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英语五大基本句型及练习 2


英语五大基本句型及练习

基本概念: 与汉语相似, 英语句子是由主语(subject), 谓语动词(verb),宾语(object), 表语(predicative),状语(adverbial),

宾语补足语(object complement)等成分组成,按照这些成分的组合方式英语句子可分为五种基本句型。

句型一:

主语+不及物动词

不及物动词本身就可以表达完整的意念,不需要宾语及补语,但有时可有副词,介词短语等状语修饰语。

e.g. The rain stopped .

The old man walks in the park .

句型一的扩展:

1.主语+不及物动词+状语

e.g. The machine works smoothly. (机器运转正常。)

2.There +不及物动词+主语

e.g. There is some milk in the bottle .

There comes the bus .

3. 主语+不及物动词+ 动词不定式

e.g. They stopped to take a short rest . (他们停下来稍作休息)

特别提醒

动词 stop 可用作不及物动词,也可用作及物动词。作不及物动词时, 通常后接动词不定式,表示停下来的目的是做另一件事。

作及物动词时,通常后接动名词,表示停止做这件事。

e.g. They stopped taking a rest .

句型二:主语+系动词+表语

系动词本身不能表达完整的意念没,需要形容词,名词,介词短语等来补充说明主语,也叫主语补语。

e.g. My sister is a nurse .

I feel quite hungry .

The ball is under the desk .

句型三:主语+及物动词+宾语

及物动词本身需要一个动作的接受者(宾语),才可以表达一个完整的意念。

e.g. We are learning English .

Do you know him ?

Your radio needs repairing .

She hopes to see her uncle.

句型四:主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语

有些及物动词需要两个宾语才能表达一个完整意念。

e.g. Her mother bought her a skirt.

Give me the book, please.

A. 通常是间接宾语(人)在前,直接宾语(物)在后,有时直接宾语和间接宾语可以对调,这时间接宾语前应加上适当的介

词。

e.g. Her mother bought a skirt for her .

Give the book to me , please .

直接宾语与间接宾语对调时,间接宾语前加介词 to 的动词有:

give(给), tell(告诉) , lend(借给) , sell(卖), teach(教) , send(寄给), write(写给), show(出示) , return(还给),

bring(带给), pass(递给), leave(留给), offer(提供), hand(交给)

间接宾语前加介词 for 的动词有:

buy(买), choose(选择), get (弄到), make(做), order(订购), sing (唱歌), do (做), play(演奏)

B. 如果直接宾语为人称代词那么必须把直接宾放在间接宾语前,且间接宾语前要加上适当的介词。

e.g. I handed it to our teacher .

不能说:I handed our teacher it .

C. 此句型变为被动语态时,可分为两种情况。

e.g. Her mother bought her a skirt .

a. She was bought a skirt by her mother .

b. A skirt was bought for her by her mother.

句型五:主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语

及物动词本身需要一个宾语外,还需要一个名词,形容词,副词, 动词不定式,分词来补充说明宾语,才能表达一个完整的意

念。

We elected Li Yang our monitor.

The news made us sad.

She saw the thief steal into the shop .

The teacher asked me to answer the question .

I found the man stealing the money .

I found my money stolen .

A. 现在分词为宾语补足语时,宾语与现在分词之间是主动关系;过去分词为宾语补足语时,宾语与过去分词之间是被动关系。

B. 在 let(让),make(使得),have(请,让,使得),see(看),hear(听到),watch(观看),feel(感觉到),listen to (倾

听),look at (看到),notice(注意到)等动词后的宾语补足语如果为不定式,则省掉”to”,但变为被动语态时,

则要带”to”.

e.g. We hear her sing next door.

She is heard to sing next door .

C. 此句型变为被动语态时,只有一种情况。

e.g. They saw him steal the old man’s money.

He was seen to steal the old man’s money .

英语五大基本句型练习

1.I am sorry to have kept you ____.

a. wait

b. to wait

c. waiting

d. waited

2.She found her dog ___over by a car on the road.

a. run

b. ran

d. to run

d. running

3. Rose is going to have her hair _____.

a. do

b. done

c. did

d. doing

4. She felt somebody ___her.

a. touched

b. touches

c. touch

d. to touch

5. She taught him _____speak English.

a. how

b. how could he

c. how he could

d. how to

6.He didn’t enjoy the play because he ____.

a. was boring

b. bored

c. was bored

d. boring

7.I will make your dream ____.

a. comes true

b. to come true

c. coming truly

d. come true

8.He warned ____home .

a. us to not go

b. us not to go

c. we not go

d. us not go

9. Canned food does not go ____.

a. bed easily

b. badly easy

c. bad easy

d. badly easily

10.The sad news kept her ___all the night.

a. awake

b. waken

c. wake

d. to wake

11.I think ____a bad habit to get up late .

a. that

b. it

c. this

d. its

12.He found his money _____.

a. steal

b. stealing

c. stolen

d. to steal

13.Roses in bloom smell ____.

a. sweetly

b. sweet

c. sweeten

d. sweetness

14.We must have the machine ____.

a. to repair

b. repairing

c. repair

d. repaired

15.She was lying in the sofa ____a book.

a. reading

b. read

c. to read

d. to reading

16.A television set will keep us ____of the news of the day.

a. inform

b. to inform

c. informed

d. informing

17.The speaker found himself ____all alone.

a. left

b. leave

c. leaving

d. to leave

18.The speaker found himself ____.

a. misunderstand

b. misunderstanding

c. misunderstood

d. to misunderstand

19.-My watch is broken.

–Why don’t you ___.

a. take a repairer your watch

b. take your watch a repairer

c. take to a repairer it

d. take it to a repairer

20.I heard you went to the museum yesterday and couldn’t find ____the hotel.

a. how to return to

b. how you could go for

c. the way back for

d. the way back to

21.Yesterday was my birthday. My mother ____.

a. made a cake to me

b. made a cake me

c. made for me a cake

d. made me a cake

22. The teacher ____John a good student.

a. believes

b. knows

c. suggests

d. considers

23.It’s a fine day. Let’s go boating, ___?

a. will we

b. don’t we

c. won’t we

d. shall we

24.Don’t smoke in the classroom, ___?

a. will you

b. do you

c. don’t you

d. won’t you

25.He seldom has lunch at home, ____he?

a. has

b. hasn’t

c. does

d. doesn’t

26.We had to get up early, ___we?

a. didn’t

b. don’t

c. had

d. did

27.You had Tom do the job, ____you?

a. did

b. didn’t

c. had

d. hadn’t

28.Let us have another look, ____you?

a. will

b. would

c. won’t

d. wouldn’t

29.Nobody came, ___?

a. didn’t he

b. didn’t they

c. did he

d. did they

30.We ought to hand it in today, ____we?

a. oughtn’t

b. don’t

c. shouldn’t

d. won’t

31.We’d better wait for ten more minutes, ___?

a. hadn’t we

b. don’t we

c. didn’t we

d. wouldn’t we

32. I’d like a sandwich, ____?

a. would you

b. do you

c. couldn’t you

d. don’t you

33.This is the third time this week John has had to study late, ___?

a. hasn’t he b. isn’t he c. hasn’t it d. isn’t it

34.You and I did it together, ___?

a. didn’t I

b. didn’t you

c. did you

d. didn’t we

35.They should have completed it earlier, ____?

a. should they

b. shouldn’t they

c. have they

d. haven’t they

36. You may take it if you want to, ___?

a. mayn’t you

b. don’t you

c. shouldn’t you

d. won’t you

37.You must have told Mr. Smith the secret, ___?

a. mustn’t you

b. must you

c. haven’t you

d. have you

38.She disliked the skirt his father bought her, ___?

a. did she

b. didn’t she

c. was she

d. wasn’t she

39.Tom said he was not there then, ___?

a. didn’t he

b. did he

c. wasn’t he

d. was he

40. I suppose he is honest , ___?

a. don’t I

b. do I

C. isn’t he

d. is he

41. I don’t think he is serious, ___?

a. don’t I

b. do I

C. isn’t he

d. is he

42.She’s finished the job, ____she ?

a. doesn’t

b. isn’t

c. wasn’t

d. hasn’t

43. –You aren’t a teacher, are you?

a. Yes, I am not

b. No, I am

c. No, but I was

d. Yes, I wasn’t

44.- ____is your sister?

-She is a teacher in a middle school.

a. Who

b. What

c. Which

d. Where

45.-How are your parents?

-_____.

a. They are doctors

b. They like sweet food

c. They are fine

d. They are fifty

46. -___will you get married to him.

-In a month.

a. How soon

b. How long

c. How often

d. How much

47. There ____two films this week in our school.

a. is

b. have

c. have been

d. has

48. There ____a lot of news about the fire on TV last night.

a. was

b. had

c. were

d. is

49.There used to be a temple there, ____?

a. usedn’t it

b. used there

c. didn’t it

d. didn’t there

50. There ___ a stream in front of our house.

a. lies

b. has

c. stand

d. lie


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