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非谓语2 8


学生姓名 授课教师 教学课题 教学目标 周珍 非谓语动词

性别 上课时间



年级

高一

学科 第(8)次课

英语 课时:2 课时

2013 年

7 月 28 日

熟练掌握非谓语动词<

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重点难点

非谓语动词的各种用法、各种成分

(六)非谓语作状语的重点
1.理解下表中所列的关系 非谓语 doing(一般式)作状语 having done(完成式) 作状语 having been done (完成被动 式)作状语 done(过去分词)作状语 把下面的句子改写为完整的句子。 Waiting to see the doctor, I met with a friend of mine. 教学过程 Having made full preparations, we are sure to be successful. Having been shown around the library, we were then taken to see the laboratory. Seen from the hill, the town looks more beautiful. Locked up in the room, he found himself isolated from the outer world. 2.too…to…, enough to do…, only to…等结构表示结果 The boy is too young to join the navy.这男孩太小参不了海军。 The hall is big enough to hold 1,000 people. 这厅大得足以容纳一千人。 They lift a rock only to drop it on their own feet 他们搬起石头结果却砸了自己的脚。 注意:不定式作结果作状语表示未曾预料的结果,而现在分词作结果状语表示自然而然或必然的 结果。 Her husband died in 1942, leaving her with five children. The bus was held up by snowstorm, thus causing the delay.
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与逻辑主语(即句子的主语)的关系 主动关系 主动关系 被动关系 被动关系

与谓语动作的时间关系 (几乎)与谓语动作同时进行 先于谓语动作发生 先于谓语动作发生 已经在过去发生或是 不十分强调时间概念

3.分词(短语)作状语的附着规则:分词(短语)的逻辑主语应当与句子的主语一致,否则句子 就是错句。 _____from the top of the tower, the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees. A. Seen B. Seeing C. Have seen D. To see

对比:Seeing from the top of the tower, we can find the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees. 主要:已经成为固定用法的非谓语动词(短语)不需要遵守这条附着规则 常见的的有: considering…(鉴于/考虑到??), judging by/from…(从??来看, 依据?? 来判断),supposing that…(假定??),providing that… (假定??),according to…(依 据??), including…(包括??), owing to…(由于??), talking/speaking of…(谈及??) given…(考虑到??), provided that…(如果??) 4.独立主格结构和 with 复合结构 ▲逻辑主语+不定式/现在分词/过去分词 I send you 100 dollars today, the rest to follow in a year. 今天我先给你寄 100 美元。其余的钱一年内陆续寄过去。 Weather permitting, I’ll go to the park with my parents on Sunday. 如果天气允许,星期天我将和爸妈去公园。 All things considered, the planned trip will have to be called off. 考虑到所有的情况,原来计划好的旅行不得不取消。 ▲with(without)+宾语+不定式/现在分词/过去分词 With a lot of difficult problems to settle ,the newly —elected president is having a hard time. 有很多难题要解决新任总统日子可不好过! Without anything to eat, he died of hunger. 由于没有东西吃,他饿死了。 The Yangtze river is very busy with so many boats and ships coming and going every day. 每天长江上各种船只来来往往显得格外忙碌。 Without any more time given, we couldn't finish the task in three weeks. 如果不另给我们时间的话,我们三星期之内完成不了任务。 With everything well arranged, he left the office.一切都安排妥善之后,他离开了办公室。

(七)不定式的省略
不定式的省略我们可以分作两种,一种是“to”的省略(如:make sb. do sth 等) ;另一种实义动 词的省略。
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常见情形有: ① would/should like/love to, used to, have to, ought to, be going to, be able to, be willing to 等后面的 to 都为不定式符号,重复时可省略 to 后该不定式短语。如: — Could you lend me your dictionary? 能把你的词典借给我吗? — I’d like to (lend you my dictionary). 行。 ②动词 afford, agree, expect, forget, hope, intend, manage, need, pretend, refuse, try, want, wish 等后面常接不定式短语作宾语,重复时可省略 to 后该宾语。如: You may ask him for help if you want to (ask him for help). 如果你愿意,可以请他帮你。 ③动词 allow, beg, expect, forbid, force, invite, order, permit, tell, persuade 等后面常接不定式短 语作宾语补足语,重复时可省略 to 后该宾语补足语。如: I’ll go to her birthday party if she invites me to (go to her birthday party). 如果她邀请我参加她的生日聚会,我会去。

(八)非谓语动词的逻辑主语
①当动名词短语作主语、宾语或表语时,具有名词特性,其逻辑主语由“名词所有格或形容词 性物主代词”表示,放在动名词短语之前。当动名词短语不在句首时,也可由“名词普通格 或代词宾格”表示。 Helen’s/Her being absent made the teacher very angry. 海 伦 / 她 没 来 上 课 , 让 老 师 很 生 气。 They insisted on my/me speaking at the meeting. 他们坚持要我在会上发言。 ②形容词+for + 名词或代词 + 动词不定式 形容词通常表示事物的性质 It is necessary for you to finish the work before Friday.你们有必要在星期五前做完这项工作。 His idea is for us to travel in different cars.他的主意是让我们乘不同的车去旅游。 ③形容词+of+ 名词或代词 + 动词不定式 形容词往往表示人物的性格和特征 How careless it is of him to break such a valuable vase! 他真不小心,把如此贵重的 花瓶打 破了。 It’s brave of you to go into the burning building to save the baby! 你真勇敢,冲进着火的大楼里救这个婴儿

(九)关于 there be 的非谓语形式
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there be 非谓语形式可在句中作主语、宾语、状语和定语 1.作动词宾语时,通常用 there to be 结构,而不用 there being。能这样用的及物动词为:expect, like,mean,intend,want,prefer,hate 等,如: We don't want there to be any comrades lagging behind.我们不希望有任何同志掉队。 They hate there to be long queues everywhere..他们不愿意处处都要排长队。 We have no objection to there being a meeting here.我们并不反对在这里开会。 2.作状语多用 there being 结构,但若置于介词 for 之后要用 there to be There being nobody else at hand, I had to do by myself.由于附近没有人,我只得独自干了。(原因 状语) It’s too early for there to be anybody up.太早了,还不会有人起床。(作程度状语) There having been no rain for a long time,the ground was very dry. 因为好长时间没下雨了,地面非常干燥。(原因状语) 3.作主语时两种结构都可以,但如是用 for 引导则要用 there to be. It is not uncommon for there to be problems of communication between old and young. 老人与年青人之间存在着沟通问题是很常见的。 There being a kindergarten on campus is a great convenience to female teachers. 校园内有幼儿园对女教师十分方便。

5.作状语时的区别
①He hurried to the booking office only _____ that all the tickets has been sold out. A. to be told B. to tell C. told D. telling

②Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, ______ a record US $57.65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reached ③The storm left ,_____ A. caused B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching

a lot of damage to this area . B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused

④“You can’t catch me!” Janet shouted, _________ away. A. run ⑤ B. running C. to run D. ran

to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead.

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A. Fail ⑥

B. Failed?

C. To fail

D. Having failed

around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird’s Nest for the 2008 Olympic Games.

A. Having shown

B. To be shown

C. Having been shown

D. To show

⑦_____ in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed

⑧______ into use in April 2000, the h otline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns. A. Put B. Putting C. Having put D. Being put

①Faced with a bill for $10,000, _______. A. an extra job has been given to John C. an extra job has been taken B. the boss has given John an extra job D. John has taken an extra job

②_________, the more expensive the camera, the better its quality. A. General speaking C. Generally speaking ③___ B. Speaking general D. Speaking generally

_ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared

A. Compare

1.不定式的复合结构和否定结构
①It was foolish ______you to give up what you rightly owned. A. for B. of C. about D. from

②To fetch water before breakfast seemed to me a rule_____. A. to never break C. never to have broken B. never to be broken D. never to be breaking

③The patient was warned ______oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating

2.动词不定式的省略结构
①—What’s the matter with Della?
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—Well, her parents wouldn’t allow her to go to the party, but she still _ A. hopes to B. hopes so C. hopes not

_. D. hopes for

②—Would you like to join me for a quick lunch before class? — , but I promised Nancy to go out with her. B.I like it C.I don’t . D. it used to be D.I will

A. I’d like to

③In my opinion, life in the twenty-first century is much easier than A. that used to be B. it is used to C. it was used to

3.不定式的几个特别句型
①It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows______ . A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it . D. being breathed

②I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good A. to be breathed ③—Is Bob still performing? B. to breathe C. breathing

—I’m afraid not. He is said________ the stage already as he has become an official. A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left

④The flu is believed _____ by viruses that like to reproduce in the cell inside the human nose and throat. A. causing B. being caused C. to be caused D. to have caused

4.动名词的复合结构和否定结构
①_____the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend C. The president attended ②— They are quiet, aren’t they? —Yes. They are accustomed________ at meals. A. to talk B. to not talk C. to talking D. to not talking B. The president to attend D. The president’s attending

③The news of _______ greatly made us surprised a lot as he was indeed very excellent. A. not his having elected C. his not being elected B. not his being elected D. his not having elected

_______the program, they have to stay there for another two weeks. A. Not completing B. Not completed C. Not having completed D. Having not

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completed

5.独立主格结构与 with 复合结构
①The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ___ _____at the end of last March. A. has been launched C. being launched B. having been launched D. to be launched

②The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _______ for the day. A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished

③—Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work _______ my mind, I almost break down. A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled

④John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ______, he gladly accepted it. A. finished 课后作业 B. finishing C. having finished D. was finished

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