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高考英语陷阱题汇总[共108页]


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高考英语陷阱题总汇(共 869 题,均附详解) 基础题,人人会做,显不出优势;高难题,人人不会做,拉不开距离;陷阱题,表面看起来很容易, 所需知识也不一定很难,但其中隐含机关,预设陷阱,尽管你完全具备做好此类题的知识和能力,但由于 你理解角度不对、分析思路不活、做题方法不当、使用技法不巧等,可能自认

为捡了个大便宜,而实际上 却刚好掉入了命题人为你精心准备的陷阱。不信你就看看下面几道题: 1. She was so angry and spoke so fast that none of us understood _______ he said meant. A. that B. what C. that that D. what what 仔细想想看,选 A 还是选 B?请给出你的决定——未作决定之前请不要往后看!你的分析可能是这样 的: 选项 C 和 D 不太可能是正确答案,因为像这样两个―引导词‖叠用的情况一般不可能。在 A 和 B 两个 选项中,选项 A 肯定不行,因为它引导宾语从句时不能充当句子成分,所以只能选 B 了。 事实是:如果你选 A,肯定错了;如果你选 B,那也错了。此题最佳答案是 D,其中第一个 what 用 作动词 meant 的宾语,第二个 what 用作动词 said 的宾语,即在 none of us understood what what he said meant 中,none of us understood 为主句,what what he said meant 为宾语从 句,而在此宾语从句中又包括有 what he said 这样一个主语从句。假若去掉句末的 meant,则答案就 是 B 了。 分析有道理吗?有点启发吗?你可要客观地评价噢!请再看一题: 2. Everyone knows that _______ is dangerous to play with fire, but _______ is difficult is to prevent children from playing with fire. A. it, it B. what, what C. it, what D. what, it 这次可要想好!请拿定主意,选 C 还是选 D?未作决定之前请不要往后看!你的分析可能是这样的: 此题既不选 C,也不选 D,而是选 A。因为两处的空格均填形式主语 it。 事实上,你又错了。此题的最佳答案是 C:第一空填形式主语,真正的主语是其后的不定式 to play with fire; 而第二空应填 what, what is difficult 是主语从句, 注意 what is difficult 后的谓语动词 is。 有点收获吧,再请做做以下类似试题: (1) I know ______ is important to know my own limitations, but _______ is difficult is to help others to know their own limitations. A. it, it B. what, what C. it, what D. what, it (2) Yes, ______ is difficult to find a job nowadays, but _____ is more difficult is try to find such a job with a high salary but little things to do. A. it, it B. what, what C. it, what D. what, it 答案选什么,估计你不会选错了,你若还不放心,请往本书后面有关去找找,那里有明确的答案。对 此有兴趣吗?那就再看一题吧! 3. Let‘s make it at seven o‘clock on Tuesday morning at my office if ________. A. you‘re convenient B. it is convenient for you C. you feel convenient D. it is convenient with you 先仔细想好,看选项 A 和 C 哪个更佳,当然也可能 A 和 C 都不对,答案在 B、D 当中。不过,主意 你自己拿。我猜你的答案不是 A 就可能是 C,因为你可能将汉语中的―如果你方便的话‖直译为 if you are convenient 或 if you feel convenient 了。
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其实最佳答案是 B, 因为英语中的 convenient 不是表示―感到方便的‖, 而是表示―使人感到方便的‖, 所以 be convenient 的主语通常不能是―人‖。要表示―如果你方便的话‖,英语通常 if it is convenient for [to] you, 其中的介词可用 for 或 to, 但一般不用 with。 顺便说一句, 偶尔也可见到用人或物作 be convenient 的主语,但此时的句子必须具备这样的特点:句子主语是其后不定式的逻辑宾语,如: Mary is convenient to see on Sunday. / It is convenient to see Mary on Sunday. 星期天 去见玛丽较为方便。 The furniture is convenient to move. / It is convenient to move the furniture. 这家具搬起 来很方便。 怎么样,再看最后一题: 4. A man with a bleeding hand hurried in and asked, ―Is there a hospital around ______ I can get some medicine for my wounded hand?‖ A. that B. which C. where D. what 此题该选哪个答案?你可能毫不犹豫地选了 B, 是吗?你的想法很可能是: around 是介词, which 选 用以代替前面的名词 hospital,在此用作介词 around 的宾语。 对不起,还是错了。最佳答案应是 C。你的分析并不算太错,但问题是,照你的分析,此句的意思便 是:有没有这样一家医院,我在它的附近可以买药治我的手伤?这样的语境显然有点不合情理,因为人们 通常是在医院里面治伤,而不是在医院附近治伤。此题选 C 的理由是:句中的 around 不是介词,而是 副词,意为―在附近‖;其后的 where 引导定语从句用以修饰其前的地点名词 hospital,句意为:附近 有没有一家医院,我可以去治我的手伤? 类似的例子我们就不再罗列了,您若对此有兴趣,您若觉得您在这方面还比较薄弱,您若觉得这些知 识对您还有必要,请继续往下读,后面的内容会更丰富、更精彩。当然,您若对此没有兴趣,或者您已是 这方面的高手,建议您最好别看了,耽误了您不少时间,实在抱歉!

冠词考点 ◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. ―Do you know ______ English for ?帅哥‘?‖ ―I‘m afraid I don‘t. I‘m not interested in _______ English language.‖ A. the, the B. the, 不填 C. 不填, the D. 不填, 不填 【陷阱】容易误选 D,因为表示语言的名词前通常不用冠词。 【分析】最佳答案为 A。在英语中,表示语言的名词前通常不用冠词,但在某些特殊情况下可用冠词。 如: (1) 当语言名词表特指意义,其前可用定冠词。如: The English spoken in America and Canada is a little different from that spoken in England. 美国和加拿大讲的英语与英国讲的英语有点不同。 (2) 当语言名词表示某一语言中的对应词时,其前要用定冠词。如: What‘s the English for this? 这个东西用英语怎么说? (3) 当在语言名词后加上 language 一词时,也要用冠词。如: There have been many changes in the history of the English language. 英语发展过程中有 很多变革。
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2. I couldn‘t remember the exact date of the storm, but I knew it was ______ Sunday because everybody was at ______ church. A. a, the B. a, 不填 C. 不填, a D. 不填, 不填 【陷阱】容易误选 D,因为星期名词前不加冠词;而 at church 表示在教堂里做礼拜,其中也不用 冠词。 【分析】最佳答案为 B。确实,在通常情况下星期名词前不用冠词,但在某些特殊情况下还是可以用 冠词的,如表示特指,其前可用定冠词;表示―某一个‖或受描绘性定语修饰表示―某种‖这样的意义等,其 前可用不定冠词。如: He came on the Sunday and went away on the Monday. 他星期日来,星期一就走了。 My birthday happened to be on a Saturday. 我的生日碰巧是星期六。 3. Which person do you refer to, the one with ______ long hair or the one with _______ long beard? A. a, a B. 不填,不填 C. a, 不填 D. 不填,a 【陷阱】误选 A 或 B,认为 hair(头发)和 beard(胡须)性质和用法应该差不多,要么都可数,要么都 不可数,或者说要么都用不定冠词,要么都不用。 【分析】最佳答案选 D。hair 和 beard 在用法上并不完全相同:hair 可用作可数或不可数名词, 用作可数名词时,指一根一根的毛发或头发,如说 There‘s a hair in my soup (我的汤里有根头发); 用作不可数名词(集合名词)时,则是整体地指一个人的头发。比较: He has gray hairs. 他有几根白发了。 He has gray hair. 他满头白发了。 而 beard 则通常只用作可数名词,且指的是一个人所有的胡须,而不是指一根胡须,它的复数形式, 通常是指多个人的胡须,而不是指多根胡须,如: He no longer wears a beard. 他不再留胡须。 Not all men grow beards. 并不是所有的男人都留胡须。 4. I once watched _______ one-act play, which was played by _______ 11-year-old boy. A. a, a B. an, an C. a, an D. an, a 【陷阱】几个干扰均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案填 C。第一空填 a,因为 one-act 的读音是[??????],它的第一个音是辅 音不是元音; 第二空填 an, 是因为 11 的英文是 eleven[??????], 它的第一个音是元音不是辅音。 类似以下各题的答案是 C 不是其他: (1) Before he was arrested, he had taken _______ one-month holiday, and stayed in the country with ________ 18-year-old girl, one of his students. A. a, a B. an, an C. a, an D. an, a (2) We hired _______ one-eyed man to play in our film, and we gave him _______ 100-pound check for just one minute. A. a, an B. an, a C. a, a D. an, an 5. ―Have you seen _____ pen? I left it here this morning.‖ ―Is it _____ black one? I think I saw it somewhere.‖ A. a, the B. the, the C. a, a D. the, a
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【陷阱】误选 A,生搬硬套冠词用法规则:第一次提到某人或某事物用不定冠词,第二次再提到该人 或该事物时用定冠词。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。第一空填 a,比较好理解;而第二空填 a 是因为此句中的 one 并非指前面 提到的 pen,即这里的 one 与前面的 pen 并非同一事物,这从后面一句的 I think I saw it somewhere 可以清楚地知道。请比较下面一题: ―Have you seen _____ pen? I left it here this morning.‖ ―Is it _____ black one? I found it in the corner.‖ A. a, the B. the, the C. a, a D. the, a 此题的最佳答案是 A 不是 C。请注意其后 I found it in the corner 这一信息,它表明说明者是拿 着笔在与对方说话。请再看一个类似的例子: ―Have you seen _______ new bike? I put it here just now.‖ ―Is it _______ white one? A boy has ridden it away.‖ A. a; a B. a; the C. the; the D. the; a 此题答案选 A,注意其后的 A boy has ridden it away 表明自行车已不在说话者身旁。 6. My friend Mary is _____ beautiful girl and _____ girl everyone likes to work with. A. a, a B. a, the C. the, a D. the, the 【陷阱】很容易误选 B,认为第一次提到 girl 用不定冠词,第二次提到就应该用定冠词。 【分析】最佳答案为 A。句中第二次提到 girl 时并不是特指的,此句实为一省略句,补充完整为 My friend Mary is a beautiful girl and she is a girl everyone likes to work with. 请再做以下试题(答 案选 A): (1) Jim is _______ brave boy and _______ boy never fearing anything. A. a, a B. a, the C. the, a D. the, the (2) It is really _______ useful dictionary and _______ dictionary every one of us needs. A. a, a B. a, the C. the, a D. the, the ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. Since tasting the excitement of _____ big city life, she never wants to live in _____ country again. A. the, the B. 不填,不填 C. the, 不填 D. 不填,the 2. The operation is _____ success and the patient is now out of _____ danger. A. a, the B. a, 不填 C. 不填, the D. 不填,不填 3. As _____ writer, he was _____ complete failure. A. a, a B. a, the C. 不填,不填 D. a, 不填 4. A. C. 5. A. How strange! These years my birthday always falls _____. on the Sunday B. on a Sunday on Sunday D. at a Sunday This is _____ best kind of _____ pen you can get here. the, the B. the, a
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C. the, 不填 D. a, the 6. As is known to us all, _____ tiger is in _____ danger of becoming extinct. A. the, a B. the, 不填 C. a, 不填 D. 不填, the 7. He spent too much time talking on ______ phone while we were all busy at _____ work. A. the, 不填 B. a, 不填 C. 不填, 不填 D. the, the 8. As _______ unemployment is very high at the moment, it‘s very difficult for people to find _______ work. A. the, 不填 B.不填,不填 C. the, a D. an, the 9. Apartments in cities can be quite high. Renters are paying up to $1,000 per month for _______ bedroom apartment. A. one a B. the one C. one D. a one 10. The education of ______ young is always ______ hot and serious topic. A. 不填, 不填 B. the, a C. 不填, the D. the, 不填 11. I often have conversations with John over ______ telephone, while keep in touch with Tom by ______ letter. A. 不填;the B. 不填;a C. the;不填 D. the; a 12. —John has put forward _______ most challenging question for us to answer. —Yes, it really is. I have never heard _______ harder one. A. the; 不填 B. 不填; the C. the; the D. a; a 13. ―What about ______ school?‖ ―It is as good, as anybody can see, _____ school as No 1 Middle School Attached to Hunan Normal University.‖ A. a; the B. the; a C. a; a D. the; the 14. The market for ______ used computers is getting larger and larger as______ years go on. A. 不填, 不填 B. the, 不填 C. the, the D. 不填, the 15. ―Charley Oakley, ______ NBA All-star, hasn‘t missed ______ game in the past three years.‖ ―I can hardly believe it.‖ A. an; the B. a; the C. the; a D. an; a 16. In the market, vegetables are sold by _______ kilogram, I mean, by _______ weight. A. the; 不填 B.不填; 不填 C. the; the D.不填;the 17. Many people agree that ______ knowledge of English is a must in _______ international trade today. A. the, an B. a, 不填 C. the, the D. 不填, the
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18. The cakes are delicious. I‘d like to have _______ third one as _______ second one I ate was too small. A. the, the B. a, the C. the, a D. a, a 19. ________ England of those years was _______ England in peace. A. 不填, 不填 B. The, an C. The, 不填 D. 不填, an 20. — Did you happen to see _______ black and _______ white cat? — Are they missing? I told you to take care of them. A. a; 不填 B. the; 不填 C. the; the D. a; the 【答案与解析】 1. 选 D,big city life 表泛指,其前不用冠词;country 表示―农村‖时,其前习惯上要用定冠词。 2. 选 B,success 在此指―成功的事‖,为可数名词;out of danger(脱离危险)为习语,其中不 用冠词。 3. 选 A,其中的 failure 在此指―失败的人‖,为可数名词。 4. 选 B,Sunday 前用不定冠词,表示―某一个‖。 5. 选 C,kind of 后的名词通常不用冠词。 6. 选 B,当概括事物的种类时,用定冠词,不用不定冠词;另外 in danger of 是短语,不用冠词。 7. 选 A。on the phone 和 at work 均为习语,其中一个带冠词,一个不带冠词。 8. 选 B。unemployment 和 work 均为不可数名词,表示一般意义时其前不用冠词。 9. 选 D。a one bedroom apartment 意为―一套只带一间卧室的套房‖。 10. 选 B。the young 意为―年轻人‖,定冠词用于某些形容词前表示一类人或事物;第二空填不定 冠词修饰名词 topic。 11. 选 A。over [on] the telephone 为习语,意为―通过电话‖;若用 by telephone 则不用冠 词,类似地,by letter(通过信件)也不用冠词。 12. 选 D。第一空后的 most 不是构成最高级,而是表示―很‖、―十分‖,故其前用 a;第二空也填 a, 该句为 I have never heard a harder one than this one 的省略。 13. 选 B。第一空填 the,表特指;第二空填 a,表泛指,as good a school as No. Middle School Attached to Hunan Normal University 意为―与湖南师大附中一样好的一所中学‖。 14. 选 A。used computers 与 years 均为复数名词表示泛指意思,其前不用冠词。 15. 选 D。NBA 中的 N 读音为 [??],即前面一个音为元音,故填 an 不填 a;第二空填 a 表泛 指,泛指任何一场比赛。 16. 选 A。介词 by 表示―以…计‖时,若后接单数可数名词,其前要用定冠词,如:by the week 按 周,按星期 / by the ton 按吨 / by the yard 按码 / by the meter 按米;若后接抽象名词,则通常 不用冠词,如:by volume 按体积 / by weight 按重量。 17. 选 B。 knowledge 虽为不可数名词, 但其前却可用不定冠词, 表示某种程度的知识, 有类似 some 的意思;第二空不填冠词,是因为 trade 为不可数名词,表示泛指时不用冠词。 18. 选 B。序数词前通常用定冠词,表示特指(如第一空);有时也用不定冠词,表示原有数量上的 增加(如第一空)。 19. 选 B。原则上说,专有名词前不用冠词,但在些特殊情况下也可用冠词。此题第一空填定冠词, 表特指,即指―那时的英国‖;第二空填不定冠词,表示具有某种特征。 20. 选 C。 Are they missing? 中的代词 they 是一个很重要的信息词, 它表明上文中的 _______ black and _______ white cat 是两只猫而不是一只猫, 所以 C。 the black and white cat 可视为 the black cat and the white cat 之省略。若选 A,则表示―一只黑白相间的猫‖。
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名词考点 ◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. I found her sitting in the corner, reading _____ newspaper, with _____ in her eyes. A. a, tear B. a piece of, tears C. a, tears D. a piece of, tear 【陷阱】误选 D,许多学生错误地认为,既然 news(消息)和 paper(纸)均为不可数名词,那么 newspaper(报纸)也应是不可数的;同时认为―眼泪‖即―泪水‖,―水‖不可数,―泪水‖和―眼泪‖也应该不可 数。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。newspaper 和 tear 均为可数名词,它们不仅可以连用不定冠词、可以用 复数,而且还可以连用数词。 Her eyes filled with tears. 她热泪盈眶。 She dried her tears with a handkerchief. 她用手帕擦干了眼泪。 The newspapers were full of lies. 报纸上一片谎言。 A newspaper is a publication. 报纸是一种出版物。 顺便说一句, 若不是将 newspaper 当作是供阅读或传递信息的一种东西, 而只是把它当成一种―纸‖ 来看待,也可用作不可数名词,如: Wrap it in (a sheet of) newspaper. 把它用张报纸包起来。 2. Her father works as a ______ in a hotel and her mother a ______ in a private company. A. cooker, typewriter B. cook, typist C. cooker, typist D. cook, typewriter 【陷阱】误选 A,许多同学想当然地认为:cook 用作动词,表示―煮饭‖,所以 cooker 应是其相应 的名词,表示―煮饭的人‖,即―厨师‖;type 用作动词,表示―打字‖,所以 typewriter 应表示―打字员‖。 【分析】而事实是:cook=厨师,cooker=炊具;typist=打字员,typewriter=打字机。即此题正 确答案为 B。 3. ―Why couldn‘t they meet us at five o‘clock?‖ ―Because they were delayed by ________.‖ A. heavy traffic B. heavy traffics C. crowded traffic D. crowded traffics 【陷阱】B、C、D 三项均容易误选。 【分析】对于此题,首先要明确 traffic 为不可数名词,没有复数形式,故排除 B 和 D。另外,汉语 习惯说―交通拥挤‖,而英语习惯上却不能用 crowded 来修饰 traffic,要表示汉语的―交通拥挤‖,英语通 常说 heavy traffic,即选 A。如下面一题也是选 A: She is not a competent driver and can‘t cope with driving in _______. A. heavy traffic B. heavy traffics C. crowded traffic D. crowded traffics 4. In fact, _______ one cause that leads to the problem. A. cattle is B. cattle are C. cattles are D. the cattles are 【陷阱】此题容易误选 A,想当然地认为 cattle 是单数,并且空格有表单数的 one,自然谓语动词用 is。
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【陷阱】其实,正确答案为 B。cattle(牲畜,牛)为集合名词,尽管它不带复数词尾-s,却永远表示 复数意义,若用作主语,谓语要用复数。又如: For this many cattle were killed. 为此宰了不少牲畜。 The prisoners were herded like cattle. 囚犯像牲口一样被赶到一起。 类似地,police(警察),people(人),police(警察),poultry(家禽)等也具有同样用法,即只有单数 形式,但却表示复数意义;用作主语时谓语通常也用复数;不与 a(n) 连用,但可与 the 连用(表示总括 意义和特指)。如: The poultry have been fed. 家禽已经喂过饲料了。 In Britain police do not usually carry guns. 在英国警察通常不带枪。 It annoys me when people forget to say ―thank you‖. 遇到有人忘记道谢的时候,我就不痛快。 5. By all _______, you must try every _______ to help him. A. mean, mean B. means, means C. means, mean D. mean, means 【陷阱】误选 C,认为第一空前有 all 修饰,故用 means,而第二空前有 every 修饰,故用 mean。 【分析】其实,means 是一个单复数同形的名词,并且永远带有尾-s。换句话说,在表示―方式‖、―方 法‖时,不存在 mean 这一形式(mean 主要用作动词,表示―意思是‖;也可用作名词,表示―中间‖、―中 庸‖)。此题正确答案为 C,by all means 为习语,意为―一定‖、―尽一切办法‖。顺便说一句,means 用 作主语时,其谓语的数需根据句意来确定。比较: All possible means have been tried. 所有可能的办法都已经试过了。 Every possible means has been tried. 每种可能的办法都已经试过了。 若句意不能明确地表明主语的单复数,其谓语则用单数或复数均可。如: Is [Are] there any other means of getting more money? 还有其他什么办法可弄到更多钱吗? 6. Jim is ______ person, and everyone is willing to be ______ with him. A. so kind a, friends B. so a kind, friends C. so kind a, friend D. so a kind, friend 【陷阱】误选 C 或 D。认为 friend 要用单数。 【分析】其实此题最佳答案为 A。so kind a person 相当于 such a kind person,注意两者中冠词 的位置不同。be friends with 是习语,意为―与……友好‖、―跟……做朋友‖,与之同义的类似地还有 make friends with。值得说明的是,这类短语中的名词总是用复数,即使句子主语为单数也是如此。如: He is friends with me. 他与我是朋友。 He has made friends with everyone here. 他与这儿的每个人交上了朋友。 7. We already have ______ pencils, but we need two ______ pens. A. dozen of, dozen B. dozens of, dozens C. dozens of, dozen D. dozens of, dozen of 【陷阱】误选 B。 【分析】此题最佳答案为 C。关于 dozen 的复数是否加词尾-s 的问题比较复杂,大致原则是: (1) 当它与具体数字连用时, 既不加复数词尾-s, 也不后接介词 of。 尽管有的词书也有 two dozen of 这样的用例,但这已属过时用法,在考试中应避免,如 1992 年全国高考有一道单项选择题就认为 two dozen of 为错误选项: Shortly after the accident, _____ police were sent to the spot to keep order. A. dozens of B. dozens C. dozen of D. dozen [D] (2) 当它不与具体数字连用,而是表示不确定的泛指数时,则不仅要加复数词尾-s,而且要后接介词 of,此时可将 dozens of(许多,几十)视为习语。如: I‘ve been there dozens of times. 我去过那儿几十次。 She‘s got dozens of boy-friends. 她的男朋友很多。 下面一例中的 dozens 加了复数词尾-s 也属为似情况:
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Pack them in dozens. 按打装袋吧。 (3) 当与 a few, several 等数目不很具体的词连用时,加不加复数词尾-s 均可,但需注意:不加复 数词尾-s 时,其后的介词 of 可以省略;加词尾-s 时,其后介词 of 不能省略。如: several dozen (of) pencils=several dozens of pencils 几打铅笔 注:英语较少使用 many dozen 的说法,要表示类似意思可用 dozens of。 (4) 当它后面的名词受 the, these, those 等特指限定词修饰时,或其后的接的是 us, them 这样 的人称代词时,则此时必须用介词 of。如: two dozen of these eggs 两打这种鸡蛋 three dozen of them 它们中的 3 打 注:score, hundred, thousand, million 等也具有以上类似用法。 8. She raised her finger to her lips as _____ for silence. A. an idea B. a mark C. a sign D. a word 【陷阱】容易误选 B。 【分析】应选 C,sign 与 mark 的区别是:sign 的意思是―迹象‖、―征兆‖gesture or movement made with the hand, head, etc, used to give information, a command, etc(用手或头等做出示 意动作以传递信息或命令等),mark 的意思是 written or printed symbol or figure, line etc made as signor an indication of sth(书写与印刷的符号或图、线等记号)。根据此二词的语义区别以及常识 可知答案为 C。类似地,下面两题的答案也是 C: (1) Those black clouds are a sure _____ that it‘s going to rain. A. thing B. mark C. sign D. one (2) Just as a famous Chinese saying goes, a timely heavy snow is a ______ of good harvest next year. A. mark B. track C. sign D. appearance 但是,下面一题却不能选 sign,也不能选 mark,而选 symbol(象征): The lion is considered the king of the forest as it is a(n) _____ of courage and power. A. example B. sign C. mark D. symbol 顺便说一句,在近几年的高考中像这类结合词义区别以及语境和生活常识进行考查的试题经常出现, 同学们需引起注意。 9. ―May I take your order now?‖ ―We‘d like three black _______ and two green _______.‖ A. coffee, cups of teas B. coffees, teas C. cups of coffee, tea D. cup of coffees, teas 【陷阱】误选 C,认为 coffee 和 tea 均为不可数名词,不能后加复数词尾-s,从而排除选项 A、B、 D。 【分析】 B。 选 有的同学认为 coffee 和 tea 是物质名词, 不可数, 不能用 three coffees, two teas 这样的表达。其实,coffee 既可用作不可数名词,表示―咖啡‖这种物质,也可用作可数名词,表示―一杯 咖啡‖, 即在口语中 three coffees 就等于 three cups of coffee。 同样, ―三杯茶‖既可说成 three cups of tea,也可说成 three teas;―三杯啤酒‖既可说成 three glasses of beer,也可说成 three beers。 10. _____ is a good form of exercise for both young and old. A. Walk B. Walking C. The walk D. To walk 【陷阱】容易误选 A 或 D。
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【分析】最佳答案为 B。分析如下: (1) 首先,选项 D 不如选项 B 佳,因为,不定式通常表示特定的动作,而动名词才表示习惯性的动 作。 (2) 尽管 walk 用作名词时可以表示―散步‖,但它是可数名词,指的是一次一次的具体的散步,而不 表示抽象意义或泛指意义的―散步‖,要表示此义,要用动名词 walking。比较: How about going for a walk? 出去散散步如何? Walking does good to your health. 散步对你的健康有益。 类似地,dance 和 dancing 以及 swim 和 swimming 的区别也是一样: (1) 名词的 dance 表示―跳舞‖,是可数名词,指的是一次一次的具体的跳舞,而不表示抽象意义或 泛指意义的―跳舞‖,要表示后者的意思,要用动名词转化来的名词 dancing。比较: Let‘s have a dance. 我们跳曲舞吧。 He is interested in dancing. 他对跳舞感兴趣。 (2) 名词的 swim 表示―游泳‖,是可数名词,指的是一次一次的具体的游泳,而不表示抽象意义或泛 指意义的―游泳‖,要表示后者的意思,要用动名词转化来的名词 swimming。比较: She had a swim every day. 她每天游一会儿泳。 She loves swimming. 她喜欢游泳。 ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. Ten years had passed. I found she had _______. A. a few white hairs B. a little white hair C. some white hair D. more fifty hair 2.—Hi, this way, please. —OK.I sometimes have no sense of ______ when I arrive at the crossroad. A. position B. direction C. situation D. condition 3. Shelly had prepared carefully for her English examination so that she could be sure of passing it on her first ________. A. intention B. attempt C. purpose D. desire 4. I didn‘t have to work all weekend — I did it by _______. A. chance B. choice C. accident D. myself 5. ―Did you get _____ to the party?‖ ―Yes, I replied to it this morning.‖ A. an answer B. an invitation C. a question D. a letter 6. I paid him £50 for the painting, but its true ______ must be at least £500. A. price B. money C. value D. importance 7. His letter was so confusing that I could hardly make any ______ of it. A. explanation B. meaning C. sense D. guess 8. You‘ve just missed your ______, and you will have to wait for the next round. A. chance B. turn C. time D. part 9. —Li Lin is very bright and studies hard as well. —It‘s no ______ he always gets the first place in any examination.
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A. question B. doubt C. problem D. wonder 10. —How can I use this washing machine? —Well, just refer to the _______. A. explanations B. expressions C. introductions D. directions 11. Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______. A. rooms number B. room number C. room‘s numbers D. room numbers 12. —Hello, I‘d like to speak to Henry. —Oh, which _______? There are two ______ in our office. A. Henrys, Henrys B. Henries, Henries C. Henry, Henrys D. Henrys, Henries 13. Electricity, like other forms of ______, has greatly increased in price in recent years. A. pressure B. force C. strength D. energy 14. In order to learn the _______ of the family business, Bill took a job as messenger boy in one of the offices. A. ins and outs B. dos and don‘ts C. heads and tails D. t‘s and i‘s 15. —I‘ve got an ―A‖ in the examination. —That‘s a good ______. You will surely win a second. A. result B. news C. start D. idea 【答案与解析】 1. 选 A。 hair 可用作可数或不可数名词, 用作可数名词时, 指一根一根的毛发或头发, 如说 There‘s a hair in my soup (我的汤里有根头发);用作不可数名词时,则是整体地指一个人的头发。 2. 选 B。需根据句意来分析。have no sense of direction 意为―没有方向感‖。 3. 选 B。需根据句意来分析。attempt 在此表示―尝试‖。 4. 选 B,由于上文说 didn‘t have to work,所以下文相应的语境应是 did it by choice。类似地, 下面一题应选 D,也是因为 choice 与下文的 have to do it 相呼应: Were you given a _____, or did you have to do it? A. job B. duty C. request D. choice 5. 选 B。注意其后的 to the party 和 replied to it。 6. 选 C。value 指―价值‖。 7. 选 C。make sense of 意为―明白‖、―理解‖。比较:make sense 意为―有意义‖、―意思清楚‖、 ―有道理‖。如下面一题选 D: What he told us about the situation simply doesn‘t make any ______. A. use B. reason C. value D. sense 8. 选 B。miss one‘s turn 电为―错过机会‖,注意下文的 …have to wait for the next round 所 表示的语境。 9. 选 D。it‘s no wonder (+that 从句)的意思是―难怪‖,也可说成 No wonder (+that 从句)。 10. 选 D。directions 的意思是―使用说明‖,空格前的 refer to 意为―查看‖、―参考‖。
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11. 选 D。room 为无生命名词,不用 room‘s 这样的所有格形式,在此可直接用名词作定语。类 似地,下面一题要选 B,也是一样的道理(名词作定语通常用单数不用复数): The boy was very happy that his mother bought him a new pair of shoes at a ______ yesterday. A. shoes shop B. shoe shop C. shoes‘s shop D. shoe‘s 12. 选 C。在通常情况下,专有名词具有―独一无二‖性,因此它通常没有复数形式,即不可数。但是, 专有名词的独一无二性有时是相对的,随着范围的扩大,这种独一无二性便会受到破坏。如在一个星期 (week)内,只有一个星期六(Saturday), 一个星期日(Sunday)等,但是在一个月中甚至一年中,便有 多个星期六,多个星期日了。所以我们有时可以说:We have spent many happy Sundays there. 我 们在那儿度过了许多个愉快的星期日。另外一点值得注意的是,与一般的名词单数变复数不同,以―辅音 字母+y‖结尾的专有名词,其直接加词尾-s,而不将 y 改为 i。 13. 选 D。从常识来考虑,electricity 属于 energy,结合全句的语境,只有 D 最合适。同样地, 下面一题从常识和语境来考虑也应选 D: (1) Some countries are increasing their use of natural gas, and other forms of ______. A. source B. material C. power D. energy (2) The ______ has become extremely tense. A war could break out any time between the two sides. A. pollution B. friendship C. condition D. situation 14. 选 A。ins and outs 意为―细节‖,dos and don‘ts 意为―注意事项‖,heads or tails 为掷钱 币打赌时用语,意为―你赌正面还是赌反面‖,p‘s and q‘s 主要用于 mind one‘s p‘s and q‘s,意为―留 意自己的言行‖。结合句意,选 A 最合适。 15. 选 C。从语法上看,news 不可选,因为它不可数;从意义上看,D 不可选,因为选 D 意思不 通;比较 A 和 C,选 C 最合适,因为 start 与下文的 a second 相吻合。

代词考点 ◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. _____ with any common sense can tell the difference between the two. A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever 【陷阱】容易误选 B。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。有的同学误选 B 主要是因为受以下这类句子的影响: Whoever comes will be welcome. 任何人来都欢迎。 Whoever wants the book may have it. 任何人要这书都可拿去。 Whoever gets the job will have a lot of work. 谁要是得到这份工作就有很多事要做。 以上三句中 whoever 引导的均为主语从句,其中的 whoever 均可换成 anyone who,但是不能 换成 anyone。以上试题从表面上看,与以上各例很相似,其实它们有本质的不同,即 _____ with any common sense 中没有谓语动词,所以我们不能选 whoever。此题的正确答案为 C,anyone 为句子 主语,with any common sense 为修饰 anyone 的定语。现将此题稍作改动如下,答案选 B: _______ has any common sense can tell the difference between the two.
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A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. Who ever 2. The dictionary is really useful. Every boy and girl _____ it and they each _____ to buy one. A. like, want B. likes, wants C. likes, want D. like, wants 【陷阱】容易误选 D。认为前面一空填复数动词,因为其主语是 boy and girl,为复数;第二空填 单数动词,因为其前有 each,表示―每一个‖。 【分析】事实上,此题应选 C。因为按英语习惯,every 后接两个并列的单数名词作主语时,谓语动 词要用单数, 即第一空填 likes; 而第二空要填复数动词 want, 是因为其前的主语是 they 而不是 each (each 为主语的同位语)。 3. Everyone knows that Canada is larger than _____ country in Asia. A. any B. any other C. other D. another 【陷阱】容易误选 B。选择的依据是以下大家熟悉的句型(其中的 other 不可省略): He is taller than any other student in our class. 他是我们班最高的。 English is more widely used in international intercourse than any other language today. 现今英语在国际交往中比其他任何语言用得都广。 【分析】但是上面一题与这类句子有所不同。这类句型到底该不该加 other,主要应看所谈论的对象 是否在比较的范围之内:若在范围之内,则用 other (以排除自己与自己比较);若不在范围之内,则不 用 other。比较下面一题: China is larger than _____ country in Asia. A. any B. any other C. other D. another 此题应选 B,因为 China 在 Asia 的范围之内。假若选 A,则表示―中国比亚洲的任何国家都大‖, 而中国本身也是亚洲国家,由此则得出―中国比中国大‖的荒谬结论。而选 B,则表示―中国比亚洲任何其他 国家要大‖,这才合乎事实。 4. ―What do you think of them?‖ ―I don‘t know _____ is better, so I‘ve taken _____ of them.‖ A. what, both B. what, none C. which, both C. which, none 【陷阱】几个干扰均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。做好此题的关键是要注意句中的 better 一词,由于 better 用的是比较级, 说明比较的对象应是两者,由此可推知第二空应填 both;另一方面,由于所谈论的是两者,说明选择范 围比较窄、比较明确,所以第一空应填 which。 5. ―Would you like a cup of coffee or a glass of beer?‖ ―____ will do, but milk is _____ popular with me.‖ A. Neither, not B. Both, more C. Either, the most D. All, the most 【陷阱】很容易误选 B,因为前文提到 coffee 和 beer 为两者,所以有的同学就认为应选 both 和 more 与之对应(more 为比较级,指两者比较)。 【分析】做对此题的关键是要注意到下文提到的 milk 既不是 coffee 也不是 beer,而是除这两者 外的第三者,故第二空应填 the most,即此题最佳答案为 C。 6. I read about it in some book or other, does it matter _____ it was? A. where B. what C. how D. which
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此题答案选 D,主要与上文的 some book or other (某一本书)这一语境有关,全句句意为:―我在 某一本书上读到过它,是哪一本书这很重要吗?‖请看类似试题: (1) ―Who told you?‖ ―Oh, somebody or other, I‘ve forgotten _____.‖ A. what B. when C. which D. who 此题最佳答案为 D。句意为:―谁告诉你的?‖―噢,有个人,我忘记是哪一个了。‖ (2) Some of the students were late for the meeting, but I can‘t remember _____. A. what B. when C. which D. whom 此题最佳答案为 C。句意为―有些学生开会迟到了,但我不记得是哪些学生了‖。 7. These trousers are dirty and wet — I‘ll change into my _____. A. another B. trousers C. others D. other 【陷阱】容易误选 A、B。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。是从语法上看,another 后通常接单数名词,而不接 trousers 这样的复数 名词(若用 another pair 则可以);也不能选 trousers 是因为填它句子意思不通。最佳答案应选 C, others 相当于 other trousers,其中的 other 与前面的 these 相对照。 8. Her lecture was hard to follow because she kept jumping from one subject to _____. A. other B. the other C. the others D. another 【陷阱】容易误选 B。选择依据可能是 one … the other …这一常用结构。 【分析】最佳答案为 D。使用 one … the other … 时,我们通常是针对两者而言的,即指―两者中 的一个……,另一个……‖;如果所谈论的情况不是针对两者而言的,而是针对多者而言的,那么我们就不 宜在 one 后使用 the other,而考虑用 another。又如(答案均选 D,即选 another): (1) Those cakes look delicious. Could I have _____ one? A. other B. the other C. the others D. another (2) I have many such novels. I‘ll bring _____ tomorrow. A. other B. the other C. the others D. another (3) Saying is one thing and doing is _____. A. other B. the other C. the others D. another 比较以下各例: (1) Shut ____ eye, Jim. A. another B. some other C. other D. the other 答案选 D,因为人的眼睛只有两只,故用 one … the other … 结构。 (2) It‘s sometimes hard to tell one twin from _____. A. another B. some other C. other D. the other 答案选 D,twin 意为―孪生子之一‖、―双胞胎之一‖,即指两者之一,故用 one … the other … 这 一结构。 9. There are four bedrooms, ______ with its own bathroom. A. all B. each C. every D. either
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此题容易误选 A,认为既然前面出现了 four bedrooms,故填 all 与之对应。其实,此题的最佳答 案应为 B, 原因是空格后的隐藏信息 its, 它表示空格处应填一个单数代词, 但是不能选 C, 因为 every 不 能这样单独使用。 10. ―It‘s said that he is a wise leader.‖ ―Oh, no, he is _____ but a wise leader.‖ A. anything B. anyone C. anybody D. anywhere 【陷阱】容易误选 B、C。因为句子主语指人,似乎只有 B、C 才与之一致。 【分析】其实,正确答案应选 A。因为 anything but 是习语,意为―根本不是‖或―一点也不‖,不仅 可用于事物,也可用于人。如: I‘ll do anything but that. 我绝不会干那种事。 The party was anything but a success. 晚会根本不成功。 Her father was anything but a poet. 她父亲根本不是诗人。 Such a man was anything but a hero. 那样的人绝不算英雄。 11. Tell _______ you like — it makes no difference to me. A. anyone B. who C. whoever D. what 【陷阱】容易从中文字面来理解而误选 A 或 B。 【分析】最佳答案选 C。但若将 A, B 两项合起来,即用 anyone who 这样的形式则也可以。选 C, whoever 引导一个宾语从句,用作动词 tell 的宾语。同样地,请看以下类似试题: (1) _____ comes is welcome. A. Anyone B. Who C. Anyone who D. Everyone 此题很容易误选 A,因为从汉语意思来分析,可理解为―任何人来都欢迎‖,但若选 A,此句的结构是 混乱的,句中有两个谓语动词 comes 和 is,但却只是一个句子。此题应选 C,anyone 是句子主语, who comes 是修饰 anyone 的定语从句。 (2) _____ comes to see me, tell him I‘m out. A. Anyone B. Who C. Whoever D. Everyone 此题很容易按汉语意思误选 A,其实应选 C。whoever 引导的是让步状语从句,相当于 no matter who。 (3) Sarah hopes to become a friend of _____ shares her interests. A. anyone B. whomever C. whoever D. no matter who 此题不能选 A,假若选 A,应在其后加上 who,即用 anyone who;也不能选 B,一是因为空格处 应填一个作主语的词(因为其后有谓语动词 shares),二是因为在现代英语中 whomever 这个词已基本 废除 (也就是说,在现代英语中 whoever 既用作主语,也用作宾语,如:Give it to whoever you see in the meeting-room. 你在会议室里看见谁就把它给谁);也不能选 D,因为 no matter who 只用于 引导让步状语从句,不用于引导名词性从句。此题正确答案为 C,whoever 在此相当于 anyone who。 比较下例,答案应选 A,而不是 B、C 或 D(注意句意): It was a matter of _____ would take the position. A. who B. whoever C. whom D. whomever 12. The teacher told us that the problem was not _____ easy and that we should think _____ over carefully. A. such, it B. that, it C. such, 不填 D. that,不填
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【陷阱】容易根据汉语字面意思误选 C。 【分析】最佳答案选 B。第一空填 that,that 用作副词,相当于 so,又如: Is it always that hot? 总那么热吗?(其中的 that hot 可以换成 so hot,但不能换成 such hot) I can only tell you that much. 我只能告诉你这么多。(其中的 that much 可以换成 so much, 但不能换成 such much) 注意第一空不能填 such,因为 such 不用作副词,即它不用于修饰形容词。 另外,汉语中说―好好想一想‖,通常可以不带宾语,但英语中的 think over 是及物动词,如果用它 来表示―好好想一想‖,应根据上下文的语境让它带上适当的宾语,所以本题应用 think it over,相当于 think the problem over。 13. The camera isn‘t good enough; I want to change ______. A. another B. a good one C. it with another D. it for another 【陷阱】容易根据汉语字面意思误选 A、B。 【分析】此题最佳答案为 D。英语中的 change sth 表示的是―换某物‖,sth 是被换的东西,而 change sth for sth else 表示的才是―用某物换另一物‖。比较: That coat was too large and I had to change it. 那件外套太大了,我得去换一件。 That coat was too large and I had to change it for a smaller one. 那件外套太大了,我得去 换一件小一点的。 14. I agree with most of what you said, but I don‘t agree with ______. A. everything B. anything C. something D. nothing 【陷阱】此题容易误选 B,生搬硬套不定代词用法规则:something 用于肯定句,anything 用于 否定句或疑问句。 【分析】其实此题应选 A,注意前文的 I agree with most of what you said(我同意你说的大部 分内容),其后的 not 与 everything 构成部分否定,意为―不是所有的都同意‖,前后两部分用转折连词 but 连接,语气通顺、连贯。请看一个类似的例子: ______ likes money, but money is not ______. A. Everyone, everything B. Anyone, anything C. Someone, nothing D. Nobody, everything 最佳答案选 A,句意为―大家都喜欢钱,但钱不是万能的‖。 15. ―Is there ______ here?‖ ―No, Bob and Tim have asked for leave.‖ A. anybody B. everybody C. somebody D. nobody 【陷阱】此题容易误选 A。认为这是一般疑问句,要用 anybody。 【分析】其实此题应选 B,主要与上下文的语境有关。全文语境为:―大家都到齐了吗?‖―没有,Bob 和 Tim 两人请假了。‖假若我们将此题作如下变换,则情形就会有所不同: ―Is there ______ here?‖ ―Yes, I‘m upstairs. Please come and help me.‖ A. anybody B. everybody C. somebody D. nobody 此题的最佳答案应是 A,而不是 B。 请再看一例: ―Do you have _____ at home now, Mary?‖ ―No, we still have to get some fruit and tea.‖ A. something B. anything C. everything D. nothing 答案选 C,句意为―玛丽,现在家里东西都准备齐了吗?‖―还没有,我们还要买些水果和茶。‖
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16. ―If you want a necklace, I‘ll buy one for you at once.‖ ―Oh, no. A necklace is not _____ that I need most. A. anything B. something C. nothing D. everything 【陷阱】此题容易误选 A,机械地套用以下规则:something 用于肯定句,anything 用于否定句 或疑问句。 【分析】当然以上规则在通常情况下是有效的,但此句不属通常用法。此题的最佳答案应是 B, something 在此的意思不是―某种东西‖,而是指―那种东西‖或―这种东西‖,即心中最想要的那种东西(相 当于 the thing)。同样地,下面几题的最佳答案也是 something,而不是 anything: (1) It‘s not _____ that we want to talk about; let‘s change the subject. A. anything B. something C. nothing D. everything (2) It‘s not _____ I enjoy; I do it purely out of a sense of duty. A. anything B. something C. nothing D. everything (3) Self-control is not _____ that comes with your birth. A. anything B. something C. nothing D. everything (4) This is not _____ that would disturb me anyway. A. anything B. something C. nothing D. everything 17. Some say one thing, but _____. A. other, another B. others, another C. others, the other D. the others, others 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 B。but others another 为 but others say another 之省略。在并列句中, 若后面分句与前面分句有相同的词,常把后一分句中的相同部分给省略掉,以避免重复。如: One soldier was killed and another wounded. 有一名士兵被打死,另一名被打伤。(wounded 前省略了 was) I work in a factory and my brother on a farm. 我在工厂工作,我弟弟在农场工作。(on a farm 前省略了 works) My room is on the second floor and his on the third. 我的房间在三楼,他的房间在四楼。(on the third 前省略了 is) 18. He is a hard-working student, _____ who will be successful in whatever career he chooses. A. that B. he C. one D. which 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】 此题答案选 C, one 相当于 a student。 类似地, 以下各题也选 one, 它们分别相当于 a table, a break, a question, a Mexican carpet, a moment: (1) A table made of steel costs more than _______ made of wood. A. one B. it C. those D. which (2)―Why don‘t we take a little break?‖ ―Didn‘t we just have _____?‖ A. it B. that C. one D. this
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(3) The question is _____ of great importance. A. that B. it C. one D. what (4) She wants a Mexican carpet, but she can‘t afford to buy ______. A. one B. it C. them D. the one (5) Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, _____ I will always treasure. A. that B. one C. it D. what ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. Tom‘s mother always told him not to smoke again, but _____ didn‘t help. A. he B. it C. which D. as 2. Both teams were in hard training; _____ was willing to lose the game. A. either B. neither C. another D. the other 3. There he pointed to _____ looked like a stone and said that‘s ______ you had to carry home. A. that, that B. what, what C. which, what D. as, which 4. I know nothing about the accident except _____ I read in the paper. A. that B. for C. what D. 不填 5. Energy is ____ makes one work. A. what B. something C. anything D. that 6. Don‘t go to _____ places where there is no fresh air. A. such B. so C. those D. which 7. The classroom is almost empty, where is _____? A. someone B. anyone C. everyone D. no one 8. I‘m afraid we can‘t have coffee; there‘s _____ left. A. nothing B. none C. no one D. no any 9. _____ worries me is _____ we‘re going to pay for all this. A. It, that B. That, how C. What, how D. As, that 10. He just does ______ he pleases and never thinks about anyone else. A. that B. what C. which D. how 11. _____ of you comes first will get the ticket. A. Which B. Whichever C. Who D. Whatever
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12. His income is double _____ it was five years ago. A. that B. which C. as D. what 13. If you want a friend, you‘ll find _____ in me. A. one B. it C. that D. him 14. Oh, how beautiful it is! I like _____ better. A. everything B. anything C. nothing D. something 15. Do you know _______ friends are coming to our party? A. whose else‘s B. who‘s else C. whose else D. who else‘s 16. _______ leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D. No matter who 17. Jane hopes to become a friend of _______ shares her interests. A. whomever B. anyone C. whoever D. no matter who 18. Some friends tried to settle the quarrel between Mr and Mrs Smith without hurting the feeling of _______, but failed. A. none B. either C. all D. neither 19. —Here are the best styles of the clothes. Which one do you like? — _______. They are not so nice as I expected. A. Neither B. All C. Nothing D. None 20. Mr Ascot, headmaster of the school, refused to accept ______of the three suggestions made by the Students‘ Union. A. either B. neither C. any D. none 21. ―There‘s coffee and tea; you can have _______.‖ ―Thanks.‖ A. either B. each C. one D. it 22. ―When shall we meet again?‖ ―Make it _______day you like; it‘s all the same to me.‖ A. one B. any C. another D. some 23. ―Susan, go and join your sister cleaning the yard.‖ ―Why ______? John is sitting there doing nothing.‖ A. him B. he C. I D. me 【答案与解析】 1. 选 B,it 指前面提到的情况。由于句中用了并列连词 but,所以不能选 C。当然,若去掉空格前 的 but,则可选 C。 3. 选 B,因是 both teams,即谈论的是两者,因此可锁定 A 和 B;从语境上看,应选 B,即双方 都不愿输。
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3. 选 B。 即两空均填 what, 第一个 what 相当于 something that; 第二个 what 相当于 the thing that。 4. 选 C,what 在句中用作动词 read 的宾语。 5. 选 A,what 相当于 something that。 6. 选 C,但容易误选 A。按英语习惯,受 such 修饰的名词后跟定语从句时,引导定语从句的关系 词一般只能是 as,而不能是 that, which, who, where 等。如:Such women as knew him thought he was charming. 认识他的女人都认为他很有魅力。此句中的 as 就不能换成 that 或 who,若要使 用 that 或 who,则需将 such 换掉,如说成 Those women who knew Tom thought he was charming. 7. 选 C,句意为―教室几乎是空的,大家都到哪里去了?‖ 8. 选 B,nothing 指―什么也没有‖;none 指数量上的―一点(个)也没有‖。注:回答 how much 和 how many 时要用 none,而不用 nothing,道理同此。 9. 选 C,what worries me 为主语从句,且 what 在主语从句中用作主语。 10. 选 B。从句意推知。 11. 选 B 最佳,因 who 后通常不接表示范围的 of 短语,故不宜选 C;若选 A,则句型不对;若选 D,则语义不通。 12. 选 D,what 相当于 the amount that。 13. 选 A,one 在此相当于 a friend。 14. 选 C,I like nothing better 相当于 It‘s the best thing I like。 15. 选 D。else 可放在 who, what, where, how, why 等疑问词之后,但习惯上不放在 which 之后,而且在一般情况下也不用在 whose 后,遇此情况可用 who else‘s,如: Who else‘s fault could it be? 这会是其他什么人的错吗? 但是,若其后不修饰名词,有时也可用 whose else。如: Whose else could it be? 这会是其他什么人的吗? 16. 选 C。其余三者均不能引导主语从句。whoever 在此相当于 anyone who。 17. 选 C。whoever shares her interests 用作介词 of 的宾语,同时 whoever 又用作谓语动词 shares 的语。 18. 选 B。由于句中谈到的是 Mr and Mrs Smith,即谈的是两者,故排除选项 A 和 C,因为 none 和 all 均用于指三者。又因为空格前有否定介词 without,故空格处填 either, 不用 neither。 19. 选 D。none 可视为 I like none of them 之省略。从下文的语境看,空格处只能填空一个表 否定意义的词。据此首先排除 B;虽然 A、C、D 均表否定意义,但 neither 与前面的 best(既然使用最 高级,说明有三者或多者在作比较)不吻合;而 nothing 表示―什么也没有‖,不合语境。 20. 选 C。none 和 neither 表否定,与句中的 refused to acept 这一语境不符。在 either 与 any 两个选项中,either 指两者,与句中的 three suggestions 不符。故只能选 any,指三者中的任 意一个。 21. 选 A。比较四个选项:either 指两者中的―任意一个‖,each 指两者或两者以上中的―每一个‖, one 用来替代―a / an +单数可数名词‖,it 替代―the +单数名词‖。 22. 选 B。根据下文的 it‘s all the same to me(对我都一样)可知,选 any 最合语境。 23. 选 D。Why me? 可视为 Why do you ask me to go and join? 之省略。另外,me 还通 常在简略回答中用作主语。如:Me too.(我也一样。)

it 的用法考点 ◆典型陷阱题分析◆
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1. Everyone knows that _______ is dangerous to play with fire, but _______ is difficult is to prevent children from playing with fire. A. it, it B. what, what C. it, what D. what, it 【陷阱】很容易误选 B,认为两空均考查形式主语。 【分析】最佳答案是 D,第一空填形式主语,真正的主语是其后的不定式 to play with fire。第二 空填 what,what is difficult 是主语从句,注意 what is difficult 后的谓语动词 is。请做以下类似试 题: (1) I know ______ is important to know my own limitations, but _______ is difficult is to help others to know their own limitations. A. it, it B. what, what C. it, what D. what, it (2) Yes, ______ is difficult to find a job nowadays, but _____ is more difficult is try to find such a job with a high salary but little things to do. A. it, it B. what, what C. it, what D. what, it 2. I dislike _______ when others laugh at me in public or think poorly of me behind. A. that B. those C. it D. them 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案是 C,因为在通常情况下,like 是及物动词,其后应有宾语(句中 it 即为其宾语)。 句中的 when 从句不是宾语从句,而是时间状语从句,其中的 when 的意思是―当……的时候‖。其实, 也有的词典将 I don‘t like it when (if) … 作为一个句型来处理。能这样用的动词不多,主要的有 enjoy, like, dislike, love, hate, prefer, appreciate 等表示喜好的动词。 She won‘t like it if you arrive late. 她不喜欢你迟到。 He hates it when people use his bike. 他讨厌别人用他的自行车。 请做以下类似试题(答案均选 it): (1) I hate _______ if people say such things in public. A. that B. those C. it D. them (2) I‘d prefer _______ if I didn‘t have to get up early on Sundays. A. that B. such C. it D. which (3) I would appreciate _______ very much if you could give me some suggestions. A. this B. that C. it D. you 3. I‘ve no idea. I just pretended nobody was at home, so I didn‘t ask who _______ was. A. he B. that C. she D. it 【陷阱】容易误选 A 或 C。 【分析】最佳答案是 D。it 用以指身份不明的人。若指身份明确的人,则不宜用 it。比较: (1) Mr Smith is at the door. _______ wants to see you. (2) Someone is at the door. ________ must be Mr Smith. A. He B. It C. This D. That 第(1)题选 A,因为来者身份明确;第(2)选 B,因为来者身份不明确。
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4. ―Excuse me, I want to have my watch fixed, but I can‘t find a repair shop.‖ ―I know ________ nearby. Come on, I‘ll show you.‖ A. one B. it C. some D. that 【陷阱】容易误选 B。 【分析】最佳答案是 A。it 和 one 的区别可简单地概括为:it = the + 名词,one = a + 名词。 如: I haven‘t got any pens, and I want to borrow one. 我没有钢笔,我想借一支。(one = a pen) I have two pens, and I can lend one to you. 我有两本支钢笔,我可以借一支。(one = a pen) I have a pen, and I can lend it to you. 我有一本钢笔,我可以把它借给你。(it = the pen) 在上面一题中,one 相当于 one 相当于 a repair shop。请做下面一题(答案选 A): There is only one English-Chinese dictionary in that book-shop. I wonder if you still want to buy _______. A. it B. one C. another D. any 5. Will you see to _______ that my children are taken good care of while I am away? A. it B. me C. yourself D. them 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案是 A。it 为形式宾语,真正的宾语是空格后 that 引导的宾语从句。see to 意为―负 责‖、―注意‖,其中的 to 为介词,不宜直接跟 that 引导的宾语从句,遇此情况可借助代词 it。请做下面 两题,答案也是选 it: (1) I‘ll see to _______ that all these letters will be sent to the post before twelve. A. it B. me C. which D. them (2) Will you see to _______ that the luggage is brought back as soon as possible? A. me B. yourself C. it D. them 类似以上 see to 用法的短语还有 depend on, answer for 等。如下面两题答案也选 it: (1) You may depend on _______ that he will turn up in time. A. it B. me C. which D. them (2) I can‘t answer for ________ that the boy is honest. A. it B. me C. which D. them ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. A. C. 2. A. C. 3. A. C. Why shouldn‘t I buy a new coat — I haven‘t bought _____ for five years. it B. that one D. which He made _____ known to his friends that he didn‘t want to enter politics. that B. it himself D. him It used to be thought _____ the Earth was flat. as B. when since D. that
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4. The Parkers bought a new house but ______ will need a lot of work before they can move in. A. they B. it C. one D. which 5. _______ is well known _______ Hong Kong returned to China on July 1st, 1997. A. It, that B. As, / C. As, as D. It, which 6. — I don‘t know whether I should go abroad or not, Mum. — I leave _______ to your own judgment whether you should do it. A. that B. it C. this D. what 7. Does ________ matter if he can‘t finish the job on time? A. this B. that C. he D. it 8. They are good friends. _______ is no wonder that they know each other so well. A. This B. That C. There D. It 9. They live on a busy main road. ______ must be very noisy. A. There B. It C. That D. They 10. Why don‘t you bring ______ to his attention that you are too busy to do it? A. this B. what C. that D. it 11. ―Look at that lady on the stage. She‘s already forty.‖ ―You are joking. She doesn‘t look ________.‖ A. so B. it C. that D. this 13. _______ was known to them all that William had broken his promise ______ he would give each of them a gift. A. As; Which B. What; that C. It; that D. It; which 14. In the west, people make _______ a rule to send Christmas present to their relatives and friends. A. this B. that C. it D. the following 【答案与解析】 1. 选 C。one 指 a coat。比较:it = the +名词,one = a+名词,换句话说,it 是特指的,而 one 则是泛指的。 2. 选 B。it 为形式宾语,真正的宾语是 that he didn‘t want to enter politics。 3. 选 D。it 为形式主语,此句为 People used to think that the Earth was flat 的被动语态形 式。 4. 选 B。it 指前面提到的 new house。注意不能选 D,因为其前有并列连词 but。 5. 选 A。it 为形式主语,其后的 that 从句为主语从句。比较下面一题,答案选 B: _______ is well known, _______ Hong Kong returned to China on July 1st, 1997. A. It, that B. As, /
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C. As, as D. It, which 6. 选 B。it 为形式宾语,真正的宾语是 whether you should do it. 7. 选 D。it doesn‘t matter if…, does it matter if… 等为英语常用表达。 8. 选 D。 no wonder that… 意为―难怪……‖、 it‘s ―……不足为怪‖, 为英语固定表达, 其中的 it‘s 也 可省略,即只说 No wonder that…。如: No wonder (that) he didn‘t want to go. 难怪他不想去。 9. 选 B。it 指环境。 10. 选 D。it 为形式宾语,真正的宾语是 that you are too busy to do it. 12. 选 B。it 指 her age。look one‘s age 为习语,意为―容貌与年龄相称‖。 13. 选 C。第一空填 it,为形式主语;第二空填 that,用以引导一个同位语从句,修饰 promise。 14. 选 C。it 为形式宾语,真正的宾语是其后的不定式 to send Christmas present to their relatives and friends。

介词考点 ◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. ―You went late _______ the stadium yesterday evening, didn‘t you?‖ ―Yes, my wife was a little late _______ the supper.‖ A. to, with B. for, with C. for, for D. at, for 【陷阱】容易误选 B 或 D。 【分析】答案应选 A。第一空填 to 比较好理解,因为此处的 late 为副词,用以修饰 go to the stadium 中的动词 go;而第二句的 with 则是许多同学不容易想到的,相反,更多地可能是想到 for, 现将两者区别如下: late for 表示做某事迟到, be late with 表示做某事做晚了(=be late in doing be 而 sth)。比较: We were late for dinner. 我们吃饭迟到了。 We were late with dinner [=in having dinner]. 我们吃饭吃得迟。 句中 my wife was a little late with the supper 的意思是―我妻子准备晚饭稍迟了一点‖。 2. We were all worried over _______ you were sick. A. that B. which C. what D. the fact that 【陷阱】容易误选 A 或 B。 【分析】答案应选 D。按英语习惯,除 except, but 等极个别介词外,英语介词后通常不能直接跟 that 从句作宾语。遇此情况,通常是在 that 从句前加上 the fact,此时 the fact 用作介词宾语,而 其后 that 从句则用作 the fact 的同位语。请看类似试题(答案选均 D): (1) They knew nothing about ______ he was a thief. A. that B. which C. what D. the fact that (2) She must face up to _______ she is no longer young. A. that B. which C. what D. the fact that (3) What he said at the meeting referred to _______ he was interested in the project. A. that B. which
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C. what D. the fact that (4) Their belief is proved by the fact that the death penalty prevents murder. A. that B. which C. what D. the fact that (5) The writer is not satisfied with _______ buses are too crowded. A. that B. which C. what D. the fact that 3. Sometimes our opinions differ _______ what we choose to observe and how we deal with what we‘ve observed A. which B. since C. because D. because of 【陷阱】容易误选 C。因为按英语语法习惯,because 是连词,其后接句子;而 because of 是复合 介词,其后接名词、代词或动名词等。 【分析】此题答案选 D。because 作为从属连词,主要用于引导原因状语从句,既然是引导一个从 句,也就是说它的后面不能再连用―引导词‖。如: He was angry because we were late. 他很生气因为我们迟到了。 They can‘t have gone out because the light is on. 他们不可能出去了,因为灯还亮着。 Bread is cheap in this supermarket because they bake it themselves.这家超市的面包是自 制的,所以便宜。 假若,一个从句已经有了自己的―引导词‖,那么它前面就不宜再用 because 这个连词了。如: She got angry because of what you said. 她哭是因为你说的话。 句中的 what 相当于 the thing that,也就是说 what you said 相当于 the thing that you said。其中 the thing 用作 because of 的宾语,而 that you said 为修饰 the thing 的定语从句。 He lost his job because of how he treated his boss. 他因为对老板的态度(不好)而丢了工作。 句中的 how 相当于 the way in which,也就是说 how he treated his boss 相当于 the way in which he treated his boss。其中 the way 用作 because of 的宾语,而 in which he treated his boss 为修饰 the way 的定语从句。 4. ―How long have you been an actor?‖ ―_______ 1995, when I graduated from college.‖ A. After B. In C. From D. Since 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案为 D。若仅从答句来看,四个答案都说得过去。但若结合问句的语境以答案应选 D, 因为其余三选项填入空格均不能回答问句所提出的问题。比较: ―When did you became an actor?‖ ―_______ 1995, when I graduated from college.‖ A. After B. In C. From D. Since 此题选 B,因为问句问的是 when(何时),所以用 in 1995 来回答便顺理成章。 请再看两题: (1) ―How long have you worked on the farm?‖ ―____ the end of last year.‖ A. In B. By C. At D. Since 答案选 D,用 since the end of last year 回答 how long,即问句问―工作了多久‖,答句说―自去 年年底至今‖。 (2) ―How long will you work on the farm?‖ ―____ the end of next year.‖ A. In B. By C. At D. Since
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答案选 B,问句问―将工作多久‖,答句说―工作明年明底‖。 (3) ―When did you leave the farm?‖ ―____ the end of last year.‖ A. In B. By C. At D. Since 答案选 C,问句问―何时离开‖,答句说―去年明底离开‖。 5. Don‘t be angry _______ me for not having written. I was really too busy. A. about B. with C. to D. for 【陷阱】容易误选 B。根据汉语的―对某人生气‖,将其中的―对‖直译为 to。 【分析】最佳答案为 B。按英语习惯,要表示对某人生气,通常用 be angry with [at] sb,要表示 对某事生气,通常用 be angry at [about] sth(在美国英语中也用 be angry with sth,但不说 be angry with sb)。比较以下表达,其中的―对‖也不用 to 来翻译: 你对这些安排感到满意吗? 误:Did you feel satisfied to the arrangements? 正:Did you feel satisfied with the arrangements? 老师应该对他的学生严格要求。 误:Teachers should be strict to their students. 正:Teachers should be strict with their students. 6. In those days, we had no phones, so we have to keep in touch _____ writing often. A. with B. of C. on D. by 【陷阱】容易误选 A。根据 keep in touch with (与……保持联系)这一常用搭配推出。 【分析】正确答案是 D。by 在这里表示方式,by writing 意为―通过写信‖,全句意为―我们通过经 常写信保持联系‖。请再看几例(均与介词搭配有关): (1) We‘ve talked a lot _______ films. How _____ television now? A. of, with B. with, towards C. about, about D. for, about 此题不要受 a lot of 的影响而误选 A。若第一空选 of,a lot of cars 即为动词 talk 的宾语,但实 际上动词 talk 是不及物动词,不能后接宾语。最佳答案应是 C,句中的 a lot 是修饰动词 talked 的状 语,talk about 才是一个动词短语。 全句意为―我们对电影已谈了不少,现在谈谈电视怎么样?‖ What about…意为―……怎么样‖,用于征求意见。 (2) We all regarded the poor old man ____sympathy. A. as B. with C. of D. by 有的同学一看到句中的 regard 和选项中的 as,马上就联想到 regard … as … (把……当作……)这 一搭配,从而断定此题应选 A。但是错了,原因是将此搭配套入原句,句子意思不通。正确答案是 B,句 意为―我们大家都很同情这位老人‖。 ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. So far, several ships have been reported missing _______ the coast of Bermuda Island. A. off B. along C. on D. around 2. ―How long have you stayed in this hotel?‖ ―Not long, just ______ this Monday.‖ A. on B. since C. until D. after
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3. The lift in that tall building went wrong and got trapped _____ floors. People in it had no way to get out. A. in B. between C. among D. on 4. ―What a terrible rain we are having!‖ ―Yes. We are asked to pay more attention to the information about the rain ______ flood.‖ A. as well as B. so long as C. because of D. in case of 5. _____ their inexperience, they‘ve done a good job. A. Given B. Supposed C. Considered D. Concluded 6. They promise that the work would all be finished _____ next week. A. until B. in C. by D. to 7. _______ reading the letter, what has he done? A. Because of B. Except C. Besides D. But for 8. ―How did the robber get in?‖ ―______ an open window on the first floor.‖ A. Past B. From C. Over D. Through 9. She knew nothing about his journey _______ he was likely to be away for three months. A. Except B. except for C. except that D. in addition 9. 选 C。在四个选项中,只有 except that 后可接句子。 10. He usually goes to work by bike _______ it rains. A .except B. except when C. except for D. except that 11. I found the island a wonderful place for our experiments _______ the hot weather. A. besides B. except for C. except D. except that 12. ______ the weather, we had a pleasant time. A. Except B. Except for C. But D. Besides 13. He always did well at school ______ having to do part-time jobs every now and then. A. in spite of B. instead of C. in case of D. in favor of 14. As it was almost time for the flight, all the passengers got ______ the plane. A. around B. abroad C. aboard D. ahead 【答案与解析】 1. 选 A。off 用作介词时可表示距离,此时尤其用于指距离某一大路或靠近某海面。又如: Our house is about 20 meters off the main road. 我们家离大路大约有 20 米远。 The ship anchored a mile off the coast. 轮船抛锚停泊在离海岸 1 英里的地方。 2. 选 B。此答句为省略句,补充完整为:I‘ve stayed in this hotel since this Monday.
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3. 选 B。between floors 指在两层楼之间。类例地,以下各例也选 between: Don‘t eat anything ______ meals if you want to lose weight. 4. 选 D。 复合介词 in case of 有两个意思, 一是表示条件, 意为―如果‖; 二是表示目的, 意为―以防‖。 如: In case of fire, call 119. 万一失火,就打 119 电话。 Take an umbrella with you in case of rain. 带把雨伞,以防下雨。 5. 选 A,given 在此用作介词,意为―考虑到‖。又如:Given the low price, I decided to buy it. 考虑到价格很低,我决定把它买下。 6. 选 C,by 意为―最迟到……之前,到……的时候已经‖。类例地,下面一题也选 by: The train leaves at 6:00 p.m. So I have to be at the station _______5:40 p.m. at the latest. A. until B. after C. around D. by 7. 选 C。besides 意为―除……之外,还‖。又如: He has another car besides this. 除了这辆车外,他还有一辆。 Besides being a teacher, he was a poet. 除了是位教师外,他还是位诗人。 Did he do anything besides hitting you? 除了打你之外,他还有没有别的什么举动? 8. 选 D。through 意为―穿过,贯穿,经过,透过‖。又如: The train ran through the tunnel. 火车穿过隧道。 I saw you through the window. 我是透过窗子看到你的。 9. 选 C。在四个选项中,只有 except that 后可接句子。 10. 选 B。except when 和 except that 后均可接句子,但前者含―当……的时候‖的意思,而后者 则没有这个意思。 11. 选 B。except 与 except for 的区别是:前者主要用来谈论同类的东西;后者主要用来谈论不 同类的东西,在说明情况后作细节上的修正,有时含有惋惜之意。 12. 选 B,except 和 except for 均可表示排除,但若是表示谈论不同类的对象,通常用 except for。另外,except 通常不用于句首。 13. 选 A。比较:in spite of=虽然,尽管…仍;instead of=代替,取而代之;in case of=假设, 万一;in favour of=赞同,有利于。 14. 选 C。aboard 用作介词时意思―在(船、飞机、车)上‖、―上(船、飞机、车)‖。

形容词与副词考点

◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. We don‘t care if a hunting dog smells _____, but we really don‘t want him to smell ____. A. well, well B. bad, bad C. well, badly D. badly, bad
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【陷阱】容易误选 B,认为两个 smell 均为连系动词,后接形容词作表语。 【分析】 这是 1995 年的一道上海高考题, 最佳答案为 D。 句中的第一个 smell 为实义动词, 意为―闻 气味‖、―嗅觉‖,smell badly 意为―嗅觉差‖;第二个 smell 为连系动词,意为―闻起来(有某种气味)‖, smell bad 意为―闻起来气味难闻‖。全句意为―我们并不介意一条猎狗的嗅觉不好,但我们的确不希望它 的气味难闻‖。 2. ―_____ do you think of your English teacher?‖ ―Oh, he is an _____ man.‖ A. What, interesting B. What, interested C. How, interesting D. How, interested 【陷阱】容易误选 D,认为第一空应填 how,表示―如何‖;第二空应填 interested,因为有的书上 说 –ing 形容词主要说明事物,-ed 形容词主要说明人。 【分析】其实最佳答案应是 A。英语中表示汉语的―你觉得……如何?‖时,可用 How do you like ...? 或 What do you think of ...? 注意两者搭配不同,即 like 与 how 搭配,think of 与 what 搭配。 另一方面,有的书认为:-ing 形容词说明事,-ed 形容词说明人。此说法在很多情况下是可行的,但表述 欠严谨。严谨的表述应该是:表示使(别)人感到如何, 用-ing 形容词;表示人自己本身感到如何,用-ed 形容词。比较: All the children are interested. 所有的孩子都很感兴趣。 All the children are interesting. 所有的孩子都很有趣。 I read an interested expression on his face. 我看到他脸上露出一种感兴趣的表情。 I read an interesting expression on his face. 我看到他脸上露出一种有趣的表情。 再比较: He is frightened. 他很害怕。 He is frightening. 他很吓人。 He has a frightened look on his face. 他脸上带有惊恐的神情。 He has a frightening look on his face. 他脸上带有吓人的神情。 3. The operation was successful, but I still felt _____. A. very painful B. much painful C. a lot of pain D. very paining 【陷阱】 容易误选 A, 想当然地认为: pain 表示―痛‖, 其形容词 painful 自然表示表示―感到疼痛的‖。 【分析】 其实 painful 的意思并不是―感到疼痛的‖, 而是表示―使人感到疼痛的‖、 ―使人感到痛苦的‖, 所以它通常用于说明事物,而不宜用于说明人。比较并体会: 他仍很痛苦。 正:He is still in pain. 误:He‘s still painful. 你感到痛吗? 正:Do you feel any pain? 误:Are you painful? 见到你这样生活我很痛心。 正:I am pained to see you living this way. 误:I am painful to see you living this way. 听到他的死讯,我们都很痛苦。 误:We were all painful to hear of his death. 正:We were all pained to hear of his death. 他眼睛痛。 正:He has painful eyes. 误:He‘s painful in the eyes. 4. ―Our team is _____ to win the match.‖ ―Really? But I don‘t think so.‖
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A. easy B. difficult C. possible D. sure 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选,因为假若单纯从中文意思来看,四个答案均说得通。 【分析】正确答案为 D,A、B、C 三项填入空格处虽然从汉语来看说得通,但不合英语习惯。因为按 英语习惯,easy 和 difficult 后接不定式时,其主语(或逻辑主语)通常应是 it,而不能是具体的人或物, 除非这个主语与其后不定式有动宾关系。如: 他回答案这个问题很容易。 误:He‘s very easy to answer this quesiton. 正:It is very easy for her to answer this quesiton. (用形式主语 it 作主语) 正:The question is very easy for her to answer. (主语为具体的事物,但它与其后不定式有动 宾关系,即 to answer this quesiton) 我们很难在半小时内完成这工作。 误:We are very difficult to finish the work in half an hour. 正:It is very difficult for us to finish the work in half an hour. (用形式主语 it 作主语) 对 possible 来说,后接不定式时,其主语只能是 it,不能是具体的人或事物,即使该主语与其后的 不定式有动宾关系也不可以。如: 我们可能会赢得这场比赛。 误:We are possible to win the match. 误:The match is possible for us to win. 正:It is possible that we will win the match. 正:It is possible for us to win the match. 5. I think he is _____ to tell us the secret, but I‘m not sure. A. possible B. likely C. impossible D. certain 【陷阱】A、B、C 三项均有可能被选择。 【分析】根据句意首先排除 D;再根据上面一题的分析,排除 A 和 C;也就是说,此题最佳答案为 B。 注意 likely 的用法,它与 possible 所用句型不同,请看实例: Are we likely to arrive in time? 我们会及时赶到吗? It‘s very likely that he will ring me tonight. 今晚他很可能会给我来电话。 They will very likely come by car. 他们很可能会坐汽车来。(该句中的 likely 为副词,而前两句 中的 likely 为形容词) 6. Let‘s make it at seven o‘clock on Tuesday morning at my office if ________. A. you‘re convenient B. it is convenient for you C. you feel convenient D. it is convenient with you 【陷阱】 容易误选 A 或 C, 因为许多同学将汉语中的―如果你方便的话‖直译为 if you are convenient 或 if you feel convenient。 【分析】最佳答案为 B,因为英语中的 convenient 不是表示―感到方便的‖,而是表示―使人感到方 便的‖,所以 be convenient 的主语通常不能是―人‖。要表示―如果你方便的话‖,英语通常 if it is convenient for [to] you,其中的介词可用 for 或 to,但一般不用 with。顺便说一句,偶尔也可见到 用人或物作 be convenient 的主语,但此时的句子必须具备这样的特点:句子主语是其后不定式的逻辑 宾语,如: Mary is convenient to see on Sunday. / It is convenient to see Mary on Sunday. 星期天 去见玛丽较为方便。 The furniture is convenient to move. / It is convenient to move the furniture. 这家具搬起 来很方便。
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7. We were two hours late that day, which was due to the ______. A. crowded traffic B. crowded traffics C. busy traffic D. busy traffics 【陷阱】容易误选 A,因为许多同学将汉语中的―拥挤的交通‖直译为 crowded traffic(s);由于 traffic 不可数,排除含 traffics 的选项,所以许多考生便选定答案 A。 【分析】其实,此题的最佳答案是 C,因为英语的 traffic 习惯上不用 crowded 修饰,而用 busy 或 heavy 修饰,以说明―交通‖的―拥挤‖。类似这样的在修饰语方面需特别注意的还有: (1) 汉语的―绿茶‖说成英语是 green tea,但相应的―红茶‖却是 black tea 而不是 red tea。 (2) 可说 thick soup(浓汤), 但不说 thick coffee (tea); 要表示―浓咖啡(茶)‖,可用 strong coffee (tea)。 (3) 可说 thin soup(稀汤),但不说 thin coffee (tea);要表示―淡咖啡(茶)‖,可用 weak coffee (tea)。 8. Mary is very clever and _____ worth teaching, but her brother is not. Look, he is now _____ asleep in class. A. very, very B. much, very C. well, very D. well, fast 【陷阱】容易误选 A,因为许多学生往往将汉语中的―很‖与英语中的 very 等同。 【分析】但是,许多汉语中的―很‖是不能用英语中的 very 来直译的。如汉语―我很喜欢英语‖,在英 语中就不能说成 I very like English,而应说成 I like English very much,因为副词 very 在英语中 习惯上不用来修饰动词。上面一题不能选 A,是因为形容词 worth 和 asleep 习惯上不能用副词 very 来修饰,而是分别用 well 和 fast 修饰,即说成 be well worth doing sth(很值得做某事),be fast (或 sound) asleep(熟睡),所以此题的最佳答案应选 D。 9. ―Could I take your order now?‖ ―Yes. One _____ tea and two _____ coffees.‖ A. black, white B. red, white C. black, green D. red, black 【陷阱】容易误选 B 或 D。 【分析】按汉语习惯,在―茶‖前要加表颜色的形容词通常应是―红‖和―绿‖,即说―红茶‖和―绿茶‖。但 是在英语中,人们虽然可直接用 green tea 来表示―绿茶‖,但却不能直接用 red tea 来表示―红茶‖,汉 语中的―红茶‖说成英语应是 black tea,所以第一空应填 black,即选 A 或 C。对于第二空,coffee 前 通常使用的表颜色的形容词是 white 和 black,其中 white coffee 指―牛奶咖啡‖(因牛奶呈白色), black coffee 指―没有加牛奶的咖啡‖(即纯咖啡或清咖啡),由此可知上题的最佳答案应是 A。 10. Entering the house we found him lying on the bed with his mouth _______ and eyes _______. A. open, close B. opened, closed C. opened, close D. open, closed 【陷阱】此题很容易误选 A。 【分析】答案应选 D。open 和 close 均可用作动词,前者表示―开‖,后者表示―关‖,是一对反义 词,如: Please open your mouth and close your eyes. 请张开嘴,闭上眼。 但是 open 和 close 也可用作形容词,此时前者意为―开着的‖,后者意为―接近的‖、―亲近的‖等, 而并不表示―关着的‖,要表示―关着的‖,英语用 closed,即用作形容词时,open 与 close 不是一对反 义词,而与 closed 才是反义词。 11. A ______ road goes ______ from one place to another. A. straight, straight B. straightly, straightly C. straight, straightly D. straightly, straight 【陷阱】容易误选 C。认为 straightly 是 straight 的副词形式。
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【分析】在现代英语中,straight 既可用作形容词,也可用作副词。而 straightly 这个副词在现代 英语中已被废弃,许多词典均不再收录此词。所以此题最佳答案应选 A。 ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. It was _____ opportunity to miss. A. too good an B. a too good C. too a good D. too good 2. I don‘t like it at all. It can‘t be _____. A. better B. worse C. best D. worst 3. There was nothing special about this film — it was only ______. A. particular B. average C. interesting D. strange 4. She looks very _____ but I can‘t remember her name. A. similar B. familiar C. friendly D. strange 5. He said he would return the money, and I was ______. A. fool enough to believe him B. enough fool to believe him C. fool enough believing him D. enough fool believing him 6. ―This book is ______ more useful for us students.‖ ―Yes, but it is _______ too difficult.‖ A. quite, quite B. much, rather C. rather, quite D. quite, much 7. The children all looked _____ at the broken model plane and felt quite _____. A. sad, sad B. sadly, sadly C. sad, sadly D. sadly, sad 8. The child dreamed that he had once lived in a _______ house in the forest. A. wooden pretty little B. little pretty wooden C. pretty little wooden D. wooden little pretty 9. He wanted to read more, so he asked his friends if there was _______ to read. A. something easy enough B. something enough easy C. enough easy something D. easy enough something 10. The doctor assured the patient that there was ______ with her, but she could not help worrying. A. seriously wrong nothing B. nothing serious wrong C. nothing seriously wrong D. serious nothing wrong 11. —How is your father? —He‘s fine. He‘s______ to play tennis every Sunday. A. enough active still B. enough still active C. still active enough D. still enough active 12. —Did you wash your new suit in hot water? —Of course not. I am not ______ foolish. A. very B. that C. very much D. too
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13.—Which team is _______ to win the game? —I don‘t know, but I‘ve found _______ for ours to win. A. probable; it unlikely B. likely; it possible C. possible; it possible D. likely; it possibly 14. He didn‘t understand the _______ question, so there was a ______ expression on his face. A. puzzling; puzzled B. puzzling; puzzling C. puzzled; puzzled D. puzzled; puzzling 15. She can speak _______ in front of Mack, but she can‘t eat ______ in his restaurant. A. free, free B. free, freely C. freely, free D. freely, freely 16. It was raining heavily. Little Mary felt cold, so she stood ____ to her mother. A. close B. closely C. closed D. closing 17. Fred is second to none in maths in our class, but believe it or not, he _______ passed the last exam. A. easily B. hardly C. actually D. successfully 【答案与解析】 1. 选 A,too … to … 结构除用于―too + 形容词或副词 + to do sth‖外,也可用于―too + 形容 词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + to do sth‖。 2. 选 B,it can‘t be worse 相当于 It‘s the worst thing I ever knew。 3. 选 B,average 意为―平常的‖、―普通的‖。 4. 选 B,similar 指―相似‖,familiar 指―熟悉‖。 5. 选 A,此处的 fool 虽为名词,但具有形容词的性质,相当于 foolish。 6. 选 B。虽然 quite, rather, much 均可用于加强语气,但是修饰比较级或副词 too(太)时,只能 用 rather 或 much,而不用 quite。 7. 选 D。第一个 look 是实义动词(注意与之搭配的介词 at),第二个 look 是连系动词。 8. 选 C。多个形容词共同修饰一个名词时,它们的位置遵循这样的原则:描绘形容词—大小(长短 高低)形容词—形状形容词—年龄(新旧)形容词—颜色形容词—国籍形容词—材料形容词—用途(类别) 形容词—名词(动名词)。 9. 选 A。做对此题要注意两点:一是修饰 something, anything, nothing 等复合不定代词的形容 词,应置于被修饰语之后;二是副词 enough 修饰形容词或副词时也应置于被修饰语之后。 10. 选 C。wrong 修饰 nothing,seriously 修饰 wrong。 11. 选 C。still 修饰 active,置于其前;而副词 enough 修饰形容词或副词时应置于被修饰语之 后。 12. 选 B。that 在此用作副词,不是代词,用法相当于 so。其余三者填入空格处语意不通。 13. 选 B。理由见―典型陷阱题分析‖第 5 题。 14. 选 A。理由见―典型陷阱题分析‖第 2 题。 15. 选 C。第一空填 freely,意为―自由地‖;第二空填 free,意为―免费地‖。 16. 选 A。close 与 closely 的区别是:指实际距离近,用 close;指抽象意义,用 closely。 17. 选 B。首先应弄清 second to none 的意思,照字面理解是―对谁都不是第二‖,言外之意就是 ―第一‖,或者说是―最好‖。再联系句中的 but 可知,选项 B 最恰当。

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比较结构考点

◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard _____ voice. A. a better B. a best C. the better D. the best 【陷阱】容易误选 D,认为最高级前要用定冠词。 【分析】 其实此题最佳答案为 A, 该句可视为…I have never heard a better voice than her voice 之省略,全句句意为―她唱得多好啊!我从未听过她这么好的声音‖。请再看以下类似的实例: He is fine, never better. 他很好,比以往任何时候都好。 This bird is really lovely. I‘ve never seen a finer one. 这只鸟真可爱,我从未见过这样好看的 鸟。 比较以下试题,情形也大致相同: (1) ―I‘ve never found a better job.‖ ―_______.‖ A. I don‘t think so B. Too bad C. Congratulations D. Don‘t worry 答案选 C,I‘ve never found a better job 可视为 I‘ve never found a better job than this job 之省略,句意为:我从来没有找到比这份工作更好的工作,即这是我所找到的最好的工作。 (2) ―What do you think of the service here?‖ ―Oh, ______. We couldn‘t have found a better place.‖ A. too bad B. sorry C. wonderful D. impossible 答案选 C。We couldn‘t have found a better place 可视为 We couldn‘t have found a better place than this place,其意为―我们不可能找到一个比这个地方更好的地方‖,即―这是我们所能找到的 最好的地方‖。 (3) Boris has brains. In fact, I doubt whether anyone in the class has _____IQ. A. a high B. a higher C. the higher D. the highest 答案选 B, 句意为―……我怀疑班上有没有哪个人比他智商更高‖, 即―我认为他可能是班上智商最高的‖。 (4) . How cold it is! We‘ve never had ______ this winter. A. the colder day B. a cold day C. the coldest day D. a colder day 答案选 D。句意为―今年冬天我们还从未遇上过这样冷的日子‖。 2. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is _____ known for his plays. A. the best B. more C. better D. the most 【陷阱】容易误选 D。 【分析】此题首先不宜选 B 或 D,因为 well known 的比较级和最高级通常是 better known 和 best known,有时也可以是 more well known 和 most well known,但通常不能是 more known 和 most known。至于是选 A 还是 C,这就要看语境。由于句中涉及的只有 stories 和 plays 两个对 象,故应选比较级。
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3. You are _____ careful than your brother. You two can‘t do the work that needs care and skill. A. not more B. no more C. not less D. no less 【陷阱】容易误选 A。 【分析】要做对此题,首先要正确理解以下结构的含义: not more … than = 不如…… no more … than = 和……一样不 (否定两者) not less … than = 不如……不 (即指不如 less 后形容词的反面) no less … than = 和……一样 (肯定两者) 比较以下各句的意思: You are more careful than he is. 你比他仔细。 You are not more careful than he is. 你不如他仔细。 You are no more careful than he is. 你和他一样不仔细。 You are less careful than he is. 你不如他仔细(你比他粗心)。 You are not less careful than he is. 你比他仔细(你不如他粗心)。 You are no less careful than he is. 你和他一样仔细。 通过以上分析,再结合句子语境,可知此题最佳答案为 B。 4. ―Oh, how fat he is!‖ ―But I think he is ____ than fat.‖ A. short B. shorter C. more short D. shortest 【陷阱】容易误选 B。认为 short 为单音节形容词,故用-er 构成比较级。 【分析】其实正确答案应是 C。要弄清此问题,得先从比较句型的两种不同类型说起: (1) 异类同质比较:即指两个不同的人或事物(异类)在同一方面(同质)进行比较。如: My room is smaller than yours. 我的房间比你的小。 Our country is more powerful than theirs. 我们的国家比他们的国家更强大。 (2) 同类异质比较:即指同一个人或事物(同类)在两个不同的方面(异质)进行比较,这类句子常译为 ―(更多的)是……,而不是‖、―与其……不如……‖等。如: He was more lucky than clever.他是靠运气而不是靠聪明。 She was mare surprised than angry. 她感到更多的是惊讶而不是生气。 This is more a war movie than a western. 这更应当说是一部战争片,而不是西部片。 按英语习惯,在进行同类异质比较时,只能用 more 构成比较级,不能用-er 形式,即使是单音节词 也是如此。 ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. A. C. 2. A. C. 3. A. C. 4. A. In my apartment there are two rooms, _____ is used as a living room. larger one B. the larger of which the largest one D. the largest of which ―Are you satisfied with his answer?‖ ―Not at all. It couldn‘t have been ____.‖ better B. worse more D. less I‘m _____ at sums than Jean, but better at history. more B. less worse D. cleverer We couldn‘t have picked ______ day for the picnic — it rained nonstop. a worse B. a worst
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C. the worse D. the worst 5. I know this is not quite the right word, but I can‘t be bothered to think of _____. A. a better B. a best C. the better D. the good 6. — Did you enjoy yourself at the party? —Sorry to say I didn‘t. It was ______ a meeting than a party. A. more like B. quite like C. less like D. more or less 7. When they arrived at the school it was raining _______ harder. A. more B. quite C. very D even 8. With the development of the Internet, _______ communication is done by regular mail. A. less B. more C. little D. few 9. — If you don‘t like the red coat, take the blue one. — OK, but do you have ______ size in blue? This one‘s a bit tight for me. A. a big B. a bigger C. the big D. the bigger 10. If there were no examinations, we should have ______ at school. A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time 11. This dress is prettier, but it costs ______ that one. A. twice more than B. twice as much as C. as much twice as D. twice so much as 【答案与解析】 1. 选 B,由于是两个房间,即是两者比较,故宜用比较级,因此排除 C 和 D;又由于两句之间没有 连词,故不宜选 A。注:若在空格前加上 and 一词,则要选 A。 2. 选 B。此题关键是要理解 Not at all 的意思。根据上文语境,Not at all 为 I am not satisfied at all with his answer 之省略,即表示―我对他的回答一点也不满意‖,既然如此,他的回答当然会是 It couldn‘t have been worse(不可能更糟)。 3. 选 C, 句意为―我的算术比琼差, 但我的历史比她强‖。 注意句中的转折连词 but 及其后的 better。 4. 选 A,we couldn‘t have picked a worst day 的实际意思是 it is the worst day we‘ve picked。 5. 选 A,a better 为 a better one 之省略。另外,a better one(一个更好的)是与其前文―我 知道这不是一个很适合的词‖相呼应的。 6. 选 A。根据空格后的 than,排除 B 和 D;根据语境,排除 C。 7. 选 D。more 后不能比较级,故排除 A;quite 除用于 quite better 外,不用于修饰比较,故排 除 B;very 不用修饰比较级,故排除 C。 8. 选 A。若选 B 或 C 均不合事实;若选 D,不合语法,因为 few 后要接可数名词的复数形式。 9. 选 B。从句意看,空格处应填比较级 bigger,因此排除 A 和 C。选项 B 与 D 的区别是,一个用 了不定冠词,一个用了定冠词,两者的区别是,不定冠词表泛指,定冠词表特指。 10. 选 D。由于是将有考试与没有考试作比较,所以应用比较级,不用最高级,由此排除 A 和 C。 选项 B 的错误在于用了 more happier 这样的双重比较级(即 more 后不能再加比较级)。 11. 选 B。修饰 as…as 的副词应置于该结构之前。
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连词考点

◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. I‘m sorry, _____ I won‘t be able to come tonight. A. for B. and C. but D. then 【陷阱】容易误选 A,因为空格后的句子是用以说明 I‘m sorry 的原因的,所以便想当然地认为要 选 for 来表示原因。 【分析】事实上,I‘m sorry 后习惯上不接表示原因的连词 for,而接表示转折的连词 but(也可省 略 but),用以委婉地提出一个使对方不快的事实。又如: Oh, sorry, but she‘s out. 哦,不好意思,她出去了。 I‘m sorry, but I have to disagree. 对不起,我不敢苟同。 I‘m sorry, but I have already had another appointment. 对不起,我已经有约会了。 注:I‘m sorry 后虽然不能接表原因的连词 for,但却可接介词 for。如: I‘m sorry for shouting at you. 对不起冲你嚷嚷了。 I am sorry for what I said to you. 我后悔不该对你讲那些话。 2. The point is not who said the words, _____ they are true or not. A. but whether B. and whether C. but how D. and how 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】 最佳答案为 A。 此题涉及两个搭配: 一是 not … but … (不是……而是……) 二是 whether … , or not (是否)。请看类例: He was not an actor, who often appeared on stage, _____ a writer, writing stories. A. but B. and C. then D. so 答案选 A,主要考查 not … but … 结构。 3. Just because they make more money than I do, _____ they seem to look down on me. A. so B. and C. but D. 不填 【陷阱】但容易误选 A,将汉语的―因为……所以……‖直译为 because … so …。 【分析】此题正确答案为 D,但是按英语语法,because 为从属连词,用以引导原因状语从句,它 表明整个句子为复合句;而 so 在表示―所以‖时,它是并列连词,用以连接两个简单句使之成为并列句。 由于在同一句中既用了从属连词 because, 又用了并列连词 so, 使得该句一半像复合句, 一半像并列句, 从而导致错误。正确的做法是,任意去掉 because 和 so 中的一个,使之要么成为复合句,要么成为并 列句。 4. Although he had only entered the contest for fun, _____ he won first prize. A. but B. and C. even D. 不填 【陷阱】容易误选 A,将汉语的―虽然……但是……‖直译为 although … but …。
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【分析】正确答案选 D。按英语语法,although 为从属连词,用以引导让步状语从句,它表明整个 句子为复合句;而 but 在表示―但是‖时,它是并列连词,用以连接两个简单句使之成为并列句。由于在 同一句中既用了从属连词 although,又用了并列连词 but ,使得该句一半像复合句,一半像并列句, 从而导致错误。正确的做法是,任意去掉 although 和 but 中的一个,使之要么成为复合句,要么成为 并列句。其实,此题与上面一题的分析思路是一样的。这里顺便说一句,许多同学(包括许多老师和教学 参考书)为了便于记忆, 将此题与上面一题的知识点简单地归纳为―按英语习惯, because 和 so 不可连用, although 与 but 不可连用‖。这种说法在通常情况下无疑是对的,也是有效的,但同学们一定要在明白 以上道理的情况下来使用此规则,如果只是死记该规则,有时遇到一些语言特例仍然会出错。如: But I didn‘t know that then, although I learned it later. 但我当时的确不知道此事,尽管后来 我还是知道了。 此句既用了并列连词 but,又用了从属连词 although,但它并未造成错误,原因是此句与上面所讨 论的情形有所不同,即此句 but 用于 although 之前,but 在此仅起到与上文转折的作用,but 后的 I didn‘t know that then, although I learned it later. 仍为一个复合句。 I tried doing the accounts, but although I knew some maths I found it very difficult. 我 试着算这些账,但尽管我懂点数学,仍感到很困难。 此句将 but 与 although 用在一起, 但此句也没有错误。 该句从总体来看, 它是一个以并列连词 but 连接的并列句, 而在该并列句的后面一句又是一个包含让步状语从句 although I knew some maths 的 复合句——这种句型就是所谓的并列复合句。此句也可改写为 I tried doing the accounts, but I found it very difficult although I knew some maths. 5. When the last prize had been awarded _____ everybody cleared off. A. and B. so C. or D. 不填 【陷阱】容易想当然地误选 A。 【分析】句首 when 引导的是一个时间状语从句,它暗示整个句子为复合句;而 so, and, or 为并 列连词,无论选哪一个,都表明整个句子为并列句,从而导致前后矛盾,所以 A、B、C 均不能选择。此 题正确答案选 D,everybody cleared off 为整个复合句的主句。请看类似例子: (1) If wishes were horses, _____ beggars would ride. A. and B. so C. or D. 不填 (2) If I‘m mistaken, _____ you are mistaken too. A. so B. and C. or D. 不填 (3) Just before I left London, _____ I sent him a telegram. A. and B. so C. or D. 不填 (4) After they had each said a few words, _____ Lloyd George took the floor. A. and B. so C. or D. 不填 答案均选 D,空格前分别为 if, when, before, after 引导的状语从句,空格后为整个复合句的主句。 ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. ―Shall we stop for lunch _____ shall we drive on?‖ ―Let‘s stop for lunch, but the driver can‘t drink _____ drive.‖ A. and, and B. or, or C. and, or D. or, and 2. ―_____ when does the pub stay open?‖ ―About midnight.‖
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A. Since B. Before C. Until D. After 3. ―Would you like tea _____ coffee?‖ ―_____, thanks.‖ A. or, No B. and, Either C. or, Neither D. and, Each 4. He imagines that people don‘t like him, _____ they do. A. and B. then C. so D. but 5. I firmly believe _____ he said at the meeting was right. A. that B. which C. that what D. what that 6. Will you deliver, _____ do I have to come to the shop to collect the goods? A. and B. or C. so D. then 7. It shocked me to see ______ my neighbors treated their children. A. why B. whether C. how D. since 8. _____ the government agrees to give extra money , the theatre will have to close. A. Until B. Unless C. Since D. While 9. We were just about ready to leave _____ it started to snow. A. when B. before C. after D. since 10. —I don‘t like chicken _______ fish. —I don‘t like chicken, _______ I like fish very much. A. and, and B. and, but C. or, but D. or, and 11. —Would you like to come to dinner tonight? —I‘d like to, ___ I‘m too busy. A. and B. so C. as D. but 【答案与解析】 1. 选 D,第一空填 or,表选择;第二空填 and,can‘t drink and drive 指不能同时既喝酒又开车, 即不能酒后开车。 2. 选 C,句意为―这家酒店开门到什么?(或这家酒店什么时候关门?)‖ 3. 选 C,选项 A 用 No 来回答选择疑问句,不妥;选项 B 用 and 连接 tea 与 coffee,说明问句 并非提供选择,而答语却用了 either 这样表选择性的词语,也不妥;选项 D 与语境不符。 4. 选 D,前后意思转折,故选 but。注:but they do = but they like him。 5. 选 C,that 为引导宾语从句的连词,在 that what he said at the meeting was right 这一 宾语从句中,又包含有 what he said at the meeting 这一主语从句,而在该主语从句中,what 用作 动词 said 的宾语。 6. 选 B,or 表选择。 7. 选 C。how 修饰谓语动词 treated。 8. 选 B,从句意推知。 9. 选 A,when 在此用作并列连词,意为―这时(突然)‖。
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10. 选 C。第一空填 or,在否定词后用 or,表示否定两者;第二空填 but,表示转折。 11. 选 D。but 表转折,符合语意。而表并列的 and, 结果的 so,原因的 as 都不符合句意。

动词时态考点

◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. ―I _____ his telephone number.‖ ―I have his number, but I ____ to bring my phone book.‖ A. forget, forget B. forgot, forgot C. forget, forgot D. forgot, forget 【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为―忘记‖是现在的事。 【分析】仔细体会一下对话的语境:第一个人说―我忘记他的电话号码了‖,这个―忘记‖应该是现在的 情况,即现在忘记了,要不然就没有必要同对方说此话了,故第一空应填 forget;第二个人说―我有他的 号码,但我忘记带电话本了‖,这个―忘记‖应该是过去的情况,即过去忘记带电话本,所以现在电话本不在 身上(注意句中的转折连词 but),故第二空应填 forgot,即答案选应 C。请再看一例: — Oh, I ______ where he lives. — Don‘t you carry your address book? No, I ______ to bring it. A. forget, forget B. forgot, forgot C. forget, forgot D. forgot, forget 答案选 C,理由同上。 2. I had hoped to see her off at the station, but I _____ too busy. A. was B. had been C. would be D. would have been 【陷阱】容易误选 B 或 D,认为前句用了 had hoped,所以此句谓语要用 B 或 D 与之呼应。 【分析】但正确答案为 A,前一句谓语用 had hoped,表示的是过去未曾实现的想法或打算,可以 译为―本想‖, 而后一句说―我太忙‖, 这是陈述过去的一个事实, 所以要用一般过去时。 请做以下类似试题(答 案均为 A): (1) We had hoped to catch the 10:20 train, but _____ it was gone. A. found B. had found C. would find D. would have found (2) We had hoped that you would be able to visit us, but you _____. A. didn‘t B. hadn‘t C. needn‘t D. would not have (3) We had wanted to come to see him, but we ____ no time. A. had B. had had C. would have D. would have had (4) I had expected to come over to see you last night, but someone ______ and I couldn‘t get away.
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A. called B. had called C. would call D. would have called (5) The traffic accident wouldn‘t have happened yesterday, but the driver _______ really careless. A. was B. is C. were D. had been 3. Dear me! Just _____ at the time! I _____ no idea it was so late. A. look, have B. looking, had C. look, had D. looking, have 【陷阱】此题容易误选 D,认为第一空用现在分词表伴随,第二空填 have 的一般现在时,以保持 与前面时态的一致性。 【分析】其实,此题应选 C,第一空应填 look, 因为这是祈使句的谓语;第二空应填 had,因为前 一句说―看看时间吧‖,这一看当然知道了现在很迟的情形,―不知道这么迟了‖显然应是―过去‖的事,故应 用一般过去时态,许多同学由于忽略这一隐含的语境而误选。 4. ―Your phone number again? I _____ quite catch it.‖ ―It‘s 4331577‖ A. didn‘t B. couldn‘t C. don‘t D. can‘t 【陷阱】此题容易误选 C,认为此处要用一般现在时态,表示现在―没听清对方的话‖。 【分析】其实,此题答案应选 A,根据上文的语境―请把你的电话号码再说一遍好吗?‖可知―没听清对 方的电话号码‖应是在说此话以前,故应用一般过去时态。请看以下类似试题: (1) ―Mr Smith isn‘t coming tonight.‖ ― But he _____.‖ A. promises B. promised C. will promise D. had promised 答案选 B,―他答应(要来)‖应发生在过去。 (2) ―Hey, look where you are going!‖ ―Oh, I‘m terribly sorry. _____.‖ A. I‘m not noticing B. I wasn‘t noticing C. I haven‘t noticed D. I don‘t notice 答案选 B,―我没注意‖是对方提醒之前的事,现经对方一提醒,当然注意到了。 (3) ―Oh it‘s you ! I ________ you.‖ ―I‘ve had my hair cut.‖ A. didn‘t realize B. haven‘t realized C. didn‘t recognize D. don‘t recognized 答案选 C。―没认出是你‖是说此话之前的事,说此话时显然已经认出了对方。 (4) ―What‘s her new telephone number?‖ ―Oh, I _____.‖ A. forget B. forgot C. had forgotten D. am forgetting 此题应选 A,从语境上看,―忘记‖的时间应是现在,即指现在不记得了。 (5) ―Since you‘ve agreed to go, why aren‘t you getting ready?‖ ―But I ______ that you would have me start at once.‖ A. don‘t realize B. didn‘t realize C. hadn‘t realized D. haven‘t realized 答案选 B。―没意识到‖是对方提醒之前的事。 (6) ―It‘s twelve o‘clock, I think I must be off now.‖ ―Oh, really? I ______ it at all.‖ A. don‘t realize B. haven‘t realized C. didn‘t realize D. hadn‘t realized 答案选 C。―没意识到‖是在听到的话之前的事。
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5. Mr Smith ______ a book about China last year but I don‘t know whether he has finished it. A. has written B. wrote C. had written D. was writing 【陷阱】容易误选 B 或 C。 【分析】此题应选 D,这是由 but I don‘t know whether he has finished it 这一句话的语境决 定的,全句意为―史密斯先生去年在写一本书,但我不知道他现在是否写完了‖。有的同学可能由于受 last year 的影响而误选 B。 但若选 B, 则句子前半部分的意思则变为―史密斯先生去年写了一本书‖, 既然是―写 了‖,那么这与下文的―但我不知道他现在是否写完了‖相矛盾。 6. He has changed a lot. He _______ not what he _______. A. is, is B. was, was C. is, was D. was, is 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 C,上文说―他‖变化很大,即―他‖现在不是过去的那个样子了,故第一空填 is, 第二空填 was(其实第二空也可用 used to be)。请看类例: ―What place is it?‖ ―Haven‘t you found out we _____ back where we ______?‖ A. were, had been B. have been, are C. are, were D. are, had been 答案选 C,We are back where we were 的意思是―我们(现在)又回到刚才来过的地方‖。 7. He is very busy. I don‘t know if he _____ or not tomorrow. A. come B. comes C. will come D. is coming 【陷阱】此题容易误选 B。认为 if 引导的是条件状语从句,从句谓语要用一般现在时表示将来意义。 【分析】其实,此题答案应选 C,句中 if 引导的不是条件状语从句(即 if≠如果),而是宾语从句(即 if =是否),句意为―他很忙,我不知道明天他是否会来。‖请看以下类似试题: (1) I don‘t know if she _____, but if she ____ I will let you know. A. comes, comes B. will come, will come C. comes, will come D. will come, comes 答案选 D,第一个 if 引导的是宾语从句,第二个 if 引导的是条件状语从句。 (2) ―When _____ he come?‖ ―I don‘t know, but when he _____, I‘ll tell you.‖ A. does, comes B. will, will come C. does, will come D. will, comes 答案选 D,第一个 when 疑问副词,用于引出一个特殊疑问句;第二个 when 是从属连词,用于引 导时间状语从句。 (3) ―When he _____ is not known yet.‖ ―But when he ____, he will be warmly welcomed.‖ A. comes, comes B. will come, will come C. comes, will come D. will come, comes 答案选 D,第一个 when 引导的是主语从句,第二个 when 引导的是时间状语从句。 8. The bridge, which _____ 1688, needs repairing. A. is dated from B. was dated from C. dates from D. dated from 【陷阱】 此题容易误选 B 或 D, 认为句中用了 1688 这个过去时间, 所以应选过去时态, 又因为 date from 不用于被动语态,所以只能选 D。 【分析】其实此题的最佳答案应是 C,因为 date from 的意思是―自某时起存在至今‖(=have existed since),它通常用于一般现在时,而不用过去时态(尽管其后接的总是表示过去的时间)。如:
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The church dates from 1176. 这座教堂是六世纪建的。 The castle dates from the 14th century. 这座城堡是 14 世纪建的。 但若所谈论的东西现在已不复存在,则可用一般过去时。如: The church, which dated from the 13th century, was destroyed in an earthquake two years ago. 那座教堂是 13 世纪建成的,两年前在一次地震中被毁了。 注:与 date from 同义的 date back to 也有类似用法。 9. ―You‘ve left the light on.‖ ―Oh, so I have. _____ and turn it off.‖ A. I‘ll go B. I‘ve gone C. I go D. I‘m going 【陷阱】容易误选 D。 【分析】A 和 D 两者均可表示将来,填入空格处似乎都可以。但实际上只有 A 是最佳的,因为根据 上下文的语境来看,―我去把灯关掉‖这一行为是说话人听了对方的话后临时想到的,而不是事先准备的。 而按英语习惯:will 和 be going to 后接动词原形均可表示意图,但意图有强弱之分,如果是事先考虑 过的意图,要用 be going to;如果不是事先考虑过的,而是说话时刻才临时想到的意图,则用 will。比 较: ―I‘ve come out without any money.‖ ―Never mind, I will lend you some.‖ ―我出来没带 钱。‖―没关系,我借给你。‖(句中用 will lend,表示―借‖钱给对方是临时想到的,即听了对方的话后临时 作出的反应) I‘ve bought a typewriter and I‘m going to learn to type. 我买了台打字机,我想学打字。(句 中用 be going to learn to type,表示说话人要学打字是事先准备的,并为此买了台打字机) ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. A. C. 2. A. C. 3. A. C. 4. A. C. 5. A. C. 6. A. C. 7. A. C. 8. A. C. Look at that little boy wandering about — perhaps he _____ his mother. will lose B. is losing had lost D. has lost It‘s good that we _____ to the park because it‘s started to rain. don‘t go B. hadn‘t gone didn‘t go D. wasn‘t going I _____ for five minutes; why don‘t they come? am calling B. called was calling D. have been calling You _____ your turn so you‘ll have to wait. will miss B. have missed are missing D. had missed We _____ to move but are still considering where to go to. are deciding B. decided have decided D. had decided I left my pen on the desk and now it‘s gone; who _____ it? took B. has taken will take D. had taken They won‘t buy any new clothes because they _____ money to buy a new car. save B. were saving have saved D. are saving I _____ your last point — could you say it again? didn‘t quite catch B. don‘t quite catch hadn‘t quite catch D. can‘t quite catch
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9. You‘ll never guess who I met today — my old teacher! We _____ for 20 years. A. don‘t meet B. haven‘t met C. hadn‘t met D. couldn‘t meet 10. I feel sure I _____ her before somewhere. A. was to meet B. have met C. had met D. would meet 11. They haven‘t arrived yet but we _____ them at any moment. A. are expected B. have expected C. are expecting D. will expect 12. I think you must be mistaken about seeing him at the theatre; I‘m sure he _____ abroad all week. A. is B. was C. has been D. had been 13. The students _______ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she _______ in the office. A. had written, left B. were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left 14. I tried to phone her, but even as I _____ she was leaving the building. A. phoned B. would phone C. had phoned D. was phoning 15. ―I suppose you _____ that report yet?‖ ―I finished it yesterday, as a matter of fact.‖ A. didn‘t finish B. haven‘t finished C. hadn‘t finished D. wasn‘t finishing 16. —Didn‘t the guard see him breaking into the bank? —No, he _______ in the other direction. A. was looking B. had looked C. looked D. is looking 17. How can you possibly miss the news? It _______ on TV all day long. A. has been B. had been C. was D. will be 18. ―I thought you might have got drunk.‖ ―Yes, I ______.‖ A. almost have B. almost had C. almost did D. might have 19. You ______ television. Why not do something more active? A. always watch B. are always watching C. have always watched D. have always been watching 20. ―I took part in the TOEFL. It was really hard.‖ ―Did you ______ a lot?‖ A. Have you studied B. Did you study C. Had you studied D. Do you study 21. ―What‘s your opinion on the matter, please?‖ ―Oh, sorry, I _______.‖ A. wasn‘t to listen B. haven‘t listened C. wasn‘t listening D. hadn‘t listened 22. ―Aha, you‘re a chain smoker!‖ ―Only at home. Nobody _______ that but you.‖ A. discovered B. had discovered C. discovers D. is discovering
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23. The telephone _______ three times in the last hour, and each time it ________ for my father. A. had rang; was B. has rung; was C. rang; has been D. has been ringing; is 24. The thief tried to break away from the policeman who ______ him, but failed. A. has held B. had held C. was holding D. would hold 25. When I arrived at the company, the manager ______, so we had only time for a few words. A. just went away B. had gone away C. was just going away D. has just gone away 26. ―John took a photograph of you just now.‖ ―Oh, really? I ______.‖ A. didn‘t know B. wasn‘t knowing C. don‘t know D. haven‘t known 27. ―Mike is not coming to the football game this afternoon.‖ ―It‘s a shame! He _______!‖ A. promises B. promised C. will promise D. had promised 28. Please call again. Jim _______ a bath just now. A. has had B. was having C. is having D. has 29. ―Was Andrew there when you arrived?‖ ―Yes, but he ______ home soon afterwards.‖ A. had gone B. has gone C. is going D. went 30. ―Where is Mother.‖ ―She is in the kitchen. She _______ the housework all morning.‖ A. is doing B. was doing C. has done D. has been doing 31. The books, ________ the dictionaries, must be put back where they ________. A. included; were B. to include; are C. including; were D. including; are 31. 选 C。第一空 including 不填 included,因为其后带有宾语;第二填 were,是因为它是指―原 来放的地方‖。 【答案与解析】 1. 选 D。根据那个小男孩徘徊的现象,推知他可能是找不到妈妈了。用现在完成时表示结果。 2. 选 C。句意为―好在我们(刚才)没有去公园,因为天(现在)已经开始下雨了‖。 3. 选 D。用现在完成进行时表示持续到现在的一段时间。 4. 选 B,用现在完成时表示结果,即你已经错过了机会,其结果是:你只能等。 5. 选 C。用现在完成时表示影响。 6. 选 B。用现在完成时表示影响或结果,即现在笔不见了,是由于某人已经把它拿走了的结果。 7. 选 D。用现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作。 8. 选 A。从下文的语境看,既然现在叫对方重复一遍,说明―没听清对方的最后一点‖应发生在过去 (即说此话之前)。 9. 选 B。用现在完成时表示从过去持续到现在的一段时间。 10. 选 B。before 用作副词时不与具体时间连用,泛指―以前‖,通常与一般过去时或现在完成时连 用。 11. 选 C。用现在进行时表示目前的一种状态。
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12. 选 C。用现在完成时表示影响或结果,即他整个星期都在国外,所以你说你在剧院见过他,你一 定是搞错了。 13. 选 D。―把书忘在办公室‖发生在―去取书‖这一过去的动作之前,因此―忘了书‖这一动作发生在过 去的过去, 用过去完成时。 句中 when 表示的是时间的一点, 表示在―同学们正忙于……‖这一背景下, when 所引导的动作发生。因此前一句应用过去进行时。 14. 选 D。注意 even as 的意思,它表示―正当……的时候‖或―恰当……的时候‖。 15. 选 B。注意下文语境——事实上,我昨天就做完了。从该回答的语气上推测,填空处应填现在完 成时态。 16. 选 A。表示当时正在进行的动作。 17. 选 A。表示目前一种持续的状态。 18. 选 C。句中的 might have got drunk 是对过去情况的推测,故答句所指的情况也应在过去, 故选 C。 19. 选 B。always 与进行时态连用,可以表示高兴、满意、抱怨、厌恶等感情色彩。 20. 选 C。根据 took 的时态可知,―参加托福考试‖发生在过去;而对方问―是否努力学习过?‖这肯定 问的是参加考试以前的事,故用过去完成时。 21. 选 C。―没听‖肯定是刚才的事,所以应用过去时态。 22. 选 C。答句陈述的是客观事实,故用一般现在时态。 23. 选 B。按英语语法,―in the last [past]+一段时间‖通常与现在完成时连用。 24. 选 C。用过去进行时表示当时在持续的一种状态。 25. 选 C。由于下文说 we had only time for a few words,说明―经理‖正准备离开。 26. 选 A。―不知道‖是对方告诉自己之前的事,故用一般过去时。 27. 选 B。根据语境,他―答应‖发生在过去,故用一般过去时。 28. 选 C。just now 有两个意思:一是表示―刚才‖,此时 just now 为习语;二是表示―现在‖、―眼 前‖、 ―就在此时‖, 此时 just 意为―正好‖、 ―恰好‖, 用以修饰副词 now。 根据句子语境, 句中的 just now 应取上面的第二个意思。 29. 选 D。Andrew―回家‖发生在你见到他(发生在过去)之后不久。 30. 选 D。现在完成进行时表示从过去至今一直在持续的动作。

被动语态考点

◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. ―Do you like the material?‖ ―Yes, it _____ very soft.‖ A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt 【陷阱】此题容易误选 D,想当然地根据―这布料摸起来很柔软‖这一句意,认为―布料‖应是―被摸‖, 所以 feel 选用被动语态。 【分析】其实,此题正确答案为 C,因为 feel 在此为连系动词,而连系动词均为不及物动词,不能 用于被动语态,尽管有时其汉语意思有被动意味。请看以下类似例子 (答案均为 D):
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(1) Her forehead _____ hot. I‘m afraid she is ill. A. is feeling B. felt C. is felt D. feels (2) The new school has been completed. It _____ very beautiful. A. is looked B. looked C. has looked D. looks (3) The dish _____ nice, but the milk _____ sour. A. is smelt, is smelt B. is smelt, smells C. smells, is smelt D. smells, smells (4) The story of his life _____ interesting. A. is sounded B. is sounding C. has sounded D. sounds 2. He was angry _____ your work. He said that he _____ at all. A. at, didn‘t satisfy B. to, didn‘t satisfy C. at, wasn‘t satisfied D. to, wasn‘t satisfied 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能被误选。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。 be angry at (about) sth 意为―对某事生气‖,许多同学常按汉语意思将 其中的介词 at (about) 换成 to,这是错误的。另外,许多同学将汉语的―不满意‖直译为 not satisfy, 这是是不对的,因为,satisfy 在现代英语中只用作及物动词,其意不是―满意‖而是―使(人)满意‖,所以其 后不能没有宾语,除非本身是被动语态(或是系表结构)。 ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. The president _____ a cool reception when he visited London. A. gave B. was given C. had given D. had been given 2. A red sky in the morning _____ to be a sign of bad weather. A. says B. is saying C. has said D. is said 3 If you go there alone after dark you might get _____. A. attacked and robbed B. attacking and robbing B. to attack and rob D. to be attacked and robbed 4. What I wanted to know was when and where the meeting ______. A. was holding B. had held C. was to hold D. was to be held 5. New medicines and instruments ______ every day to extend life. A. develop B. are being developed C. are developing D. have developed 6. I‘ll come after the meeting if time ______. A. permits B. is permitting C. is permitted D. has permitted 7. The students _____ £50 a year to cover the cost of books and stationery. A. C. 8. A. C. give B. are given have given D. to give With the development of science, more new technology _______ to the fields of IT. has introduced B. is being introduced is introduced D. was introduced
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9.‖How about the dishes, Dear?‖ ―The beef didn‘t taste very good. It ______ too long.‖ A. cooked B. had been cooked C. was cooked D. had cooked 10. He kept a little notebook, in which ______ the names and addresses of his friends. A. wrote B. was writing C. was written D. were written 11. ―Look! Everything here is under construction.‖ ―What is the small building that ______for?‖ A. is being building B. has been built C. is built D. is being built 12. Hundreds of jobs _______ if the factory closes. A. lose B. will be lost C. are lost D. will lose 13. A red sky in the morning ______ to be a sign of bad weather. A. says B. is saying C. has said D. is said 14. New medicines and instruments ______ every day to extend life. A. develop B. are being developed C. are developing D. have developed 【答案与解析】 1. 选 B。一方面语意要求要被动语态,另一方面从句时态暗示主句应用一般过去时。 2. 选 D。此句也可说成 It is said that a red sky in the morning is a sign of bad weather. 3. 选 A,―get + 过去分词‖表被动。 4. 选 D,从逻辑上说,―会议‖应是被开,故用被动式。 5. 选 B。从语境上看,develop 不仅要用被动语态,而且要用进行时态。 6. 选 A,该用法中的 permit 为不及物动词,不用被动语态。其中 if time permits 也可换成 time permitting。 7. 选 B。谓语为 give sb sth 结构的被动语态形式。 8. 选 B。技术应该是―被‖引进,故用被动语态;根据语境句子应用现在进行时。 9. 选 B。从句意上看,―牛肉‖应该是―被‖煮,故句子要用被动语态;从时间上看,由于句中有 didn‘t taste very good,所以―煮得太久‖应该在这一过去时间之前,故用过去完成时。 10. 选 D。in which were written the names and addresses…为倒装句式,其正常表达为 the names and addresses of his friends were written in the notebook。 11. 选 D。 因为 building 应该是―被建‖, 故用被动语态; 再根据前文的 look, under construction 等信息词可知,此处应用现在进行时态。 12. 选 B。jobs 与 lose 应为被动关系,故用被动语态;再根据条件状语从句中的一般现在时可知主 句以用一般将来时为宜。 13. 选 D。因为主语 a red sky 与谓语动词 say 之间为被动关系,故用被动语态。 14. 选 B。因为―新的药物和器械‖与―开发‖之间为被动关系,故用被动语态。

2004.4.15 11 动词用法与辨析 ◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. If you want to sell your product you must _____ it.
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A. advertise B. advertise for C. advertise on D. advertise to 【陷阱】容易误选 B,认为 advertise 的意思是―做广告‖,advertise for 的意思―为……做广告‖。 【分析】 事实上, 正确答案为 A。 advertise 可用作及物和不及物动词: 用作及物动词时, 其意为―为…… 做广告‖、―登广告宣传‖;用作不及物动词时,其意为―做广告‖、―登广告‖,此时通常后接介词 for,表示 ―做广告征求‖。比较: advertise for sth (sb) 登广告征求或寻找某物或某人 (此时 advertise 不及物) advertise sth 为……登广告,登广告宣传……(此时 advertise 是及物动词,其后要直接跟被宣传的 东西作宾语) People advertise things that they wish to sell. 人们为要卖的东西登广告。 The manager wants to advertise for a new secretary. 经理想登广告招聘一位新秘书。 再比较以下用例: advertise jobs 登广告招人 advertise for jobs 登广告求职 2. No matter how much you‘ve learned and how high a standard of education you have had, you must _______ the people heart and soul. A. serve B. serve for C. serve to D. serve on 【陷阱】容易误选 B,即字对字地翻译汉语的―全心全意为人民服务‖,将其中的―为‖译为 for。 【分析】答案选 A,serve 意为―为……服务‖,可直接用作及物动词,其后不能按汉语意思误加介词 for。请看以下类似例子: (1) I _____ you yesterday, but you weren‘t in. A. rang B. rang to C. rang with D. rang to 答案选 A,ring 可以用作及物动词,表示―给……打电话‖,故其后不用介词。 (2) Neither of her parents wanted her to _____ her cousin. A. marry B. marry to C. marry with D. marry for 答案选 A, marry 可用作及物或不及物动词,用作及物动词时它的意思―与……结婚‖, 而不仅仅是―结 婚‖,也就是说,后接宾语时,无需用介词 to, with 等。 (3) How can I _____ you, Mr. Green? A. contact B. contact with C. contact to D. contact for 答案选 A,contact 为及物动词,表示―与……联系‖,其后不接介词。 3. According to the rules, students must not ______ their books during examinations. A. read B. watch C. notice D. look at 【陷阱】容易误选 A。因为按照英语一般习惯:看书看报用动词 read,看电视用动词 watch,看电 影用动词 see,看比赛用动词 watch,看黑板用动词 look at,等等。 【分析】一般说来,汉语的―看书‖至少有两层意思,一是指阅读性地看书,即看书=读书,此时通常 用动词 read;另一种看书则不是指阅读性地看书,而只是大概地翻一翻或看一看,比如看看书的封面、 定价、内容提要等,或者回答问题时看看书的某些章节或字句以及考试时偷看书本等等,此时通常都不宜 用动词 read,而应根据情况选用其他动词(如 look at)。又如: Let me have a look at the book. 让我看看或翻翻这本书。 Please answer my questions without looking at your books. 请不看书回答我的问题。
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4. ―I love traveling. I hope to go with you this time.‖ ―But does your mother _____ you to go?‖ A. let B. agree C. allow D. promise 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。不能选 A 是因为 let 后用作宾语补足语的不定式不能带 to;不能选 B 是因 为动词 agree 习惯上不用于 agree sb to do sth 这一句式; 不能选 D 是因为在 promise sb to do sth 这一句式中, do sth 的逻辑主语是 promise 的主语而不其是宾语, to 比如 He promised me to go 的 意思是―他答应我,他去‖,而不是―他答应我让我去‖。之所以能选 C,是因为 allow sb to do sth(允许 某人做某事)与上文语境刚好吻合。 5. If they _______ to make heart-felt apologies soon we will have to bring an action against them. A. disagreed B. refused C. agreed D. hoped 【陷阱】容易误选 A, 根据 agree to do sth(同意做某事),想当然地类推出 disagree to do sth(不 同意或不愿意做某事)。 【分析】事实上,语言有很多问题是不能类推的,如上面这一例,英语可说 agree to do sth,但习 惯上却不说 disagree to do sth。类似地,英语中可说 like doing [to do] sth,但在现代英语中习惯 上说 dislike doing sth, 却不说 dislike to do sth。其实上面一题的最佳答案是 B,refuse to do sth 意 为―拒绝做某事‖或―不愿做某事‖。 6. They own two cars, not to _____ a motorbike. A. speak B. say C. talk D. mention 【陷阱】很容易根据―他们拥有两辆小汽车,更不用说一辆摩托车了‖这一中文语境而选择 B。 【分析】其实最佳答案为 D。因为 not to say 和 not to mention 均为习语,但其含义区别甚大: not to mention=更不用说,此外还有 not to say=虽不能说,即使不能说 It is warm, not to say hot. 天气虽说不上热,但也够暖了。 He was impolite, not to say rude. 他即使不是粗鲁,至少也是没有礼貌。 There‘re ten of us ready to help, not to mention the children. 我们有 10 个人愿意帮忙,还 不算小孩。 They have three dogs to look after, not to mention the cat and the bird. 他们有三只狗要 照顾,更别提那只猫和鸟了。 7. ―Do your parents agree to your doing that?‖ ―Yes, of course. In fact, they always ______ me to try something new.‖ A. hope B. suggest C. support D. encourage 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。因为若仅从汉语意思来看,四个选项均可填入空格处。 【分析】其实此题的正解答案是 D。因为在以上四个选项中,只有 encourage 可后接不定式的复合 结构作宾语,即可用于 encourage sb to do sth,而其余三者均不可后接不定式的复合结构作宾语,即 英语中习惯上不说 hope sb to do sth, suggest sb to do sth, support sb to do sth。顺便说一句, 以下英汉语表达也有类似差别,请注意: 汉语说―希望某人做某事‖,但英语不说 hope sb to do sth。 汉语说―同意某人做某事‖,但英语不说 agree sb to do sth。 汉语说―不同意某人做某事‖,但英语不说 disagree sb to do sth。 汉语说―害怕某人做某事‖,但英语不说 fear sb to do sth。
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汉语说―拒绝某人做某事‖,但英语不说 refuse sb to do sth。 汉语说―惩罚某人做某事‖,但英语不说 punish sb to do sth。 汉语说―建议某人做某事‖,但英语不说 suggest sb to do sth。 汉语说―建议某人做某事‖,但英语不说 propose sb to do sth。 汉语说―赞成某人做某事‖,但英语不说 approve sb to do sth。 汉语说―安排某人做某事‖,但英语不说 arrange sb to do sth。 汉语说―要求某人做某事‖,但英语不说 demand sb to do sth。 汉语说―感谢某人做某事‖,但英语不说 thank sb to do sth。 汉语说―指导某人做某事‖,但英语不说 guide sb to do sth。 汉语说―祝贺某人做某事‖,但英语不说 congratulate sb to do sth。 汉语说―阻止某人做某事‖,但英语不说 prevent sb to do sth。 汉语说―通知某人做某事‖,但英语不说 inform sb to do sth。 汉语说―欢迎某人做某事‖,但英语不说 welcome sb to do sth。 汉语说―陪伴某人做某事‖,但英语不说 accompany sb to do sth。 要表示以上汉语意思,英语需改用其他说法。如: advise sb to do sth 建议某人做某事 wish sb to do sth / hope for sb to do sth 希望某人做某事 arrnage for sb to do sth 安排某人做某事 demand of sb to do sth 要求某人做某事 thank sb for doing sth 感谢某人做了某事 congratulate sb on doing sth 祝贺某人做了某事 prevent sb from doing sth 阻止某人做某事 等等。 8. Nowadays everyone hopes to ______ good education so as to get a good job in the future. A. accept B. accept a C. receive D. receive a 【陷阱】 容易误选 A 或 B。 因为 accept 与 receive 的基本区别是前者表示―接受‖, 后者表示―收到‖, 而汉语通常是说―接受教育‖,而不是说―收到教育‖,所以选 A 或 B, 【分析】其实上,此题的正确答案是 D,因为英语中习惯说 receive a good education,而不说 accept a good education。另外,education 表示抽象意义的―教育‖时,不可数,但表示―一种教育‖ 或―一段教育‖时,可与不定冠词连用。 9. Wearing dark glasses can _______ your eyes from the sun. A. care B. prevent C. defend D. protect 【陷阱】容易误选 B。因为许多同学一看到题干中的 from,再联系到选项中的 prevent,便马上想 起了 prevent … from … 这个常用搭配。 【分析】 prevent A from B 这一句式中, 和 B 通常具有主谓关系, 在 A 如在 The rain prevented us from going out (下雨使我们不能出去)中,―我们‖与―出去‖就具有主谓关系。而上面一题不具备此特 点。此题正确答案应是 D,protect … from … 意为―保护……免受……‖。 10. Mr. Smith was in great need of money, so he ____ $2 000 for his car. A. paid B. took C. cost D. spent 【陷阱】容易误选 A,误选的依据是 pay … for … 这一搭配。 【分析】若单独说 He paid $2 000 for the car (他付了 2 000 美元买这车)是完全可以的,但问 题是,本句前面有这样一句 He was in great need of money (他急需要钱),既然是―急需要钱‖,又怎
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么还会花 2000 美元去买车呢?尤其还需注意的是 car 前的物主代词 his, 这说明是为自己的车花 2000 美元钱,不合情理。此题的正确答案是 B,take 在此表示―获得‖、―得到‖,句意为―他急需要钱,把自己 的车以 2000 美元给卖掉了‖。 11. There are many kinds _____, but I don‘t know which to buy. A. to be chosen B. to choose from C. to choose D. for choosing 【陷阱】此题容易误选 C。 【分析】其实应选 B。choose 表示―选择‖,其实是指―选择出来‖(pick out),而不是指―从……选择‖, 要表示后者的意思,要用 choose from,有时也用 choose among。同样地,下面两例中的介词 from 也不可省略: Here are some dictionaries for you choose from. 这些词典可供你选择。 In fact, there are various colors to choose from. 事实上,有各种各样的颜色可供选择。 比较: He chose a red one. 他选了一个红色的。 He chose from some red ones. 他从一些红色的当中去选。 He didn‘t know which to choose. 他不知道选哪个。 He didn‘t know which to choose from. 他不知道从哪个当中去选。 请做以下试题(答案选 D): (1) ―We have sent out two best players to the sports meet. What about you?‖ ―Well, not yet. We have few ______, I‘d say.‖ A. chosen B. to choose C. to be chosen D. to choose from (2) ―I‘d like to buy an expensive camera.‖ ―Well, we have several models ______.‖ A. to pick up B. to pick C. to choose D. to choose from 12. I _____ him not to go abroad, but he wouldn‘t listen. A. persuaded B. tried to persuade C. have persuaded D. was persuaded 【陷阱】容易误选 A。 【分析】正确答案为 B。persuade 的真正意思是―说服‖,而不是―设法说服‖,要表示后者的意思英 语应用 try to persuade (当然也可用其他词,如 advise 等)。类似地: (1) kill 的意思是―杀死‖,不表示―设法杀死‖,要表示后者的意思英语用 try to kill。 (2) prevent 的意思是―阻止‖,不表示―设法阻止‖,要表示后者的意思英语用 try to prevent。 13. When she came several days later, she found that all things still _______ where she had _______ them. A. lay; laid B. laid; laid C. lay; lain D. lying; lain 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】 正确答案选 A。 第一空填 lay, 它是 lie(位于, 在)的过去式 lay; 第二空 laid, 它是 lay(放, 置)的过去分词,句意为―……她发现所有东西还在她当时放它们的地方‖。请注意 lie, lay 的以下用法及词 形变换: (1) lay 有两个常见意思:一是表示―放‖、―摆‖(及物),二是表示―下(蛋)‖(及物或不及物)。如: Lay your coat on the bed. 把你的外衣放在床上。 Are your hens laying yet? 你的母鸡下蛋了吗? Will you please lay the table for dinner? 请你摆好餐具准备吃饭好吗?
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(2) lie 有三个主要意思:一是表示―躺‖或―平放‖,二是表示―位于‖,三是表示―说谎‖。用于以上三义 时,均为不及物动词。如: Don‘t lie in bed all morning. 别一个上午都躺在床上。 The book lay open on the desk. 那本书摊开着放在桌上。 Don‘t lay your coat on the bed. 不要把你的外衣放在床上。 The small town lies among the mountains. 小镇位于群山之中。 I‘m sorry I lied to you. 我很抱歉向你撒了谎。 (3) 这两个词经常被混淆的有时不是其意思,而是其词形。注意下表所示: 意 lie lie la y 思 现在分词 lying lying laying 过去式 lay lied laid 过去分词 lain lied laid 躺,平放,位于(vi.) 说谎(vi.) 放(vt.),下蛋 (vi.&vt.)

请做下题(答案均为 B): (1) The hens _____ 50 eggs last week, but this week they aren‘t _____. A. lay, lying B. laid, laying C. lay, laying D. lied, lying (2) The girl ______ on the ground _____ to me that had _____ the purse on the desk. A. lying, lay, laid B. lying, lied, laid C. lie, lied, lay D. lay, lied, lain 14. He _____ a visit to the factory and was warmly _____ by the workers there. A. took, welcome B. took, welcomed C. paid, welcome D. paid, welcomed 【陷阱】容易误选 A 或 C。因为许多同学会模仿 come → came → come 的变化形式,想当然地 认为 welcome 的变化形式是 welcome → welcame → welcome。 【分析】此题第一空应填动词 paid,因为 pay a visit to(拜访)是惯用搭配,其中的 pay 不能 换成 take。 第二空要填 welcomed, 因为 welcome 用作动词时, 其过去式和过去分词均为 welcomed, 即它是规则动词。 有的同学也许会问, 我们不是常说 You are welcome 吗? 为什么其中的 welcome 未 用 welcomed 呢?那是因为此处的 welcome 为形容词,而不是动词。 15. The boy said that the fish his mother cooked tasted ______. A. good B. well C. to be good D. to be well 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】按英语语法,连系动词后通常接形容词作表语,而不接副词,据此可以排除选项 B 和 D。但 到底是应选 A 还是 C 呢?许多同学凭感觉认为 taste to be good 似乎很通顺,于是选了 C。但是,错 了,正确答案应是 A。原因是用作连系动词的 taste 后习惯上不接 to be。如: 这棵树上的苹果味道很好。 正:The apples from this tree taste delicious. 误:The apples from this tree taste to be delicious. 类似地,feel, smell, sound 等连系动词后习惯上也不接不定式 to be。如: 你的想法听起来很好。 正:Your idea sounds a good one. 误:Your idea sounds to be a good one. 玫瑰发出香气。 正:Roses smell sweet.
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误:Roses smell to be sweet. 比较: seem, appear, prove, turn out, continue 等连系动词后可以接不定式 to be, 也可省略 to be。如: She seems (to be) a little tired. 她似乎有点累。 He appears (to be) quite young. 他显得年轻。 The examination turned out (to be) quite easy. 结果考试相当容易。 The weather continued (to be ) fine. 天气仍然很好。 注:用作连系动词的 look 后能否接 to be,各语法家意见不一:有的认为可接 to be,有的认为不 能接 to be。为此,建议同学们以不接 to be 为宜。 ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. We‘re so busy that no one in the office can _____ for any other work. A. spare B. be spared C. share D. be shared 2. He regards that book _____ one of the worst that he‘s _____ read. A. to be, ever B. to be, never C. as, ever D. as, never 3. ―Did you get a job?‖ ―No, I ______, but it‘s no use.‖ A. expected B. tried to C. managed to D. planned 4. ―Do you know that Jack ______ a postman for about six years?‖ ―Yes, I see.‖ A. has become B. has turned C. has changed D. has been 5. The thing that ______ is not whether you fail or not, but whether you try or not. A. matters B. cares C. considers D. minds 6. I don‘t want the green coat. It is red and black colours that ______ me very well. A. suit B. fit C. suits D. fits 7. ―Will another fifty be enough?‖ ―Just twenty will ______.‖ A. work B. do C. suit D. fit 8. Goodbye, Mr Carter — my secretary will _____ you to the door. A. send B. lead C. drive D. show 9. This kind of cancer can be cured, provided it is ______ early. A. got B. gained C. seen D. caught 10. We haven‘t enough books for everyone; some of you will have to _____. A. help B. enjoy C. share D. spare 11. He asked her to marry him and she _____ him. A. answered B. received C. accepted D. agreed 12. My worst fears were _____ when I saw what the exam questions were. A. done B. seen
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C. finished D. realized 13. The plan looks good on paper, but will it _____? A. work B. pass C. agree D. does 14. What‘s the matter with the radio? Why isn‘t it _____? A. broadcasting B. working C. doing D. sounding 15. High unemployment _____ the government billions of pounds in lost taxes. A. spends B. takes C. uses D. costs 16. It‘s hard to rescue drowning people because they _____ so much. A. sink B. swim C. jump D. struggle 17. She went to the station to meet her husband, but _____ him in the crowd. A. passed B. recognized C. missed D. lost 18. I missed what was happening because I wasn‘t ______ very closely. A. noticing B. running C. watching D. glancing 19. If you lend me a pound, it will _____ me having to go to the bank. A. save B. share C. serve D. help 20. Don‘t _______ your breath trying to persuade them; they‘ll never listen. A. use B. waste C. spend D. put 21. He has spent little time on his lessons this term, so he _____ to fail the exam. A. expects B. hopes C. wishes D. requires 22. He will never ______ anything if he doesn‘t work hard. A. hope B. wish C. achieve D. succeed 【答案与解析】 1. 选 B,spare 在表示―腾出或省去(多余的人或物)‖。 2. 选 C,regard … as …的意思―把……当作……‖,其中的介词 as 不能换成 to be。 3. 选 B。I tried to 为 I tried to get a job 之省略。 4. 选 D。因为 A、B、C 均为终止性动词,均不能连用 for about six years 这样的一段时间。 5. 选 A。matter 在此的意思是―要紧‖、―关系重大‖。 6. 选 A。填空句为强调句,强调主语 red and black colours,故其后的谓语要用复数,即排除 C 和 D。另外,fit 与 suit 区别是:fit 表示―适合‖或―合身‖等(及物或不及物),主要是指尺寸、大小、形状 等方面的适合,而 suit 表示―适合‖,主要指款式或花色等方面的适合。 7. 选 B。do 在此表示―够‖、―足够‖、―适合‖、―行‖、―可以‖等义。又如: This will never do! 这事永远不可以。 I‘m hungry. Get me something to eat. Anything will do. 我饿了,给我弄点吃的东西,什么 都行。

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8. 选 D。show sb to the door 意为―送某人到门口‖。注意,其中的介词 to 不可省略,否则就成 了 show sb the door(驱赶某人,下逐客令)。另外,也不要按汉语意思选 A,因为 send 通常表示派 人送,而不表示亲自送。 9. 选 D,catch 在此表示―发现‖,句中的 provided 用作连词,意为―如果‖。 10. 选 C。既然书不够,不能每人一本,所以有些人只能 share(分享)了。 11. 选 C。accept 意为―同意‖、―接受‖,注意不能选 D,因为 agree 后不能直接跟名词或代词作 宾语。 12. 选 D。realize 在此的意思不是―实现‖,而是指―使(不安、恐惧等)成为事实‖。 13. 选 A,work 在此的意思是―起作用‖、―奏效‖。 14. 选 B。work 在此的意思是―运作‖、―运转‖。 15. 选 D。spend 和 cost 均可表示―花费‖,但句型不同:spend + 时间或金钱 + on sth (in doing sth),cost + 某人或某机构 + 金钱或时间。 16. 选 D。由句意和常识推知。 17. 选 C。miss 指―错过‖。 18. 选 C,由句子的语境可推知。 19. 选 A,save 指―省去(劳力等)‖。 20. 选 B。 21. 选 A,expects 在此不是表示―期待‖,而是表示―预料‖。 22. 选 C,achieve 意为―完成‖、―做到‖。其余三项均不能直接跟名词或代词作宾语。

短语动词考点

◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. When he realized the police had seen him, the man ______ the exit as quickly as possible. A. made off B. made for C. made out D. made up 【陷阱】容易误选 A。 【分析】正确答案应选 B。make for 意为―移向,走向‖。最具干扰性的选项是 A,因为 make off 的 意思是―匆匆逃走‖。之所以不能选 A,是因为 make off 不及物,其后不能接宾语;而 make for 是及 物的,其后可以接宾语。另外两个选项的意思是:make out 指―勉强了解,开出(支票等),成功‖;make up 指―弥补,虚构,整理,编辑,化妆‖。 2. Now and then they would ______ our house and have a talk with us. A. call on B. drop in at C. drop in on D. drop in 【陷阱】几个干扰项均容易误选。

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【分析】答案应选 B。drop in 意为―顺便走访,不预先通知的拜访‖,为不及物动词,其后不接宾语, 若要接宾语,遵循以下原则:表示拜访某人,后接介词 on;表示拜访某地,后接介词 at。call 表示―拜访‖ 时也遵循以上原则,即 call at 后接地点,call on 后接人。

3. ―Why didn‘t you write?‖ ―My ink has _______.‖ A. used up B. run out of C. given away D. given out 【陷阱】几个干扰项均容易误选。 【分析】最佳答案为 D。give out 有很多意思,如表示―分发,发出(气味、热等),发表,用尽,精 疲力竭‖等,此题取其―用尽‖之义。选项 A 和 B 很具干扰性,它们均可表示―用完,用尽‖,但是它们是及 物的,其后应接宾语。假若将选项 A 改为 been used up 也可以选。 4. I think your health will soon ______ if you have a holiday on the seaside. A. give up B. pick up C. take up D. get up 【陷阱】几个干扰项均容易误选。 【分析】答案选 B。pick up 的意思很多,其中一个用法是表示―恢复,改进,改善‖。如: The weather may pick up. 天气会好转的。 Business is picking up again. 生意又有所好转。 除此之处还可表示―拿起,捡起;收拾,整理;学会,获得;(用车)来接,去取;重新开始,继续;感 染(疾病、坏习惯等)‖等。 其他几个选项的意思分别为:give up 意为―放弃‖;take up 意为―开始(学习或从事等),继续,占 去,接纳,提出‖;get up 意为―起床‖。 ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. To our surprise the stranger _____ to be an old friend of my mother‘s. A. turned out B. turned up C. set out D. set up 2. All the girls swam in the lake except two, who _____ halfway. A. gave off B. gave up C. gave away D. gave out 3. If the new arrangement doesn‘t _____, we‘ll go back to the old one. A. work over B. work out C. work up D. work in 4. ―Have great changes taken place in your village?‖ ―Yes, A new school was ______ in the village last year.‖ A. held up B. set up C. sent up D. brought up 5. I had to ______ because someone else wanted to use the phone. A. give up B. put up C. hang up D. ring up 6. Elephants would ______ if men were allowed to shoot as many as they wished. A. die down B. die out C. die away D. die off 7. My study of biology has ___C___ much of my spare time, but it has given me a great deal of enjoyment.
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A. taken off C. taken up 8. The plan B. taken down D. taken away ___ just because people were unwilling to co-operate(合作).

A. broke down B. pulled down C. turned down D. put down 9. The government has _______ the parents to work with teachers in the education of their children. A. asked for B. called for C. looked for D. paid for 10. John has put on so much weight recently that his mother has to ______ all his trousers to his measure. A. let out B. give away C. bring in D. make up 11. I can ______ some noise while I‘m studying, but I can‘t stand very loud noise. A. put up with B. get rid of C. have effect on D. keep away from 12. The mother often tells her son to be a good boy, warning him to ______ trouble. A. hold back from B. keep out of C. break away from D. get rid of 13. To my surprise, the manager ______ 30 dollars from my salary without any good reason. A. cut off B. held up C. brought down D. kept back 14. Steven has a lot of work to _______ in the office since he has been away for quite a few days. A. take up B. make up C. work out D. carry out 15. Although Jane agrees with me on most points, there was one on which she was unwilling to _______. A. give out B. give in C. give away D. give off 16. You should ______ what your parents expect of you. A. live up to B. stand up to C. look up to D. run up to 17. I can hardly believe my eyes. What a poor composition you have _______. There are so many wrong spellings in it. A. turned into B. turned off C. turned to D. turned in 18. ―Why don‘t we go for a picnic this weekend?‖ ―Good idea! I would ______ the car and you‘ll prepare the food.‖ A. look after B. take care of C. see about D get down to 19. How I wish that I could ______ my ideas in simple and wonderful English when chatting on the net. A. set out B. set off C. set over D. set up
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20. Some kinds of animals can _______ the colour of their surroundings. A. take on B. dress up C. put on D. get into 【答案与解析】 1. 选 A。turn out 意为―结果是,原来是‖等;turn up 意为―找到, 发现,出现,开大音量‖等; set out 意为―开始,出发,陈述‖等;set up 意为―设立,竖立,架起,升起,创(纪录),提出‖等。 2. 选 B。give up 意为―放弃‖;give out 意为―分发,发出(气味、热等),发表,用尽,精疲力竭‖; give away 意为―送掉,分发,放弃,泄露,出卖‖;give off 意为―发出(蒸汽、光等),长出(枝、杈等)‖。 3. 选 B。work out 在此表示―有预期结果‖;work over 意为―调查,重做‖;work up 意为―逐步 建立,逐步发展‖;work in 意为―配合,引进‖。 4. 选 B。set up 意为―建立‖;hold up 意为―举起,支撑,继续下去,阻挡,拦截‖;send up 意 为―发出,射出,长出,使上升‖;bring up 意为―教育,培养,提出‖。 5. 选 C。give up 指―放弃‖,put up 指―举起,架起,修建,张贴‖等,hang up 指―挂断(电话)‖, ring up 指―给某人打电话‖。 6. 选 B。die away 指―(声音、风、光线等)渐息,渐弱‖;die down 指―(慢慢)熄灭,平静下来‖; die off 指―一个一个地死去‖;die out 指―(家族、种族、习俗、观念等)灭绝,绝迹‖。 7. 选 C。take up 意为―开始(学习或从事等),继续,占去,接纳,提出‖;take off 意为―脱下,起 飞,打折,请假‖;take away 意为―取走‖;take down 意为―写下,拆下‖。 8. 选 A。break down 意为―中止,毁掉,压倒,停顿,倒塌‖;pull down 意为―摧毁,推翻,使降 低,使身体变差‖;turn down 意为―拒绝,关小音量,减弱,降低‖;put down 意为―放下,拒绝,镇 压,削减,记下‖。 9. 选 B。call for 意为―要求,提倡‖;ask for 意为―请求,索要‖;look for 意为―寻找‖;pay for 意为―为……付钱‖。 10. 选 A。let out 意为―放掉,泄露,放大,出租‖;give away 意为―送掉,分发,放弃,泄露, 出 卖,让步‖;bring in 意为―生产, 挣得,介绍引进‖;make up 意为―弥补,虚构,缝制,整理,和解, 编辑,化妆‖。 11. 选 A。put up with 意为―忍受,容忍‖;get rid of 意为―摆脱,消除,去掉‖;have effect on 意为―对……有影响‖;keep away from 意为―远离,不接近‖。 12. 选 B。 hold back from 意为―向……隐瞒‖; keep out of 意为―使在……之外‖; break away from 意为―脱离‖;get rid of 意为―摆脱,消除,去掉‖。 13. 选 D。keep back 意为―扣下,留下,阻挡,隐瞒‖;hold up 意为―举起,支撑‖;bring down 意为―打倒,击落,打死,降低‖;cut off 意为―切断,断绝‖。 14. 选 B。make up 意为―弥补,虚构,整理,编辑,化妆‖;take up 意为―拿起,开始从事,继 续,吸收‖;work out 意为―计算出,设计出,有预期结果‖;carry out 意为―完成,实现,贯彻,执行‖。 15. 选 B。give in 意为―让步,屈服,上交‖;give away 意为―分发,赠送,背弃,出卖,泄漏‖; give off 意为―发出(光、热、声音、气味等)‖;give out 意为―分发,散发,用完,耗尽,垮掉,失灵, 出故障,发表,公布,发出(热、声音、信号等)‖。 16. 选 A。live up to 意为―实践,做到‖;stand up to 意为―勇敢地抵抗‖;look up to 意为―尊 敬,仰望‖;run up to 意为―达到,积累到‖。 17. 选 D。turn in 意为―上交,归还‖;turn into 意为―进入,(使)变成‖;turn to 意为―转向,变 成,求助于,致力于‖;turn off 意为―关掉,避开‖。 18. 选 C。see about 意为―查询,留意于‖;look after 和 take careof 均表示为―照顾,关心‖; get down to 意为―开始认真考虑‖。 19. 选 A。set out 意为―陈述,陈列,出发,开始‖;set off 意为―出发,动身‖;set over 意为―移 交,置于……上,指派……管理‖;set up 意为―设立,竖立,架起,升起,创(纪录),提出‖。
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20. 选 A。take on 意为―披上,呈现,具有,雇用,接纳,流行‖;dress up 意为―打扮,装饰, 伪装‖;put on 意为―穿上,把……放在上,装出,增加‖;get into 意为―进入,陷入,穿上‖。

情态动词考点

◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. ―Mike is often absent from class.‖ ―Tell him he _____ answer for it if he goes on behaving like that.‖ A. shall B. will C. would D. can 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 A。shall 用作情态动词主要有以下两个用法: (1) 用于疑问句中征求意见。如: Shall I help you? 要不要我帮帮你? Shall I open the window? 要我把窗子打开吗? (2) 用于陈述句中表示允诺、告诫、警告、威胁、命令、规定、必然性等(可用于各类人称)。如: You shall suffer for this. 你会为此事吃苦头的。(表威胁) Each competitor shall wear a number. 每个参赛者要戴一个号码。(表规定) You shall hear everything as soon as you come. 你一来就可听到所有情况了。(表允诺) 请做以下试题(答案均选 shall): (1) ―I promise that she _____ get a nice present on her birthday.‖ ―Will it be a great surprise to her?‖ A. should B. must C. would D. shall 2. You _______ pay too much attention to your reading skill, as it is so important. A. cannot B. shouldn‘t C. mustn‘t D. needn‘t 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 A。cannot…too…是英语中一个十分有用的表达,意为―不可能太……,无论怎 样……也不算过分,越……越……‖。如: You can‘t be too careful. 你越仔细越好。 You can‘t praise the too much. 这本书值得大加赞扬。 We cannot work too much for the people. 我们为人民做工作是不可能做过头的。 A woman cannot have too many clothes. 女人买的衣服再多也不算多。 注:有时也可用 can never, impossible 等与 too 连用来表示类似意思。如: It is impossible to get there too soon. 去那儿越早越好。 3. ―Is John coming by train?‖ ―He should, but he _____ not. He likes driving his car.‖ A. must B. can
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C. need D. may 【陷阱】可能误选 B 或 C。 【分析】 最佳答案为 D。 may 表推测, may not 意为―可能不(会坐火车来)‖。 句中的 He should 为 He should come by train 之省略,由于其后出现转折连词 but,说明语意有变化,再结合下文的 He likes driving his car,便可决定此题选 D。注意,不能选 B,因为 can 表示推测时通常不用肯定陈述句。 4. ―I heard they went skiing in the mountains last winter.‖ ―It ____ true because there was little snow there.‖ A. may not be B. won‘t be C. couldn‘t be D. mustn‘t be 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】此题最佳答案为 C,主要由下文的 because there was little snow there 这一语境所决 定,既然―没下什么雪‖,那么―滑雪‖就应是―不可能‖,所以选 couldn‘t be,即选 C。 5. ―Do you think he is lazy?‖ ―I _____ so once, but I don‘t now.‖ A. may have thought B. can have thought C. may think D. might think 答案选 A。从答话人的语境可知,空格处的意思―曾经这样想过‖,即对过去情况作推测,故应用―情态 动词+动词完成式‖;又因为 can 表推测不用于肯定句,故选 A。请看类例: Their answers are exactly the same — one of them ______ from the other. A. must copy B. must have copied C. should copy D. should have copied 答案选 B,既然两人的答案完全一样,说明―抄袭‖已经发生,故用―情态动词+动词完成式‖,根据句 意,应选 B 而不能选 D。 6. You _____ be right, but I don‘t think you are. A. can B. could C. must D. should 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】从语境上看,C、D 不宜选,在剩下的 A 和 B 中,许多同学想当然地选了 A,认为整个句子 为现在时态,所以选 can,而不选过去式 could,但是最佳答案却是 B 而不是 A。按照英语语法,情态动 词 can 用于推测表示可能性时,通常只用于否定句或疑问句中,而不用于肯定句中;但 could 用于表推 测时, 却不仅可用于否定句和疑问句,也可用于肯定句, 且此时的 could 并不是 can 的过去式, can 与 也没有时间上的差别,只是 could 比 can 语气更委婉,所以答案选 B。注:can 在以下特殊情况下,也 可用于肯定句。一是表示抽象的可能性,即从理论上或逻辑上分析是可能的,但是实际上未必会发生。如: Anyone can make mistakes. 任何人都可能会犯错误。二是后接―be (get, seem, become)+形容 词‖,表示―有时会‖、―时常会‖等。如:My father can be very unreasonable. 我父亲有时候很不讲道 理。 ◆精编陷阱题训练◆ 1. ―I thought you wouldn‘t mind.‖ ―Well, as a matter of fact I don‘t, but you _____ me first.‖ A. should ask B. should have asked C. must ask D. must have asked 2. ―I called you yesterday. A woman answered, but I didn‘t recognize her voice.‖ ―Oh, it _____ my aunt Jean.‖ A. must be B. must have been C. might be D. can have been 3. That car nearly hit me; I ______. A. might be killed B. might have been killed
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C. may be killed D. may been killed 4. It‘s a very kind offer, but I really _____ accept it. A. mustn‘t B. needn‘t C. can‘t D. don‘t 5. The police still haven‘t found her, but they‘re doing all they _____. A. may B. can C. must D. will 6. You _____ practise the drums while the baby is sleeping. A. needn‘t B. mightn‘t C. mustn‘t D. won‘t 7. You _____ him the news; he knew it already. A. needn‘t tell B. needn‘t have told C. mightn‘t tell D. mightn‘t have told 8. As she‘s not here, I suppose she _____ home. A. must go B. must have gone C. might go D. might be going 9. Are you still here? You ______ home hours ago. A. should go B. should have gone C. might go D. may have gone 10. ―I called you yesterday. A woman answered, but I didn‘t recognize her voice.‖ ―Oh, it _____ my aunt Jean.‖ A. must be B. must have been C. might be D. can have been 11. I _______ have met him a long time ago. Both his name and face are very familiar. A. may B. can C. would D. should 13. ―Shall we go shopping?‖ ―Sorry, we _______ buy anything now because none of the shops are open.‖ A. mustn‘t B. needn‘t C. can‘t D. shouldn‘t 14. They often go to the restaurants for meals. They _____ be very poor. A. mustn‘t B. can‘t C. may not D. needn‘t 15. I didn‘t see her in the meeting room this morning. She ______ have spoken at the meeting. A. mustn‘t B. shouldn‘t C. needn‘t D. couldn‘t 17. He ______ the test again, in which case, his mother will be very disappointed. A. might fail B. must have failed C. should fail D. could have failed 18. ―Why didn‘t she come to the meeting yesterday?‖ ―I‘m not so sure. She ______ ill.‖ A. should be B. should have been C. must be D. might have been 19. Why did you just sit and watch? You _______ me. A. could help B. should help C. could have helped D. must have helped
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20. ―You ______ your teacher for help. He is kind-hearted.‖ ―Yes. A whole day _______.‖ A. can ask, will waste B. must have asked, had wasted C. could have asked, was wasted D. shouldn‘t have asked, would be wasted 21. ―Is there a flight to London this evening?‖ ―There _______ be. I‘ll phone the airport and find it out.‖ A. must B. might C. would D. can 22. ―Show me your permit, please.‖ ―Oh, it‘s not in my pocket. It ______.‖ A. might fall out B. could fall out C. should have fallen out D. must have fallen out 23. ―Look at these tracks. It _______ be a wolf.‖ ―Don‘t be so sure. I think it _______ be a fox.‖ A. must; could B. may; might C. need; must D. could; need 25. ―Did Jim come?‖ ―I don‘t know. He _______ while I was out.‖ A. might have come B. might come C. mush have come D. should have come 【答案与解析】 1. 选 B,should 后接动词完成式表示―本来应该做某事,结果未做‖,此处含有责备之意。 2. 选 B,对过去情况的肯定推测,宜用―情态动词 + 动词完成式‖,再根据句意,可确定答案为 B。 注:can 表示推测通常不用于肯定陈述句。 3. 选 B,表示过去可能发生而实际上未发生的事,用 might + 动词完成式。若只是推测过去可能已 经发生的事,则可用 may [might] + 动词完成式,如 He may [might] have gone. 他可能已经走 了。 4. 选 C。由句意可知。 5. 选 B,do all one can 意为―尽力‖或―竭尽全力‖。 6. 选 C,mustn‘t 在此相当于 can‘t,且语气更强。 7. 选 B,―needn‘t + 动词完成式‖的意思是:本来不必做某事,但实际上做了。上句意思是―你本来 不必告诉他这个消息的,因为他(当时)已经知道了‖。注意,句中 knew 为过去式。 8. 选 B,must 后接动词完成式表示对过去情况的肯定推测,意为―一定已经做了某事‖。 9. 选 B,should 后接动词完成式表示―本来应该做某事,结果未做‖。 10. 选 B,对过去情况的肯定推测,宜用―情态动词 + 动词完成式‖,再根据句意,可确定答案为 B。 注:can 表示推测通常不用于肯定句。 12. 选 A。may have done sth 表示对过去可能发生的事进行推测,意为―可能曾经‖。 13. 选 C。根据上下文的语境推知。can‘t 意为―不能‖。 14. 选 B。根据上下文的语境推知。can‘t 表推测,意为―不不能‖。 16. 选 D。couldn‘t have done sth 表示对过去情况进行推测,意为―过去不可能发生过某情况‖。 17. 选 A。根据下文的 will be 可知,―他考试再不及格‖是将来的事,据此可排除 B 和 D。再根据 语意,排除 C。 18. 选 D。从时间上看,由于是昨天没来开会,所以推测他生病也应指昨天,故排除 A 和 C。从语 境上看,既然上文说 I‘m not so sure,那么说明说话者对自己的推测没有很大把握,故选 D。 19. 选 C。根据上文的过去时态可知,此句谈的是过去的事,故排除 A 和 C。根据语境排除 D。
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20. 选 C。couldn‘t have done sth 结构在此表示责备,指过去本来可以做某事但实际上未做。第 二空填 was wasted,陈述的是过去的一事实。 21. 选 B。根据下文的 I‘ll phone the airport and find it out 可知,说话人对自己的推测没有很 大把握,故选 might。若选 A,语气太强,不合语境;若选 D,不合语法习惯,因为 can 表推测通常不 用于肯定陈述句中。 22. 选 D。既然―通行证现在不在口袋里‖,那么它―掉出去‖应发生在过去,故排除 A 和 B。比较选项 C 和 D 所表示的意思,选 D 更恰当。 24. 选 A。根据 Don‘t be so sure 可知前面一空应填 must。第二空填的 could 表示推测,虽为 过去式形式,但表示现在意义,语气较委婉,它与表推测的 can 主要用于否定句和疑问句不同,它可以 用于肯定陈述句。 25. 选 A。根据句中有关时态可知―他来‖发生在过去,故排除 B;根据 I don‘t know 可知选项 C 语气太肯定,不合适;选项 D 的意思是―本来应该来‖,与语境不合。

非谓语动词考点

◆典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could _______ a good college. A. enter B. to enter C. entering D. entered 【陷阱】容易误选 A。有的同学一看到空格前的情态动词 could 就断定此处应填动词原形 enter。 【分析】其实正确答案应是 B。此句为省略句,即在 could 后省略了动词 do,若把句子补完整应为 Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could do to enter a good college。 即句中的不定式短语(to enter a good college)是用作目的状语的,而不是与情态动词(could)一起构成 谓语。请再看类似例句: (1) They did what they could to comfort her. 他们尽量安慰她。 (2) They did everything they could to save her life. 他们尽一切力量拯救她的性命。 (3) He studies as hard as he could to catch up with his classmates. 他拼命学习以便赶上他 的同学。 值得指出的是,这也并不是说今后只要遇到类似结构的题就一定选带 to 不定式。请看以下试题: (4) He ran as fast as he could _____ to catch the early bus. A. to hope B. hope C. hoping D. hoped 此题的答案是 C 不是 A,其中的现在分词短语 hoping to catch the early bus 用作伴随状语。 (5) He spent every minute he could _____ spoken English. A. practise B. to practise C. practising D. practised 此题答案选 C,这与前面动词 spent 的搭配有关,即 spend … (in) doing sth。若将此句补充完 整,即为 He spent every minute he could spend in practising spoken English. (6) Before going abroad he devoted all he could ____D____ his oral English.
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A. improve B. to improve C. improving D. to improving 此题答案选 D,注意两点:一是 devote … to … 是固定搭配,意为―把……贡献给……‖;二是其中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时要用动名词。 2. He knows nothing about it, so he can‘t help _______ any of your work. A. doing B. to do C. being doing D. to be done 【陷阱】容易误选 B,根据 can‘t help doing sth 这一结构推出。 【分析】其实答案应选 A。比较以下结构: can‘t help to do sth = 不能帮助做某事 can‘t help doing sth = 禁不住做某事,情不自禁地做某事 又如下面一题,答案也是 B: She can‘t help ____ the house because she‘s busy making a cake. A cleaning B. to clean C. cleaned D. being cleaned 再请看以下试题: While shopping, people sometimes can‘t help _____ into buying something they don‘t really need. A. to persuade B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded 此题应选 C,句中的 can‘t help 意为―禁不住‖(注意根据句意用被动形式)。 3. All her time _______ experiments, she has no time for films. A. devoted to do B. devoted to doing C. devoting to doing D. is devoted to doing 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】此题最佳答案为 B。现分析如下: (1) devote 意为―致力于,献身于‖,主要用 devote…to…或 be devoted to,其中的 to 是介词, 不是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不用不定式。 (2) 选 A 错误:若将 do 改为 doing 则可以。 (3) 选 B 正确:all her time devoted to doing experiments 为独立主格结构,用作状语。 (4) 选 C 错误:因为 all her time 与 devote 为被动关系,故应将 devoting 改为 devoted。 (5) 选 D 错误:若单独看 All her time is devoted to doing experiments,此句并没有错,但问 题是逗号前后两个简单句没有必要的连接方式,所以从整体上看仍不对,假若在后一句的句首加上 and 或 so,则可选 D,或将 D 将中的 is 改为 being 也可选它。 请做以下类似题(答案均选 A): (1) All the preparations for the project ______, we‘re ready to start. A. completed B. have been completed C. had been completed D. been completed (2) Such _______ the case, I couldn‘t help but______ him. A. being, support B. was, support C. has been, supporting D. is, to support 比较以下各题,答案选 B,因为句中使用了并列连词 and: (1) All the preparations for the project ______, and we‘re ready to start. A. completed B. have been completed C. had been completed D. been completed (2) Such _______ the case, I couldn‘t help but______ him.
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A. being, support B. was, support C. has been, supporting D. is, to support 4. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ______ it more difficult. A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make 【陷阱】容易误选 C,受题干中的逗号的影响,认为是现在分词表结果的用法。 【分析】其实答案应选 B,句中的逗号相当于连词 and 或 but,not to make it more difficult 是 对逗号前的不定式 to make life easier 的补充说明。此句的意思是―新技术的目的是为了使生活变得更 容易,而不是使生活变得更困难‖。两个不定式同时用以说明句子主语 purpose 的内容。请做以下类似 试题(答案选 B): The purpose of the scheme is not to help the employers but _____ work for young people. A. provide B. to provide C. providing D. provided 5. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back. A. to be tied B. being tied C. tied D. having tied 【陷阱】容易误选 B。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。从意义上看,hands 与 tie 的关系应属被动关系,故排除 D。在 A、B、C 三个选项中,选项 A 比较容易排除,因为不定式表示将来意义,在此与语境不符。现将 B 和 C 作一比较: B 为现在分词的被动式, 它表示两层意义, 一是表被动, 二是表进行, 也就是说 his hands being tied 的 实际意思是―他的手正在被捆住‖,这显然与语境不符。而 C 为过去分词,它也表示两层意义,一是表被动, 二是表示动词的完成或完成后的状态,此句中的 with his hands tied behind his back 可视为手被捆 在背后的一种状态。由此可知最佳答案为 C。请看下面一题: Anyone ______ trying to take knives on heard flights would be caught by the police. A. finds B. found C. being found D. will find 答案选 B 而不选 C,其中的过去分词表示被动和完成。 比较下面两题,最佳答案是 D 不是 A,现在分词的被动式表示被动和进行: (1) The court hears about 120 cases a year; visitors are welcome to see a case ______. A. argued B. to be argued C. to be arguing D. being argued (2) The silence of the library was sometimes broken by an occasional cough or by the sound of pages _______. A. turned B. having turned C. to be turned D. being turned 6. Remind me _______ the medicine tomorrow. A. of taking B. taking C. to take D. take 【陷阱】容易误选 A。受 remind sb of (doing) sth 这一常用结构的影响。 【分析】最佳答案为 C。比较以下三个结构: remind sb of [about] sth = 使某人想起某事 remind sb of doing sth = 提醒某人做过某事(暗示动作已发生) remind sb to do sth = 提醒某人去做某事(暗示动作尚未发生) 请看两个例句: I reminded him of his promise. 我提醒他做过的诺言。
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My wife reminded me of seeing that film. 我妻子提醒我曾经看过那部电影。 Can you remind me to phone her tomorrow? 你明天能否提醒我给她打电话? 7. Once your business becomes international, _____ constantly will be part of your life. A. you fly B. your flight C. flight D. flying 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案为 D。由于空格后出现了 constantly 这一副词,这就说明不能选 B 或 C,因为 B、 C 均为名词,不能受副词 constantly 的修饰。A 和 D 均是可能的,因为其中有动词 fly。但若选 A,you fly 是一个主谓结构,与其后的谓语 will be 相冲突,所以只能选 D,即动名词 flying 在此用作主语。 8. Not only should you get used ______ under difficult conditions but you also you pay more attention ______ your work well. A. to work, to do B. to working, to doing C. to work, to doing D. to working, to do 【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为两个空白处均应填不定式。 【分析】正确答案为 B,因为 get used to 与 pay attention to 这两个结构中的 to 均为介词,不 是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不能动词原形。类似地,以下各结构中的 to 也是介词,不是 不定式符号,后接动词时也应用动名词,而不是动词原形: look forward to doing sth 盼望做某事 be opposed to doing sth 反对做某事 object to doing sth 反对做某事 stick to doing sth 坚持做某事 get down to doing sth 开始做某事 take to doing sth 喜欢上做某事 admit to doing 承认做了某事 pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事 devote one‘s time to doing sth 把某人的时间用于(奉献于)做某事 be equal to doing sth 等于做某事,能胜任做某事 What do you say to doing sth 你认为做某事怎么样 9. Both of my parents insisted _______ a computer for me, but I don‘t think it is necessary. A. to buy B. buying C. on buying D. in buying 【陷阱】容易误选 B,误认为 insist 后不能接不定式,但可以接动名词。 【分析】答案应选 C。其实,动词 insist 后既不能接不定式也不能接动名词,因为 insist 通常用作 不及物动词;若语义上需接宾语,要借助介词 on 或 upon,即用于 insist on [upon] (doing) sth;但 它有时的确也可用作及物动词, 不过其宾语通常只能是 that 从句, 而不能是普通的名词、 代词或动名词。 如: He insisted on seeing her home. 他坚持送她回家。 I insisted that he (should) stay. 我坚持要他留下。 10. ―Do you have anything more ______, sir?‖ ―No. You can have a rest or do something else.‖ A. typing B. to be typed C. typed D. to type 【陷阱】容易误选 D,根据 have sth to do 这一常用结构推出。 【分析】最佳答案是 B。确实,在―have+宾语+不定式‖结构中,用作定语的不定式通常用主动式表 示被动含义,如 I have some clothes to wash 等,即尽管其中的 some clothes 与其后的不定式 to
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wash 具有被动关系,但却习惯上用主动式表示被动意义。但值得指出的是,这类句型的主语与其后的不 定式具有主动关系,如 I have some clothes to wash 中的 to wash 就是由该句主语 I 来完成的。 而上面一题的情形有所不同,即其中的 to type 这一动作不是由句子主语 you 来完成的,而是由说话者 ―我‖来完成的。比较: Are you going to Shanghai? Do you have anything to take to your son? 你要去上海吗?你 有什么东西要带给你儿子吗? I‘m going to Shanghai next week. I have a lot of things to take with me. 下个星期我要去 上海,我随身要带很多东西去。 11. She took her son, ran out of the house, _____ him in the car and drove quickly to the nearest doctor‘s office. A. put B. to put C. putting D. having put 【陷阱】容易误选 B 或 C,误认为这考查非谓语动词的用法。 【分析】正确答案选 A。句中的 took, ran, put, drove 为四并列的谓语动词,其时态应一致。类似 地如(答案选 A): I got out of the taxi, _____ the fare and dashed into the station. A. paid B. paying C. to pay D. having paid 但是,下面一题稍有不同: Hearing the news, he rushed out, ______ the book ______ on the table and disappeared into the distance. A. left; lain open B. leaving; lying open C. leaving; lie opened D. left; lay opened 此题答案选 B,leaving 在此表结果,lying open 与其前的动词 leave 有关,leave 后接现在分词 作宾语补足语,表示使某人或某物处于做某事的状态中。 12. The boss insisted that every minute ______ made full use of ______ the work well. A. be, to do B. was, doing C. be, doing D. was, to do 【陷阱】容易误选 B。 【分析】其实正确答案是 A。分析如下: (1) 第一空填 be,是因为 insisted 后接 that 从句,从句谓语要用―should+动词原形‖这样的虚拟 语气,其中的 should 也可省略。 (2) 第二空要填 to do,是因为此句谓语为被动语态,假若将此句转换成主动语态,则是 …should make full use of every minute to do the work well, 句中涉及 make use of … to do sth (利用…… 做某事)这一结构。另外,还有 make the most of (尽量利用),make the best of (尽量利用)等短语 也可能用于此类试题。请看以下类似例子: (1) The old professor told us every part of the materials should be made use of ______ the power station. A. to build B. building C. build D. built 此题答案选 A,不是 B。为便于理解,可先考虑以下结构: …make use of every part of the materials to build the power station 由此可见,make use of 的宾语是 every part of the materials,其后的不定式 to build the power station 为目的状语。 (2) Does the way you thought of _______ the water clean make any sense? A. making B. to make
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C. how to make D. having made 此题答案选 B,不是 A。句子主语是 the way,you thought of 是修饰主语的定语从句,不定式 to make the water clean 也是修饰主语的定语,也就是说,句子主语带有两个定语修饰语。 13. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year. A. carried out B. carrying out C. carry out D. to carry out 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】答案选 A。此句结构较复杂,现分析如下: (1) that they would like to see _____ the next year 是修饰名词 the plan 的定语从句。 (2) 由于 the plan 与空格处的 carry out 有被动关系,故填过去分词 carried out。 请做以下类似试题: (1) Who do you think you‘d like _____ with you, a boy or a girl? A. to have go B. to have to go C. to have gone D. having to go 在确定答案之前,我们先来看看下面这个句子: I think I‘d like to have a boy go with me. 句中的 go 要用原形,这是因为其前有表示使役的动词 have。在此句中,假若对名词 a boy 提问, 便可得出: Who do you think you‘d like to have go with you? 对照上面一题,答案很显然是 A。 (2) Who did the boss _____ his car this time? A. make wash B. make to wash C. make washing D. making to wash 在做此题之前,也请先看看下面这个句子: The boss made Jack wash his car this time. 假若对句中的名词 Jack 提问,便可得出: Who did the boss make wash his car this time? 由此可知上面题答案为 A。 (3) You can never imagine what great difficulty I had ______ your house all by myself. A. found B. finding C. to find D. for finding 此题答案选 B。考查的基本结构是 have great difficulty (in) doing sth。 14. How happy we are! The holiday we have been looking forward _______ at last. A. to has come B. to have come C. to having come D. has come 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】其实正确答案是

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