当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> 2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题07 动词短语

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题07 动词短语


专题 07
【考纲解读】

动词短语

高考研究动词是英语词汇中的核心,而动词及其构成的短语一直是高考中的热点和难点。 动词是英语中最灵活、最难掌握的词,在历年高考题拟题中动词所占比例最大,设题时往往 都是给出四个不同的动词或短语来测试考生在具体语境中对动词短语意义的理解和运用能 力。主要出现在单项选择及完形填空中,其考点主要涉及

到以下几个方面: 1.动词的词义。考查动词词义辨析是该考点出现的基本形式。 2.动词搭配。有时只从句子的内容来看,几个选项似乎都合适,但只要从词的搭配上一 看便知道答案。 3.动词短语。很多动词与介词或副词连在一起构成固定的搭配从而形成动词短语或短语 动词,不能随意更改。 【知识要点】 动词 1)表示动作中状态的词叫做动词。 2)根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,分别是:实义动词、系动词、助动词、情态 动词。 说明:有些情况下,有些动词是兼类词。例如: We are having a meeting. He has gone to New York. 我们正在开会。 (have 是实义动词。 ) 他已去纽约。 (have 是助动词。 )

3)动词根据其后是否带有宾语,可分为两类,分别是:及物动词、不及物动词,英语缩 写形式分别为 vt. 和 vi.。 说明:同一动词有时可用作及物动词,有时可用作不及物动词。例如: She can dance and sing. 她能唱歌又能跳舞。 (sing 在此用作不及物动词。 ) She can sing many English songs. 她能唱好多首英文歌曲。 (sing 用作及物动词。 ) 4)动词根据是否受主语的人称和数的限制,可分两类,分别是:限定动词、非限定动词 例如: She sings very well. 她唱得很好。 (sing 受主语 she 的限制,故用第三人称单数形式 sings。 ) She wants to learn English well. 她想学好英语。 (to learn 不受主语 she 的限制,

没有词形变化,是非限定动词。 ) 说明:英语中共有三种非限定动词,分别是:动词不定式、动名词、分词。 5)根据动词的组成形式,可分为三类,分别是:单字词、短语动词、动词短语例如: The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases. 英语里有 许多短语动词和动词短语。 (contains 是单字动词。 ) Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries. 学生们学会查字典。 (look up 是短语动词。 ) The young ought to take care of the old. 年轻人应照料老人。 (take care of 是动 词短语。 ) 6)动词有五种形态,分别是:原形、第三人称单数形式、过去式、过去分词、现在分词。 系动词 系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb) ,作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语, 后边必须跟表语(亦称补语) ,构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。说明:有 些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语。例如: He fell ill yesterday. 他昨天病了。 (fell 是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语情况。 ) He fell off the ladder. 他从梯子上摔下来。fell 是实义动词,单独作谓语。 1)状态系动词 用来表示主语状态,只有 be 一词。例如: He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。 (is 与补足语一起说明主语的身份。 ) 2)持续系动词 用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有 keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand。例如: He always kept silent at meeting. 他开会时总保持沉默。 This matter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。 3)表像系动词 用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有 seem, appear, look。例如: He looks tired. 他看起来很累。 He seems (to be)very sad. 他看起来很伤心。 4)感官系动词 感官系动词主要有 feel, smell, sound, taste。例如:

This kind of cloth feels very soft. 这种布手感很软。 This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。 5)变化系动词 这些系动词表示主语变成什么样, 变化系动词主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run。例如: He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。

She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。 6)终止系动词 表示主语已终止动作,主要有 prove, turn out, 表达"证实","变成"之意。例如: The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。 The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。 His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。 (turn out 表终止性结果) 助动词 1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词的词叫助动词。被协助的动词称作主要动词。助动词自身 没有词义,不可单独使用。例如: He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。

(doesn't 是助动词,无词义;like 是主要动词,有词义) 2)助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来: a. 表示时态。例如: He is singing. 他在唱歌。 He has got married. 他已结婚。 b. 表示语态。例如: He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。 c. 构成疑问句。例如: Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?

Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗? d. 与否定副词 not 合用,构成否定句。例如: I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。 e. 加强语气。例如: Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。

He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。 3)最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would 等。 助动词 be 的用法 1)be +现在分词,构成进行时态。例如: They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。 English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。 2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态。例如:

The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。 English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。 3)be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容: a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排。例如: He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。 We are to teach the freshmen. 我们要教新生。 说明:这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。 b. 表示命令。例如: You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。

He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。 c. 征求意见。例如:

How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他? Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢? d. 表示相约、商定。例如: We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 点在校门口集合。 助动词 have 的用法 1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态。例如: He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。 By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 上月未为止, 他们已经完成工作的一半。 2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时。例如: I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。 我们明天早晨 7

3)have +been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态。例如: English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。 助动词 do 的用法 1)构成一般疑问句。例如: Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗? Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗? 2)do + not 构成否定句。例如: I do not want to be criticized. 我不想挨批评。 He doesn't like to study. 他不想学习。

In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。 3)构成否定祈使句。例如: Don't go there. 不要去那里。 Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。 说明:构成否定祈使句只用 do,不用 did 和 does。 4)放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气。例如: Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。 I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。 I do miss you. 我确实想你。 5)用于倒装句。例如: Never did I hear of such a thing. 我从未听说过这样的事情。 Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 进 了大学以后,我们才认识到英语的重要性。 说明:引导此类倒装句的副词有 never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well 等。 6)用作代动词。例如: ---- Do you like Beijing? ---- Yes, I do. --你喜欢北京吗?

--是的,喜欢。 (do 用作代动词,代替 like Beijing.)

He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何开车,对吧? 助动词 shall 和 will 的用法 shall 和 will 作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时。例如:

I shall study harder at English. 我将更加努力地学习英语。 He will go to Shanghai. 他要去上海。

说明:在过去的语法中,语法学家说 shall 用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。 现在,尤其是在口语中,will 常用于第一人称,但 shall 只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第 三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较: He shall come. 他必须来。 (shall 有命令的意味。 ) He will come. 他要来。 (will 只与动词原形构成一般将来时。 ) 助动词 should, would 的用法 1)should 无词义,只是 shall 的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人 称。例如: I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电 话,问他我下周干什么。 比较:"What shall I do next week?" I asked. "我下周干什么?"我问道。 可以说,shall 变成间接引语时,变成了 should。 2)would 也无词义,是 will 的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三 人称。例如: He said he would come. 他说他要来。 比较:"I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。"变成间接引语,就成了 He said he would come。原来的 will 变成 would,go 变成了 come.。

动词是英语中的重要词类之一,也是高考英语中的一个考查热点?它是英语语言综合运用 中的灵魂,没有动词的句子,就不是完整的句子可以将动词进行分类学习? 一?在句子中否定词前移的动词类 在主从复合句中,若主句的主语为第一人称,这类动词后面接含否定意义的宾语从句时, 要把从句的否定词转移到主句中去?这类动词有 think, believe, expert, imagine, suppose, feel, guess, fancy 等?例如: To tell you the truth, I don't suppose he can give you any help in such a short time, ? A. do I B. can't he

C. can he D. don't you (答案为 C) 在回答对方提问时,这类动词的常用句式为“I expect so/not”?例如: —We don't believe we can make such an attempt, can we? —I expect not. 二?计划未能实现的动词类 此类动词常用过去完成时,其后接动词不定式作宾语,或用于一般过去时,其后接不定式 的完成式表示虚拟语气,或表达原来的计划未能实现?这类动词有 intend, mean, plan, expect, hope, think, want, suppose 等?例如: I had meant to tell you about it yesterday, but the snowstorm prevented me. They hoped to have stayed there a week, but the word came. I had to come back. 三?表示将来时间的动词类 这类动词常用一般现在时?现在进行时表示将来时间?它们有 come, go, leave, start, arrive, move, begin, fall, see, stay, take off 等?例如: Your plane takes off at a quarter past two in the afternoon. 四?表示“据说”意义的动词类 此类动词常用过去分词形式,表示“据说”?“据报道”等意思?常见句式为“It + be + 过 去分词+ that 从句”?这类动词有 decide, say, know, report, think, believe, suppose, declare, announce 等?注意: order, suggest, request 后面的 that 从句中常用虚拟语气, 也可省略 should, 直接用动词原形来表示?例如: It is ordered that this design (should) be given up as quickly as possible. It is announced that two teams will have a game in our school. 五?使用替代词的动词类 此类动词后面常接 so/not 作宾语,以此回答或代替前面的句子或主从复合句中的从句及 谓语动词?这类动词有 believe, guess, imagine, expect, hope, would like 等?例如: —Will it rain this weekend? —I expect so/not. 六?混合使用在被动结构中的动词类 此类动词常用“动词 be + 过去分词”结构,这种结构既表示被动意义,又表示一种状态? 常 见 的 这 种 结 构 有 be surprised, be astonished, be discouraged, be pleased, be disappointed, be frightened, be satisfied, be absorbed, be born, be dressed, be

devoted, be seated, be engaged in, be obliged to, be supposed to, be supplied with, be connected with, be equipped with, be married to 等?例如: These years they have been engaged in building the Three Gorges. You are supposed to send for a doctor immediately. 七?能带同源宾语的动词类 有些不及物动词后面可以接词源相同的名词作宾语,即同源宾语?这一名词前面往往有一 个修饰语或另一个名词的所有格?这类动词有 die, smile, live, dream, laugh, smell, run, sing, whistle, fight 等?例如: He died a heroic death. He smiled a forced smile. Then they lived a dog's life. The lady laughed a hearty laugh. 八?瞬间动词类 瞬间动词(又叫终止性动词)表示动作不能延续,在肯定句中不能与表达一段时间的状语 连用?这类动词有 go, come, leave, start, return, begin, arrive, stop, finish, borrow, lend, open, close, die, become, break, join, kill, marry, graduate 等?比较: They have become friends since they met in Shanghai. (错误) They have been friends since they met in Shanghai. (正确) My grandfather has died for ten years. (错误) My grandfather has been dead for ten years. (正确) 九?带介词 to 的动词词组类 这类动词词组有 lead to(导致), stick to(坚持), refer to(提及), look forward to(盼 望), belong to(属于), object to(反对), be/get used to(习惯于), be accustomed to(习 惯于), adjust to(适应), adapt to(适应), put an end to(结束), devote ... to(献身于), set to(开始积极的做), get down to(着手), give one's life to(献身于), prefer + v-ing ... to + v-ing(与??比更喜欢??), come to(谈到), be supposed to(反对), agree to, add to 等?例如: The red-letter day he has been looking forward to is coming today! My brother objects to being made fun of him. 十?与冠词连用,表示“拍”?“打”?“拉”?“抓”意义的动词类

这类动词有 pat, tap, hit, beat, strike, take, catch, grasp, pull, seize 等?这类 动词常用的句式为“主语+ 及物动词+ sb + 介词+ the + 身体部位”?例如: The angry father caught his son by the arm. The naughty boy hit the man on the nose. 十一?感官使役动词类 这类动词后接不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语的时候,表示动作已经完成或表示动作 的全过程;后接动词的-ing 形式作宾语补足语时,表示动作正在进行,后接过去分词时表示一 个被动动作已经完成?但在被动结构中作主语补足语的动词不定式要带 to?这类动词有 see, look at, watch, notic, observe, hear, feel, listen to, make, let 等?例如: I saw two boys playing football on the playground. We often heard this song sung by our students after class. When I stayed at home, I often made my little brother cry, but last week, I was made to cry by my little brother. 十二?系动词类 能用作系动词的词后面常接形容词或名词作表语,此时动词没有进行时态和被动语态?这 类动词有 be, appear, become, feel, look, sound, seem, taste, prove, remain, smell, grow, turn, go, come, run, fall, make, remain, continue, stand, lie, sit, exist 等 ?例如: This roasted duck looks good and smells delicious. On hearing the news he looked sad and he looked at me sadly. My brother remained silent all time at the meeting. The speech he made proved disappointing. 十三?后接动名词作宾语的动词类 此类动词及短语动词后面接动名词作宾语?这类动词和短语动词有 mind, risk, avoid, enjoy, escape, keep, suggest, appreciate, practise, delay, finish, forbid, deny, feel like, look forward to, can't help, keep(on), miss, be used to, excuse, be worth, imagine, put off, give up 等?例如: He is considering finishing pratising playing the notes in order not to disturb others. The tiger escaped being killed by the hunter.

十四?后接动词不定式作宾语的动词类 这类动词后面常接动词不定式作宾语?它们有 afford, agree, aim, arrange, ask, choose, decide, demand, determine, expect, refuse, wish, hope, order, promise, pretend, offer, happen, seem, make up one's mind, used, be about, be able, have 等?例如: She pretended not to see me when I passed by. My father earns a low salary every month, so he can't afford to buy such an expensive car. 十五?后面既可接动词不定式又可接动名词的动词类 这类动词的后面既可接动词不定式又可接动名词?其中区别不大的有 begin, continue, like, love, prefer, start, hate?意义有明显区别的有 try to do(努力做), try doing(试 着做), mean to do(打算), mean doing(意味着做), can't help doing(忍不住做), can't help to do(不能帮助做), remember doing(记得做过), remember to do(记住去做), regret doing (后悔做过), forget to do(忘记去做), forget doing(忘记做过), stop to do sth(停下正 做的事去做另外一件事), stop doing sth(停止正在做的事), go on to do sth(接着做另一 件事), go on doing sth(继续做某事)?例如: I am too busy today, so I can't help to wash the dishes. 今天太忙,我不能帮助 刷盘子了? Hearing the story, I can't help laughing heartily. 听到这个故事,我情不自禁地 笑了起来? 十六?表示“需要”意义的动词类 这类动词后面既可以直接接动名词,也可接动词不定式的被动式,但二者均可表示被动含 义?这类动词有 need, want, require, deserve 等?例如: The new teaching building needs painting. (= The new teaching building needs to be painted.) Your suggestion deserves reconsidering. (= Your suggestion deserves to be reconsidered.) 十七?用在虚拟语气中的动词类 表示应该(或规劝?命令?建议?要求)等意义的动词后面,宾语从句中的谓语动词要用 “should + 动词原形”的形式,其中 should 常常可以省略?这类动词有 order, suggest, insist, advise, command, demand, require 等?例如:

Captain Cook commanded his men (should) jump into the sea. The police required that I (should) turn up. 十八?用主动形式表示被动意义的动词类 这类动词常用主动形式表示被动的意义,其后常跟副词 well, easily, poorly, 用来说明 主语的特点?性质或状态等?这类动词有 break, burn, cook, cut, drive, eat, iron, keep, play, sell, last, open, shut, wear, wash, write, translate, print, run, read, operate 等?例如: The clothes my mother bought for me last year washed well. The pen writes smoothly. 十九?不能用于被动语态和进行时的动词类 这类动词不能用于被动语态,它们用作谓语动词时,也不能用于进行时?这类动词(短语)有 become, cost, have, last, hold(容纳), fit, stand(忍受), suit, belong to, consist, exist, depend, happen, take place, run out(用完), break out, give out(耗尽), go out(熄 灭), burst forth(突然爆发)等?例如: The car in the garage belongs to my elder brother. The chair gave out under the fat man. The fuel ran out on the way. 二十?后接反身代词作宾语的动词类 这类动词后面常接反身代词作宾语?它们有 enjoy, seat, present, teach, help, devote, call, find, force 等?例如: He taught himself law when free and devoted himself to teaching. He devoted himself to the revolution many years ago. The boy called himself a fool when he was told to leave the garden.

短语动词是高考考查的一个热点,分析近年高考试题可知,高考对动词短语的考查主要 有以下几个方式。 一、不同的动词,后面加上相同的小品词 使用频率较高的这类动词有:call, cut, come, go, get, go, look, put, set, turn, take, pay, pick, make 等。常见的介词或副词有:in, off, out, up, away, for, on, over 等。

1. 动词+ away 构成的短语动词有: throw away 扔掉;put away 把??收拾好;give away 捐赠,分发;carry away 运走; run away 潜逃;跑开;go away 走开 2. 动词+ for 构成的短语动词有: answer for 负责;provide for 供养;call for 要求;plan for 打算,为??计划;hope for 希望,期待;ask for 索取,寻找;send for 派人去请;go for 努力获取;pay for 偿还, 赔偿;wait for 等待; look for 寻找等。 3. 动词+ on 构成的短语动词有: try on 试穿,试验;put on 穿上,上演;have on 穿着,戴着;pull on 穿,戴;hold on 不挂断,坚持,继续;carry on 继续开展,坚持;keep on 继续;go on 继续;get on 上(车) ; come on 赶快等。 4. 动词+ over 构成的短语动词有: come over 过来;hand over 移交;go over 仔细检查,复习;get over 克复,恢复;look over 检查;think over 仔细考虑;take over 接受,接管;hand over 移交;turn over 翻 转等等。 5. 动词+ up 构成的短语动词有: bring up 抚育,培养;call up 召唤,打电话给;come up 走进,上来; cut up 切碎; fix up 修理;give up 放弃;go up 上升,增长;grow up 长大;look up 尊敬,向上看,查寻; make up 虚构,弥补,组成;put up 举起,搭建;pick up 捡起, (开车)接某人,偶然得到; set up 建立,创(纪录); send up 发射; show up 揭露,露面;turn up 出现,把??调高 一点; take up 占据,开始从事等等。 6. 动词+ out 构成的短语动词有: come out 出来; go out 出去,熄灭; look out 留神,当心; walk out 走出; set out 出 发,开始; put out 扑灭,生产; give out 发出,发表; hand out 分发; pick out 挑选; find out 找出,发现; speak out 大声地说; turn out 生产,打扫; get out 出去,离开; work out 计算出,解决,实行,行得通; carry out 实现,执行; bring out 出版;start out 出发, 动身等等。 二、同一个动词后面加上不同的小品词(即介词或副词) 常见的这类动词有:break,die, call, cut, come, go, get, go, look, put, set, turn, take, pay, pick, make 等等。

1. break + 介词/ 副词的短语动词有: break down 击败,摧毁,发生故障, (身体)垮掉;break out 爆发;break through 突 破,突围;break off 中断,突然停止;break up 打碎,分解,驱散;break in 闯入(不及 物) ;break into 破门而入(及物) ;break away 突然离开,逃脱,脱离等等。 2. bring +介词的短语动词有: bring about 使发生;bring back 拿回来,使恢复;bring down 打倒,降低;bring in 引进;bring out 出版,生产;bring up 培养,养育;bring over 把??带来等等。 3. come + 介词/ 副词的短语动词有: come in 进来;come from 来自于??;come about 产生;come over 过来; come out 出来,出现;come by 从旁经过;come up 上来,走进; come across 偶遇;come along 发生, 进步;come after 跟着??来;come back 回来;come around 绕道而来;come down 下来; come on 快点,赶快等等。 4. cut + 介词的短语动词有: cut in 插嘴,插入;cut into 切入;cut across 抄近路;cut back 减少;cut off 切断; cut up 切碎; cut away 砍掉;cut down 砍倒,削减;cut out 剪取,剪掉;cut through 通 过,穿过等等。 5. call + 介词/ 副词的短语动词有: call after 以??的名字来命名;call for 要求;call back 叫回,召回,回忆;call up 使人想起,给某人打电话;call on 号召,拜访某人;call in (at)在某地稍作逗留,邀请; call off 取消等等 6. get + 介词/ 副词的短语动词有: get about 传播;get through 到达,做完,通过,度过,打通(电话) ;get in 进入, 陷入;get on 上车,进展,融洽相处;get off 下车,下来;get out 出去,离开;get over 克服;get across 通过,被理解;get along 与??融洽相处;get away 离开,脱身等等。 7. give + 介词/ 副词的短语动词有: give up 放弃;give in 屈服,投降; give away 赠送,捐赠,无意中泄漏,错过;give over 移交,交出;give off 放出,发出,排出;give out 分发,散发,放出(光,热) ;give back 归还。 8. go + 介词/ 副词的短语动词有: go ahead 着手,开始(做) ,进行;go along 进展,前进;go around 流传,传播;go away

离去,走开;go beyond 超过;go by 过去,流逝;go down 下降;go up 上升;go for 喜欢; go off 离开,停止;go on 继续,发生;go over 复习,温习;go through 经历,穿过等等。 9. look + 介词/ 副词的短语有: look after 照顾,照料;look away 把目光移开;look around 环顾;look at 看;look down 朝下看;look for 寻找;look into 调查;look out 当心;look over 检查;look through 浏览,检查;look up 向上看,查阅等等。 10. turn + 介词/ 副词的短语动词有: turn about / round(使)向后转,回头,转身;turn against(使)反对(某人) ;turn away 转过脸去,拒绝;turn back 往回走;turn down 调低,关小,拒绝;turn in 上缴,上 交;turn into(使)变成;turn off 关掉;turn on 打开;turn out 熄灭,生产;turn over 翻过来;turn to 求助于,转向;turn up 调高,到达,出现等等。 11. put + 介词/ 副词的短语动词有: put aside 把??放在一边,积蓄;put away 把??收拾好,积蓄;put back 把??放 回原处;put down 放下,镇压;put forward 提出,建议;put in 放进;put off 推迟,拖 延;put on 穿上,戴上,增加,上演;put out 生产出,出版;put up 举起等等。 12. be / get / become + 过去分词/ 形容词+ 介词的短语动词有: be dressed in 穿着;be fond of 爱好,喜爱;be lost in 沉溺于;be located in 位 于;be addicted to 沉溺于;be used to 习惯于;be curious about 对??好奇;be engaged in 忙于??;be glad to 乐意??;be convinced of 确信,认识到;be aware of 知道; be worried about 担心等等。 13. 动词+ 副词+ 介词的短语动词有: add up to 合计达;break away from 从??脱离开;come up with 找到,提出;catch up with 赶上;get down to 开始认真地做某事;go in for 参加,追求;keep away from 远离; keep up with 跟上;date back to 追溯到;put up with 忍受,容忍;run out of 用完;watch out for 当心;look down upon 瞧不起;go ahead with 开始,着手;go along with 一起去, 同意;hold on to 坚持等等。 三、动词不同,小品词也不同。这一类题应该是最难的,因为它考查面广且灵活多变。 【例】She’s having a lot of trouble with the new computer, but she doesn’t know whom to__________ . A. turn to B. look for

C. deal with

D. talk about

【解析】turn to“求助于” ;look for“寻找” ;deal with“处理” ;talk about“谈论” 。 句意是“她使用这部新电脑一直有麻烦,但她不知道该找谁帮忙。 ”故正确答案为 A。 【考点诠释】 考点一、考查动词词义辨析 这类试题的四个选项是在结构上都很相近的动词。要做好这类试题,必须明确各个 动词的词义和用法,然后根据题意需要选用合适的动词。 例 Recently, these companies have _______ some workers because of the drop in economy. A. hired C. refused B. dismissed D. employed

考点二、 考查近义动词辨析 这类试题的四个选项无论在意义上还是在结构上都是很相近的动词。面对这类试题, 必须要从四个动词的语义差别、用法特点等入手才能选出符合题意的动词。 例 When his brother was to cross the street, he was knocked down by a truck and badly _______。 A. injured C. harmed B damaged D. destroyed

【解析】 这四个动词都有“伤害,损害”之意,但具体用法不同。injure 指在意外 事故中“受伤” ;damage 主要指对于物体的不彻底的破坏,这种破坏或因自然灾害所致,或因 人为造成,常含可以修复之意;harm 用于肉体或精神上的伤害,有时可指引起不安或不便; destroy 表示毁坏十分彻底,常含无法修复再用之意。从题意来看,答案为 A。 考点三、考查动词与其宾语的固定搭配 英语中有许多动词与其宾语有固定的搭配和习惯用法。碰到这类试题时,解答的关键 是弄清题意,然后根据题意选择符合固定搭配或习惯用法的动词。 例 With modern equipment, many mysteries have _______ to light in recent years. A. bought B. come

C. thrown

D. appeared

【解析】 题意为“由于有现代化的设备,近年来许多谜团被揭开”“揭露,将?? 。 曝光”是 come to light,故答案为 B。 考点四、 考查动词与其宾补的固定搭配 英语中有些动词后跟宾补时, 有其固定搭配, let/have/make sb. do sth., 如 get/force sb. to do sth.,allow/permit/forbid sb. to do sth.等。解答这类试题的关键是分析句 子结构,找到作宾补的不定式,然后看不定式前是否有不定式符号 to,最后确定该用什么动 词。 例 The card reads: “Dear Mom and Dad, they are _______ everyone write home. Love, Joey.” A. advising C. letting B. suggesting D. making

考点五、 考查系动词 动词作系动词用时,后面常接形容词、名词、分词和不定式等,此时动词没有进行 时和被动语态。这类动词有:appear, become, feel, look, sound, seem, taste, prove, remain, stay, smell, grow, turn, go, come, fall, stand, lie, exist 等。解答这类试 题的关键首先是弄清题意,然后是分析句子结构,由此可判断出该动词是否用作系动词,最 后确定所要填入的答案。 例 The effect of the medicine on this kind of disease remains _______. A. seen C. seeing B. to be seen D. to see

【解析】 题意为“这种药对这种疾病的效果尚待观察。 ”由题意可知,remain 在此 是用作系动词,且 see 这一动作还没有发生,答案锁定在 B 和 D 中间;the effect 和 see 之 间是被动关系,所以答案为 B。 【备考提示】 全面牢固地掌握英语基础知识?高考英语单项选择题几乎覆盖了中学阶段 1. 所有的语言项目,这就要求同学们必须打好基本功?

2. 着重训练在具体的语境中灵活运用语言知识的能力?近几年的高考单项选择题越来越重 视情景的设置,几乎每一道题都放在实际的交际中会出现的语境中进行考查? 考点六、考查同根动词短语的辨析 这类试题的四个选项都是由同一个动词加不同的介词或副词构成。从历年高考试题来看, 那些搭配能力强、语义丰富的常用动词短语是命题的重点对象。解答这类试题时,一定要在 理解语境的基础上,从语义逻辑、固定搭配、前后关系等角度去确定答案。 例 How I wish that I could _______ my ideas in simple and wonderful English when chatting on the net. A. set out C. set in B. set off D. set up

【解析】分析题意为“我多么希望在网上聊天时能用简单而又漂亮的英语表达我的思想 啊” 。由题意可知,空缺处应该是“表达;解释”之意,而四个选项中只有 set out 有此意, 故答案为 A。 考点七、考查同根介词或副词的动词短语的辨析 这类试题的四个选项是由不同的动词加相同的介词或副词构成。解答这类试题的关键首 先还是弄清题意,然后选出符合题意和句子结构需要的动词短语。 例 When I was twenty, I had to _______ before graduation and work in a clothes shop to help support my family. A. drop out C. leave out B. come out D. stay out

例 Take care during the holidays! Drinking too much can _______ heart disease and cause high blood pressure. A. contribute to C. attend to B. relate to D. devote to

【解析】分析题意为“节日期间要当心!喝酒太多会导致心脏病和引起高血压。 ”由题意 可知,空缺处应该是“导致”之意,四个选项中,只有 A 项 contribute to 有此意,故答案 为 A。

考点八、考查不同动词构成的动词短语的辨析 这类试题的四个选项是由四个不同的动词构成的动词短语。解答这类试题的关键是根据 题干意思,选出符合题意的动词短语。 例 The society today offers the young generation more chances to _______ their talent and skills. A. give out C. show off B. take in D. carry on

【解析】 分析题意为 “当今社会给年轻一代提供了更多的机会来展示他们的才能和技能。 ” 由题意可知,空缺处应该是“炫耀;展示”之意,故答案为 C。 考点九、考查“动词+副词+介词”短语的辨析 这类试题的四个选项要么是四个不同动词,但副词相同、介词不同的动词短语;要么是 四个动词相同、副词相同、介词不同的动词短语。解答这类试题时,弄清题意诚然重要,但 还要注意该短语的尾词是介词、副词还是不定式符号 to,切忌想当然。 例—Do you know the plan his daughter will _______ spread a lot? —Really? I don’t know it yet. A. get down to C. live up to B. come up to D. look up to

【解析】分析题意为“你知道他女儿将要着手做的那个计划已经传开了吗?” “真的?我 还不知道。 ”四个选项中,get down to, “着手做” ;come up to, “不亚于;相等” ;live up to, “不辜负;达到高标准” ;look up to, “尊敬” 。由此可知,只有 A 项符合题意。句中的 his daughter will get down to 是定语从句,修饰先行词 the plan。 例 “I can’t _______ your rudeness any more,leave the room, ”shouted Mary. (2009 武汉调研) A. put up to C. put up into B. put up from D. put up with

【解析】分析题意为“ ‘我再也不能忍受你的粗鲁了,滚出去’ ,玛丽大声喊道。 ”从题意 可知,空缺处应该是“忍受”之意,四个选项中,只有 D 项中的 put up with 有此意,故选 D。 【备考提示】 全面牢固地掌握英语基础知识?高考英语单项选择题几乎覆盖了中学阶段 1. 所有的语言项目,这就要求同学们必须打好基本功? 2. 着重训练在具体的语境中灵活运用语言知识的能力?近几年的高考单项选择题越来越重

视情景的设置,几乎每一道题都放在实际的交际中会出现的语境中进行考查? 【试题放送】 【2012 全国 II】12. We ______ to paint the whole house but finished only the front part that day. A. set about 【答案】C 【解析】此处 set about 开始做. . .,后接名词、动名词;set up 建立;set out 开始做. . ., 后接不定式;set down 写下,记下。根据 to paint 可知选 set out。句意:那天我们开始粉 刷整个房子但只完成了前面的部分。 【考点】考查动词短语的含义。 【2012 湖北卷】21. Two lawyers have donated $50,000 to ________ our school’s campaign “Help the Needy”, which was started by our former headmaster three years ago A. sponsor C. organize 【答案】A 【考点】考查动词辨析。难度中等。 【解析】该句意为:两位律师捐赠了 5,0000 美元赞助我校“帮助贫困生”活动?? A 项意为“赞助”,符合句意;B 项意为“发射,开办”,C 项意为“组织”,D 项意为“计 划”,都与句意不同。故 A 项正确。 【2012 湖北卷】22. Finally, my thanks go to my tutor, who has offered a lot of suggestions and comments on my paper and ________ every page of my draft. A. approved C. polished 【答案】C 【考点】考查动词辨析。难度中等。 【解析】句意为:最后,我要感谢我的辅导老师,他给我的论文提出了很多批评和建议,并 对每张稿件作了推敲。C 项意为“推敲”,符合句意,故 C 项正确。A 项意为“通过”,B 项意 为“引用”,D 项意为“折叠”,都与句意不符。 【2012 湖北卷】23. Walking alone in the dark, the boy whistled to ________ his courage. A. hold up B. keep up C. set up D. take up B. quoted D. folded B. launch D. plan B. set up C. set out D. set down

【答案】B 【考点】考查动词短语辨析。难度中等。 【解析】句意为:独自在黑暗中行走,男孩吹口哨保持勇气。B 项意为“维持,不使低落”, 符合句意。A 项意为“举起”,C 项意为“建立”,D 项意为“拿起”,都与句意不符。 【2012 湖北卷】24. I’m so glad you’ve come here to ________ this matter in person. A. lead to 【答案】B 【考点】考查动词短语辨析。难度中等。 【解析】句意为:很高兴你能来亲自负责这起事件。B 项意为“负责”,符合句意;A 项意为 “导致”,C 项意为“向??求助”,D 项意为“参考”,都与语意不符。 【2012 江苏卷】26. — OK, I've had enough of it. I give up. B. see to C. turn to D. refer to

—You can't _____ your responsibilities. A. run off with 【考点】动词短语辨析 【答案】D 【解析】run away from意为“逃离,躲避”,run off with意为“偷走;与??私奔”;run up against意为“偶遇”;run out of意为“用完”。句意为:——好了,我已受够了,我 放弃。——你不能逃避你的责任。根据句意,应选D项。 【2012 安徽卷】28. The athlete's years of hard training Olympic gold medal. A. went on 【答案】C 【考点】考点本题考查动词词组。 【解析】pay off 有很多含义:1 付清某人的工资并解雇他 偿清欠款等等 2. 对某人或某事 进行报复 3.使人得益,有报偿 4.贿赂 【最新模拟】 1.【2012 届保定市高三第一次模拟】30. His friends suggest that he should take any job he can get and shouldn’t________and choose. A. pick B. take C. start D. mind B. got through C. paid off D. ended up when she finally won the B. run up against C. run out of D. run away from

【答案】A

【解析】考查动词词义辨析。句意:他的朋友建议他应该做他能得到的工作而不应该挑挑拣 拣。 2. 【2012 届江西省上饶市第一次高考模拟】 —Dad, 29. it’s raining heavily and I haven’t got my umbrella.How can I go back home? —No worry,Honey!I’ll be right there to A.take;up 【答案】C 【解析】考查动词短语的用法。此处 pick up 意为:接某人。句意:---爸爸,雨下得很大并 且我没有伞。我怎么回家啊?---亲爱的,别担心。我要去那里接你。 3.【2012 届四川省成都石室中学高三二诊模拟】8.The statement said five people died at the scene in this accident, while 15 others, their teacher included, were ___ dead by the afternoon. A.convinced B.described D.confirmed 【答案】D 【解析】考查动词短语辨析。句意:有报告称:5 人在意外事故中当场死亡,然而另外的 15 人包括他们的老师截止到下午被证明死亡。此处 were confirmed dead 意为:被证明死 亡。 4.【2012 届河北省邯郸市高三第一次模拟考试】33. The color of that T-shirt made all the other clothes pink. A. went 【答案】C 【解析】考查动词词义辨析。此处 ran 意为:褪色。句意:T 恤衫的颜色掉了把其他所有衣服 都染成了粉红色。 5.【2012届贵州师大附中高三年级检测】9. It ______ unusual courage and determination to make the break with his family. A. took shared 【答案】A 【解析】考查动词的用法。此处it为形式主语,后面的to make the break with his family B. needed C. spent D. B. disappeared C. ran D. fell and C.committed B.catch;up C.pick;up you . D.bring;up

是真正的主语。 6. 2012 届山东省菏泽重点高中高三下学期 4 月模拟】 Lucy has ________ all of the goals 【 24. she set for herself in high school and is ready for new challenges at university. A. acquired 【答案】 D 【解析】考查动词词义。此处 achieve 意为“完成,做到,获得(胜利等),达到(目的)”, 指克服困难之后取得成功、成就或实现预期的目的,强调结果。根据其宾语 all of the goals 可判断出“Lucy 达到/实现了所有的目标”。acquire 意为“取得,获得”; finish 意为“完成,结束”;conclude 意为“结束,终止”。 7.【2012 届广西桂林市、崇左市、百色市、防城港市高考联合调研】29. leave a message in case anyone happens to drop in while I am out. A.Get 【答案】B 【解析】考查动词词义辨析。根据后文的 leave 动词原形可知用 have,解题关键:have sb do sth。 8.【2012 届浙江杭州重点高中原创模拟】3. He has talents by which he might ________ himself. A. expose 【答案】C 【解析】考查动词辨析。此处 expose 意为“揭露,揭发;使曝光;显示”;admire 意为“钦 佩;赞美”;distinguish 意为“区分;辨别;使杰出,使表现突出”;hide 意为“隐藏; 隐瞒”。句意:他有一些别与常人的能力。 9.【2012 届湖北省八校高三第二次联考】26. The U.S. government on Wednesday ________ former Commerce Secretary Gary Locke as ambassador to China, making him the first Chinese-American ever to take the post. A. accumulated confirmed 【答案】D 【解析】考查动词词义辨析。此处 confirm sb as 意为:任命某人为。。 。。句意:星期三美国 政府任命原商务部部长 Gary Locke 为中国大使, 使他成为第一个美籍华人出任这个职位的人。 B. reflected C. distinguished D. B. admire C. distinguish D. hide B.Have C.Ask D.Take him or her B. finished C. concluded D. achieved

10.【2012 届湖北省八校高三第二次联考】27. Miss Green often said “God helps those who help themselves”, intending to ________ on us the significance of being independent. A. base 【答案】B 【解析】考查动词词义辨析。此处 impress on sb sth 意为:使。。意识到(重要性) 。 。句意: 格林女士经常说:“自助者天助”,她有意识地使我们意识到独立的重要性。 11.【2012 届湖北省武汉市高三适应性训练】23.One reason why the housing prices in big cities are going up all the time is that people are ________ into overcrowded cities in great numbers. A.breaking 【答案】B 【解析】考查动词词义。此处 pour into 意为:涌向。。 。;句意:大城市房价一直上升的原因 之一是人们大量的涌入过分拥挤的大城市。 12.【2012 届湖北省武汉市高三适应性训练】24.Do not fear them; for there is nothing covered that will not be ________, and nothing hidden that will not be made known. A.criticized 【答案】D 【解析】考查动词词义。此处 criticize 批评;define 限制;estimate 估计;reveal 揭发; 揭露。句意:不要害怕,没有不被揭露的事情,任何隐藏的事情都得被人们知道。 13.【2012 届南宁市高中毕业班第一次适应性测试】31.Learning to for one to get along well with others in work and life. A.create 【答案】C 【解析】考查动词词义。此处 create 创新;live 生活;share 分享;learn 学习。句意:学 会分享使人在工作和学习中与他人相处更容易。 14.【2012 届云南省昆明市高三下学期复习教学质量检测】15.Recently the south of the country has been worst A.impressed 【答案】B 【解析】考查动词词义。此处 impress 刻印;affect 影响;express 表达;design 设计。句 B.affected by the drought. C.expressed D.designed B.live C.share D.learn makes it easier B.defined C.estimated D.revealed B.pouring C.filling D.squeezing B. impress C. focus D. rely

意:最近我国南方受到严重的旱灾的影响。 15.【2012 届四川省泸州市高三第一次高考模拟】20.Your daughter ____ to be a famous musician, so you should keep her practicing the piano. A.promises 【答案】A 【解析】考查动词词义。此处 promise 很可能;预示;agree 同意;expect 期待;pretend 假 装。句意:你女儿有可能成为著名的音乐家,所以你应该让她练习钢琴。 B.agrees C.expects D.pretends


更多相关文档:

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题05 主谓...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题05 主谓一致 高考英语全面击破高考...“a group(crowd) of+复 数名词”等短语之后的谓语动词也同样可用单数或复数...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题04 名词...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题04 名词性从句 高考英语全面击破...“喜欢;痛恨;认为”的 动词或动词短语和 see to 表示“注意,留意”后有宾语...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题12 情态...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题12 情态动词_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高考英语全面击破专题12 情态动词【考纲解读】 情态动词与虚拟语气有千丝万缕...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(配最新高考+模拟) 专题03 ...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(配最新高考+模拟) 专题03 介词及介词短语_英语_高中...For 14.【答案与解析】 A 本题考查介词 as 构成的短语用法区别。A 意为“...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(配最新高考+模拟) 专题13 ...

亿库教育网 http://www.eku.cc 2013 届高三英语语法要点讲(配最新高考+模拟) 专题 13 【考纲解读】 虚拟语气是高考热点,考生需要注意 if 条件从句中虚拟语气...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题21阅读...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(高考题+模拟) 专题21阅读理解 隐藏>> 专题21 1. 阅读理解 Tickets and Events for 2012 London Olympic Games Tickets 1.A Chinese...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(配最新高考+模拟) 专题08 ...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(配最新高考+模拟) 专题08 强调句 隐藏>> 2013 届高三英语语法要点精讲(配最新高考+模拟)专题 08 【考纲解读】 在高考试卷中强调句...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(配最新高考+模拟):专题01 ...

举报文档 ddywfe贡献于2013-07-14 0.0分 (0人评价)暂无用户评价 我要评价...2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(配最新高考+模拟):专题01 定语从句 隐藏>> They ...

专题07 动词短语

2013 届高三英语语法要点讲(配最新高考+模拟) 专题 07 【考纲解读】高考研究动词是英语词汇中的核心,而动词及其构成的短语一直是高考中的热点和难 点。动词是英...

2013届高三英语语法要点细讲(配最新高考+模拟) 专题15 ...

亿库教育网 http://www.eku.cc 2013 届高三英语语法要点讲(配最新高考+模拟) 专题 15 【考纲解读】 高考对代词的考查主要是人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、...
更多相关标签:
2016非谓语动词高考题 | 非谓语动词高考题 | 情态动词高考题 | 动名词高考题 | 2015非谓语动词高考题 | 动词高考题 | 动词时态高考题 | 语法填空高考题 |
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com