, _________became more important. mammals They were the last group of animals different produced from because they _________milk from within their bodies.
1. The earth became so violent that it was not clear whether the shape would last or not. 1) violent 猛烈的, 激烈的 2) whether 可以引导主语从句、表语从句、
Could you tell us whether / if it snows in
winter in Australia?
2. They were in time to produce … in time 及时; 终于 The doctor came in time to save her life . 医生及时赶来救了她的命。
注意: in time 还有“过些时候; 最后”之意。 You’ll get used to it in time. 过些时候你会习惯它的。 Don’t worry. I’m sure things will get better in time. 别着急, 我肯定过些时候事情会好转的。
与time相关的短语: in no time at times at a time once upon a time on time at one time for the time being from time to time
立刻, 马上 有时 每次; 依次 从前 按时; 准时 从前 暂时 不时地
3. atmosphere n. 大气层; 气氛 An atmosphere of tension filled the room.
The atmosphere over dinner was warm and
注意: 指“大气层”时, 常用 the atmosphere;
指 “气氛”时, 常使用单数形式。
4. ….as the earth cooled down, water
began to appear on its surface.
1) cool down 变凉, 冷却
2) appear “出现,似乎”是不及物动词当表示
Our teacher appeared on TV this morning. She is fifty but she appears young. 她五十岁了, 但看起来很年轻。
5. …by laying eggs. 放, 把??放在??；产卵
He laid his books on the desk.
注意: 说谎 lie lied lied 躺；位于 lie lay lain 下蛋；搁放 lay laid laid 口诀：规则的说谎, 不规则的躺， 躺过就下蛋，下蛋不规则。 The naughty boy ____ to me that the hen that D two eggs the day ____ there just now had ____ before. A. laid; laid; laid B. laid; lay; lain C. lied; laid; lain D. lied; lay; laid
6. give birth to 1) 生(孩子) She’s just given birth to a healthy baby girl. 她刚刚生了个健康的女婴。 2) 产生 The extraordinary experience gave birth to his latest novel. 这段奇特的经历促成了他的最新的一部 小说的诞生。
7. They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space. 他们把太多的二氧化碳释放到大气层中, 这就 使得热量不能从地球上散发到太空中去。
prevent sth. / sb. (from) doing sth. 制止(防止)某人(某物)做某事
Nothing can prevent this plan from being carried out.
注意: keep sb. from doing sth.中from不可省略, prevent / stop sb. from doing sth.中的from可省， 但如在被动语态中, 他们中的from都不可省。 I tried to keep him from waiting for her. 我试图叫他不要再等她了。 I tried to keep him waiting for her. 我试图让他等她。
8. …the earth may become too hot to live on. 地球可能会因此变得太热而不适合生物的生存。 有关too的一些用法。 1) too作 “太” 讲。 There is too much water. 水太多了。 2) “too ＋adj.＋to”, 有两种意义, 一种为“太 ……以至(不)……”, The question is too hard to understand. 问题太难, 理解不了。
3) “only/all/not/but＋too ＋adj. ＋to ”, 后面的动词不定式在翻译时不必加否定词。
I shall be only too pleased to hear from you
They are but too glad to do so.
We are only too pleased to work together with the workers. 我们和工人们一起劳动, 非常高兴。
4) “cannot／can never...too”, 表示“无论怎样
……也不会过分”。 You cannot praise him too highly. 你无论怎样表扬他也不过分。 5) 当too用于数量增减时, 表示“过 (多、少、 长等)”的意思。 He has given me six too many . 他多给了我六个。
-- Are you going to the football game? B expensive for me. -- No. The tickets are _____ A. very much B. far too C. highly D. so much 解析: “too+形容词+for sb.”表示“太??”, far 可置于too前表示程度。
9. …whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can be solved. 在未来的千百万年中, 生命能否在地球上 延续将取决于这个问题能否得到解决。 depend vi. 相信，信赖；依靠，依赖 (尤指 钱)； 视??而定。 You can depend on John — he is always on time. 你可以相信约翰, 他总是很准时。
believe in sb. 信任/信赖某人 trust (in) sb. 相信/信任/信赖某人 depend on count on sb. 信任 / 相信 / 依赖 / 依靠某人 rely on
Tell him what you want to say; he’s a man to _____. C A. count C. trust B. believe D. depend
解析: 相信/信赖某人: count on sb./
believe in sb./depend on sb./trust (in) sb.
Unit 4 Astronomy: the science of the stars
Learning about language
Discovering useful words and expressions
1 Use the correct prefix or suffix for each word. Write out the new word and explain the difference between the two. present presence violent violence confidence confident difference different
uncertain unfair unpaid unlike unkind
cultural global universal
universe agriculture mathematics
artist physicist chemist biologist scientist
2 Chooses the correct word to fill in each of these blanks. 1. At the beginning, the earth had no ____. C
A. dust B. atoms C. water D. matter
2. The development of a planet generally
depends on ____ A combining together.
A. atoms B. rocks C. gases D. water
3. The ____ C of mammals happened after the disappearance of the dinosaurs. A. harmful B. system C. spread D. method B when the animals that 4. Mammals ___ were harmful to them disappeared. A. prevented B. multiplied C. depended D. existed
3 Complete the following passage with the words and phrases below in the correct form.
astronomy atom fundamental puzzle exist prevent … from as a result gave birth to
Is the moon a planet? This question is ____________ fundamental if students are to show that they understand the nature of astronomy __________.
Some scientists think that the earth ___________ gave birth to the moon because the moon circles our planet. Others believe that the moon ______ existed before the earth was formed. They think that earlier in time it travelled through space as a small planet which was caught by the earth’s gravity. As a result it goes around our planet. __________,
The evidence for this theory is that the _____ atoms that make up the rocks on the moon seem to be different from those on earth. What is clear is that the moon is smaller than the earth and this ________ prevents it _____ from escaping from the earth. Although its origin may still be a ______, puzzle the moon can never be anything more than a satellite of the earth.
4 In pairs divide these adjectives into two groups: emotional words and calm words. violent patient gentle angry rude relaxing kind shocked excited easy-going calm crazy
Emotional words violent angry rude shocked excited crazy
Calm words patient gentle relaxing kind easy-going calm
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