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备考2010写作专题1 三段式作文法


备考 2010 写作专题 1 三段式作文法
重点诠释:
所谓三段式就是将一篇书面表达按三段的写作模式谋篇布局。 就整体篇章结构而言, 如何把 握较大的写作空间,三段式的写作模式为最佳选择。三段式的模式写法通常为: 1. 第一段开门见山,提出要解决的问题或观点,或者把时间,地点,人物和主要事件及时 点出。 2. 第二段要摆出事实或提出论据,或者把事情发展的经过详

细写出来。 3. 最后一段,得出结论或理由。 注意:要学会使用过渡词。过渡词犹如“桥梁”和“粘合剂 ” 。恰当地使用过渡词可避免结 构松散,层次分明,表意不清等弊端,使文章条理清楚,文字连贯流畅。常用的过渡词有: 递进型: also, (and)besides, what’s more, moreover, furthermore, in addition, even, what’s worse, worse still, to make matters worse, for the worse, not only …but also 等; 解释型:that is (to say), in other words, or,namely, if fact, in reality, as a matter of fact 等; 转折型:however, but, yet, nevertheless, instead, on the coutrary,on the other hand 等; 列举型:firstly…secondly…finally, on the one hand, on the other hand, for one thing, for another 等 举例型:for example, for instance, such as, that is, like, take… for example 等; 因果型:because (of), since, now that, thanks to, due to; thus, therefore, as a result (consequence),so… that, so that 等; 让步型:though, although, in spite of, despite 等; 顺序型:first…next…and then…finally, first…then…after that…finally 等; 并列型:and, both…and, or, either…or, as well as, 等 时间型:afterwards, soon, later, the moment/ immediately/ on doing, hardly…when, no sooner…than 等 总结型:in a word, to sum up, in short, on the whole, in conclusion 等 见解型:in my opinion, personally speaking, as far as I am concerned,I’m sure 等 条件型:if, as long as, so long as, on condition that , unless 等

写作典例:
假设你是李越,你的加拿大笔友 Steve 来信说,他和他的一些同学正在学中文,请你推 荐两本学中文的词典。根据下表提供的信息,请你给他写一封回信。 英汉词典 收词 (字) 价格 特点 18000(英语) 20000 (汉语) 52 元 大量例子,用法说明,适 合初学者 新华字典 10000 11 元 中国最常用的汉 语字典

注意:1。词数:100 左右; 2.参考词汇:推荐 recommend; 英汉词典 The English-Chinese Dictionary (ECE); 新华字典 Xinhua Dictionary (XD) Dear Steve, -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Yours Li Yue

分析:此篇书面表达属于实物说明文,其篇章结构可按三段式进行写作。本文的第一 段, 可用直接的叙述 “I’m so pleased to learn that you and your classmates are learning Chinese”. 正文即可作为第二段,其主要内容是对两本词典的一些介绍。结束语即可作为第三段。应将 两本词典的特点表达准确,以便加拿大笔友 Steve 作出合理选择。表达时,文章的基本时态 可考虑用一般现在时。 范文: Dear Steve, I’m so pleased to learn that you and your classmates are learning Chinese. I’d like to recommend the following two dictionaries.The English-Chinese Dictionary is really a good one for beginners. It has 18,000 English words and 20,000 Chinese words, besides plenty of examples, it has many notes telling you how to use a word. Xinhua Dictionary is the most popular Chinese dictionary, and it has a vocabulary fo 10,000 words. It may also be useful to some advanced learners of Chinese. Of the two, ECD is more expensive. It costs 52 yuan,and XD costs 11 yuan. Please let me know if you want me to buy one for you. Yours, Li Yue

针对练习: (用三段式表达,注意用过渡词)
1.目前,地球面临水资源危机,请根据一下提示写一篇 100 词左右的短文。 1) 人们以为淡水是取之不尽的 2) 实际上淡水是非常紧张的 3) 人类应该怎样办

Global Shortage of Fresh Water Many people believe that the world’s supply of fresh water will never be used up. They think that fresh water comes from such a variety of sources that it is always sufficient for use. Such an opinion leads to a shocking waste of water. As a matter of fact, the earth is short of fresh water. Furthermore, with the rapid growth of the world population, the rising demand for water by industry, and the serious pollution of our surroundings, the world is facing the ganger of running out of fresh water. Actually, in some big cities, fresh water can not meet the daily needs. Therefore, to find new ways to save water is an urgent task. First, we should pass strict laws to control any waste of water. Second, scientists must work even harder to purify sea water, and try to find substitute to reduce the use of fresh water. 2.这几年, “考生该不该复读”这个话题一直为社会各界所关注。下表是你班同学讨论的结 果,请你给英文报社写一封信,客观介绍讲座情况,并简要阐述自己的观点。

多数同学认为 1.不该复读 2.对应届生不公平 3.增加家庭经济负担 4.精神压力大

少数同学认为 1.应该复读 2.可以考上好大学 3.有利于未来就业 4.上何种大学是人生重要转折点

要求: 1.信的开头已为你写好,不计入总词数。 2.词数: 120 左右. Dear Editor: I'm writing to tell you about the discussion we've had about whether students retake classes after failing the college entrance examination.

Yours truly, Li Hua

Dear Editor, I'm writing to tell you about the discussion we've had about whether students retake classes after failing the college entrance examination. Opinions are various on the question. Many students are against the idea of retaking classes. They think it unfair for the students who take the exam for the first time. Besides, it also adds the family burden. So many of them suffer mental pressure as well as economic problems. Others think that it can be done because through one more year of hard study, they can make better preparations and may get a chance to enter their ideal universities. After all, the kind of university they enter, an important turning point in life, will directly affect their future employment. However, I think, this depends on different situations. If one student has no chance to be admitted to one university, maybe he can choose to retake classes. Yours truly, Li Hua 3.最近几年越来越多的大学生加入打工的队伍,请你结合下表,就这一现象写一篇短文。 1.根据最近调查,约 25%的大学生打零工 现象 2.在暑假,这一数字将增至 72% 3.大学生常做的零活有:家教、服务员、售货员等 原因 4.想赚钱支付一部分日益增长的学费 5.想经济上独立,买一些自己想买的东西 6. 7. 8.

意义 (内容由考生自己拟定)

注意: 1.词数:120 左右。文章的开头已为你写好。

2. 参考词汇: 调查 survey; 家庭教师 tutor; 学费 tuition; 经济地 economically; 视野 outlook According to a recent survey,__________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

According to a recent survey, about 25 percent of college students have a part-time job. During summer vacation, this figure will increase to 72 percent. College students are working as tutors, waiters or salesmen. Why do they want part-time jobs?First,they want to earn money to help cover the increasingly higher college tuition. Second, they hope to be economically independent and buy whatever they want. Third, In my opinion, by doing part-time jobs, college students can gain some society experience and broaden their outlook. What’s more, part-time jobs can provide them with a valuable chance/opportunity to know the outside world. So it’s of great significance for college students to do part-time jobs. 4.最近,网上展开一场关于“教科书是否要循环使用”的辩论。假如你是 Li Hua,请你向 报社写信谈谈你自己的一些想法。要点如下: (1.)据说我国的教科书寿命一般是半年,而美国则是五年。这说明浪费严重; (2.) 我国有两亿两千万学生, 每年要用三十亿本教科书, 这就需要消耗一千一百万棵树木。 如果将教科书的寿命在延长一年的话,那么将节省好多树木; (3.)许多贫困家庭的学生买不起教科书,如果将不用的教科书赠给他们岂不是更好? (4.)你的看法(至少两点) 。 要求: (1).语句通顺,结构合理; (2).开头和结尾已给出,不记入总词数(字数:150 左右) (3).参考词汇:lifespan 寿命 Dear Editor, Recently there has been an argument about the reuse of textbooks on the internet. ___________________________________________________________ Best wishes, Yours truly, Li Hua

One possible version: Dear Editor, Recently there has been an argument about the reuse of textbooks on the internet. I am writing to talk about it. As we all know, the average lifespan of a copy of a textbook is only half a year in our country while in America it is five years or so, which shows we waste too much. There are 220 million students consuming 3 billion textbooks each year, so about 11 million trees are needed to produce them! If the lifespan of textbooks could be extended for one more year, a large number of trees could be saved each year. In addition, many children from poor families can’t afford textbooks. Will it be good if we can afford them to reuse the books? So I suggest that all of us should encourage students to take care of their textbooks, and not only does it do good to us but also to nature. At the same time, this can also help us develop awareness of thriftiness. 5.2008 上海高考英语卷写作题: 你班将组队参加学校组织的集体舞比赛(group dancing competition),班长希望大家 积极参与。对此谈谈你的看法。 你的文章必须包括以下内容: l. 你是否会参加比赛; 2. 你做出该决定的具体理由。 Version 1: A group dancing competition will be held in our school and the monitor calls on everybody to take an active part in it. While most of my classmates are still hesitating whether to participate, I have said yes to our monitor with great pleasure. Generally speaking, there are two reasons for my decision. First, it is a good opportunity for me to relax myself, which will enable me to study more efficiently. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy, so goes the saying, which clearly shows us the importance of relaxation. Besides, I think I am a good dancer after learning dance for more than five years. Participating in the contest will be a golden chance for me to show my dancing skills and make some contributions to the class. For the two reasons mentioned above, it is no surprise that I have such a strong enthusiasm on the group dancing competition. Version 2: Today the monitor calls on everybody to take an active part in the group dancing competition which will be held in a couple of days in our school. But after some careful consideration, I have decided not to participate.

There are a number of reasons for my decision. First and foremost, as the College Entrance Exam is just around the corner, study is the top priority for me. Participating in the group dancing competition has to give way because it might take me too much time. What’s more, without any experience of dancing, I don’t think I can be a good dancing partner. I am afraid my poor dancing skills will probably spoil the performance of the whole class. In this case, it’s better for me to be a spectator cheering for my classmates. For these reasons, it seems more appropriate for me to watch the competition than to dance myself. 从写作方法来说,考生可以根据高考议论文写作的一般思路将整个文章分为三段来写。 第一段是引言段,引出两点:topic 和 thesis。Topic 就是文章的话题,在这篇文章中就 是集体舞比赛这个事情。 thesis 就是指全文的中心内容, 而 在本文中就是自己是否参加比赛。 注意英语写作需要开门见山地引出主题。 有些考生到全文结尾的时候才表明自己参加或不参 加的态度就是不对的,必须在开头就表明自己是否参加这个比赛,然后再论述理由。例如在 例文中,A group dancing competition will be held in our school and the monitor calls on everybody to take an active part in it.或者 Today the monitor calls on everybody to take an active part in the group dancing competition which will be held in a couple of days in our school.都是用 来引出 topic 的句子。而引出 thesis 的句子则是 While most of my classmates are still hesitating whether to participate, I have said yes to our monitor with great pleasure.或者 But after some careful consideration, I have decided not to participate. 第二段是论证段,也是全文的重心所在,主要是讲述自己的理由,即为什么参加或者 不参加这个比赛。 一般来说, 对于一篇 120-150words 的文章来说, 只要写两个理由就够了, 每个理由之后都有一个进一步的细节阐述,这样整体的字数就差不多达标了。例如,在论述 自己参加比赛的原因时,范文中写了两点:1.可以放松自己;2.可以展示自己的舞蹈水平并 为班级做贡献。每个观点又都有自己的支撑句,例如对于“放松自己”的支撑句就是用一个谚 语来引出 relaxation 的重要性。而对于“展示自己的才华”,支撑句是自己学舞蹈学了五年以 上并且舞蹈技艺很好。第一个分论点的论证方式是先提出总的观点,再进行论证,是演绎法 的推理。第二个分论点的论证方式是先有理由,再有观点,是归纳法的推理。 最后一段是总结段,本题目在总结段的时候可以写的稍微简洁一点,例如以上两篇范 文,最后的结尾都很简单,能够总结全文的中心即可。所用的句型也可以新东方高考写作教 材上找到原形。


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