词义猜测阅读理解题考查对文中关键词语的理解。在阅读理解题中，所考查的词或短语通常是生僻 的词汇，意义往往不停留在字面上，考生往往不能准确了解其确切意义，从而错选答案。? 此类题的设问方式主要有：? 1.The word “...”in Line
...means/can be replaced by...? 2.As used in the passage, th e phrase “...”suggests...? 3.From the passage, we can infer that the word/phrase “...” is/referred to...? 4.The word “...” is closest in meaning to...? 化难为易 正确猜测词义的方法主要有： 1．通过构词法猜测词义。阅读中常常会遇到一些由熟悉的单词派生、转化或合成的新词，考生可以 依据构词法方面的知识来猜测词义。 2．通过同义、反义关系猜测词义。在生词所在的上下文中，有时会出现与之同义或反义的词语，这 时可根据熟悉的词语的含义推知生词的含义。 3．通过定义、解释和举例猜测词义。在阅读文章中，特别是新闻报道及科普类说明文中，生词后面 往往用 that is，mean，stand for，namely，refer to，in other words 等或破折号引出说明性的内容，有时也 用同位语、定语从句进行解释说明。还有些文章经常用例子来说明前面较难理解的词，这些例子可帮助 考生准确猜测生词。文章举例时，常常会用一些连接词，如：such as，like，for example 等。 4．通过上下文的联系猜测词义。任何一篇文章中的句子在内容上都不是绝对孤立的，都跟句子所在 的段落及整篇文章有联系。因此，考生可以利用上下文提供的情景和线索进行合乎逻辑的综合分析，进 而猜潮词义。这是阅读过程中的一大关键，也是近年来高考考查的热点。 5．通过经验及生活常识猜测词义。在做阅读理解题时，考生有时可以运用自身的实际生活经验及生 活常识猜测词义。
典例 1：利用所出现生词的上下文与其意义上的联系或下文进一步的叙述，猜测词义。 （2009 福建卷）
14days from just ￡2,090pp Fully inclusive from the UK Price cover international airfares, departure taxes, fuel charge, local transportation all meals, entrance fees, guides, daily tours and visas for UK citizens. ◆ Days 1-3 UK-Shanghai Fly to the great city of shanghai and in the evening sample traditional shanghai food. Visit the beautiful YU Garden, Old Town. Shanghai Museum, cross the Great Nampa Bridge and tour the Pudong area. Also explore Xintiandi with its 1920’s style Smkomen buildings and end your stay in shanghai with an amazing Huangpu river evening tour.
◆ Days 4-7:Shanghai-Yangtze River Tour Fly to Yichang and change （approx: one hour）to board your Yangtze River ship for the next four nights. Enjoy a tour of the three Gorgee Dam （三峡大坝） before sailing on the grand Yangtze River ,passing through the impressive Three Gorges. We take a side tripe to the lesser Three Gorges or travel up the shennong Stream in a peapod boat and enjoy various shore trips along the way. ◆ Day8 :Chongqing—chengdu Get off in Chongqing and drive to Chengdu for an overnight stay. ◆ Day9-10;Chengdu-xi’an Visit the famous Panda Reserve to see the lovely animals We then fly to the bistoric city of xi’an for two nights stay and enjoy traditional Shuijiao. Next day, explore one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century—the Terracotta Warriors（兵马俑） ，followed by the ancient City wall and a performance of Tang Dynas ty dancing. ◆ Day11-13:xi’an-beijing Visit little wild goose pagoda and see the ancient objects at the well-known Shanxi provincial museum be fore walking through the lively militia Quarter to see the Great Mosque. Later fly to Beijing for three nights stay and try Peking Duck. During our stay in Beijing, we stroll through Tiananmen Square to the Forbidden city, the largest and best preserved collection of ancient buildings in china, and visit the summer palace. Next day we take a walk on the Great wall, tour the unique Temple of Heaven and enjoy an attractive Chinese Acrzibatio show. ◆ Day14:Beijing-UK Fly back to the UK, arriving home later the same day filled with happy memories. 64. The underlined word “sample” in the passage probably means “ ” A. buy B. reserve C. taste D. make 典例 2：利用文中说明词义的同位语或定语，猜测词义。 The days of elderly women doing nothing but cooking huge meals on holidays are gone. Enter the Red Hat Society—a group holding the belief that old ladies should have fun.? “My grandmothers didn’t do anything but keep house and serve everybody. They were programmed to do that,” said Emils Comette, head of a chapter of the 7-year-old Red Hat Society. While men have long spent their time fishing and playing golf, women have sometimes seemed to become unnoticed as they age. But the generation now turning 50 is the baby boomers(生育高峰期出生的人),and the same people who refused their parents’ way of being young are now trying a new way of growing old.? If you take into consideration feminism(女权主义),a bit of spare money, and better health for most elderly, the Red Hat Society looks almost inevitable(必然的).In this society, women over 50 wear red hats and purple(紫 色的) clothes, while the women under 50 wear pink hats and light purple clothing.? “ The organization took the idea from a poem by Jenny Joseph that begins：“When I am an old woman, I shall wear purple. With a red hat which doesn’t go,” said Ellen Cooper, who founded the Red Hat Society in 1998.When the ladies started to wear the red hats, they attracted lots of attention.? “The point of this is that we need a rest from always doing something for someone else,” Cooper said. “Women feel so ashamed and sorry when they do something for themselves.” This is why chapters are discouraged from raising money or doing anything useful. “We’re a ladies’ play group. It couldn’t be more simple,” added Cooper’s assistant Joe Heywood.? 44.The underlined word “chapter” in Paragraph 2 means__________.? A. one branch of an organization? B .a written agreement of a club? C. one part of a collection of poems? D. a period in a society’s history? 典例 3：根据逻辑关系来猜测词义，如对比、对照、同义、反义、因果、转折、让步等。
2009 年广东卷阅读理解 B 篇： We studied the board critically. Some of US looked with one eye and held up certain colors against the blackboard，rocking the sheets to the fight or left while we conjured up our designs. Others twisted their hair around their fingers or chewed their erasers while deep in thought. We had plans for that ten—dollar grand prize， each and every one of US. I'm going to spend mine on candies，one hopeful would announce，while another practiced looking serious，wise and rich. 47. The underlined phrase in paragraph 3 most probably means _____________. A. formed an idea for B. made an outline for C. made some space for D. chose some colors for 典例 4：利用构词法猜测词义。 Everyone should visit a lighthouse at least once.? The most important reason for such a visit is to realize how our ancestors(祖先) battled nature with the basic tools they had. They had only basic ways of creating light, and yet they found a way of using this simple technology in isolated(孤零零的) places to save ships from hitting rocks. Secondly, visiting lighthouses will help us to understand the lives of lighthouse keepers. By their very nature, lighthouses were built on some rocks or cliffs. Thus, the lighthouse keepers often lived lonely lives. To walk around their small home, and imagine the angry storm outside beating against the walls, is to take a step towards understanding the lives they had.? The reasons for a visit to a lighthouse are not all so backward looking in time. It is true that lighthouses were built in out-of-the way places. But on a pleasant sunny summer day. This very isolation has a natural beauty that many people will love to experience. Therefore, with the gentle waves touching all round the lighthouse, the visitor is likely to think it is a world preferable to the busy and noisy modern life. Another reason for considering a visit is that the lighthouses themselves can be very attractive buildings. Mankind could often not be content just to put up a basic structure. but felt the need, even in such an isolated place, to build with an artistic touch. The result is a view for tired eyes to enjoy.? Finally, lighthouses have a romantic attraction, summed up by the image of the oil skin coated keeper climbing his winding stairs to take care of the light to warn ships and save lives. 68.The underlined phrase “out-of-the-way” in Paragraph 4 means__________.? A. far-away. B. dangerous ? C. ancient D. secret?
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Passage 1： Whenever soup is served in the US, there's a good chance that someone will shout "No soup for you!" in the best New York accent. The line comes from Seinfeld, one of America's most famous TV comedies. This show, as well as others, has helped to preserve the "Noo Yawk'' even as it is. America has several different accents: The plain Midwestern accent is considered the standard American accent. It's the one often heard on TV and radio. Northeastern cities such as Boston and Philadelphia, as well as the US South, have their own ways of talking. None of these, however, carries the seemingly built--in drama of the New York accent. Perhaps that's because of the conflicting characteristics that seen to possess it: All at once, the accent can make a person sound impatient and confident. In Seinfeld, for example, the owner of a New York City soup restaurant yells as customers to "Have your money ready!" and "Move to the extreme left after ordering!" And to those who disobey: "No soup for you!" Despite the accent's popularity in US entertainment (Hollywood, for example), however, the increasingly different and mobile population in New York City is slowly thinning it down Before World War II, the accent was so thick than Americans living in other parts of the country often made fun of New Yorkers because of it. Over time, the thickest accents became connected with working--class
New Yorkers. Now in upper--class Manhattan you might not even hear the accent. The newspaper AM New York recently published a feature (特写) that asked whether New Yorkers are "still talking the tawk”. Their conclusion? "The New York accent is very much alive, but like all dialects it's changing." Experts suggest that the more education one receives, the more the accent disappears. But many young New Yorkers say they want to hold on to it as long as they can. 1. The underlined words "The line" in Paragraph 2 may probably refer to . A. "No soup for you" B. a piece of thread or rope C. Seinfeld D. the New York accent Passage 2： Two high school students Dylan Klebold and Erie Harris made a series of home videos leading up to their killings of fellow students at Columbine High School in Colorado.? Time magazine viewed the video tapes, and reports that Klebold and Harris expressed hatred for nearly all their schoolmates. Kelbold said on one tape, “I hope we kill 250 of you.” At lunchtime on April 20,Kelbold and Harris opened fire,and went on to kill 12 other students and one teacher before taking their own lives.? Time says the tapes made over a five-week period before violent act—make it clear that Klebold and Harris felt alienated and wanted revenge(报复)against those who disliked playing together with them or laughed at them, mainly the Columbine sports students.? 2.What does the underlined word “alienated” mean?? A. discouraged B. ashamed C. tired D. separated Passage 3： Wild animals seem to have escaped the Indian Ocean tsunami(海啸),adding weight to the belief that they have a “sixth sense” for disasters, experts said on Thursday.? Sri Lankan wildlife officials have said the huge waves that killed over 24 000 people along the Indian Ocean island’ s coast seemingly missed wild beasts, with no dead animals found.? “No elephants are dead, not even a dead hare or rabbit. I think animals can sense disaster. They have a sixth sense. They know when things are happening.” H.D.Ratnayake, director of Sri Lanka’s Wildlife Department, said on Wednesday.? The waves washed floodwaters up to 3 km(2 miles) inland at Yala National Park in the damaged southeast, Sri Lanka’s biggest wildlife reserve and home to hundreds of wild elephants and several leopards(豹).“There has been a lot of proofs about dogs barking or birds migrating(迁徙)before the earthquake. But it has not been proven,” said Matthew wan Lierop, an animal behavior expert of an Johannesburg Zoo.? “There have been no specific studies because you can’t really test it in a lab or field setting,” he said.? Other authorities concurred with this opinion.? “Wildlife seem to be able to pick up certain phenomenon(现象),especially birds. There are many reports of birds realizing disasters which are about to happen,” said Clive Walker, who has written several books on African wildlife.? Animals certainly depend on the known senses such as smell or hearing to avoid danger. The belief of an animal “sixth sense” is a lasting one which the evidence(证据)on Sri Lanka’s coast is likely to add to.? The Romans saw owls as signs of realizing disaster and many ancient cultures viewed elephants as animals with special powers. The tsunami was caused by an earthquake in the Indian Ocean on Sunday. It killed tens of thousands of people in Asia and East Africa. 3.The underlined word “concurred”(in Paragraph 6)has the meaning closest to__________.? A. dealt B. agreed C. worked D. met Passage 4： Radioactivity is dangerous. It may cause skin burns, it may destroy good tissues(组织)and it may cause illness that could be passed on to our children and grandchildren. In case of exposure(暴露) it may even cause
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death.? In the early days of radioactivity, scientists did not realize these dangers. Marie and Pierre Curie, after having worked for a while with radioactive materials, noticed that their fingers were reddened and swollen(红 肿)and the skin was peeling off. Henry Becquerel carried a small tube with radium in it in his waistcoat pocket, and was surprised to find a burn on his chest. Other early workers also reported burns and harm of different kinds.? The strange fact is that it can harm without causing pain, which is the warning signal w e expect from harmfulness. Pain makes us pull back our hands from a fire or a hot object, but a person carrying radioactive materials had no way of telling whether he is touching something too “hot” for safety. Besides, the “burns” or other harmfulness that radioactivity produces may not appear for weeks. A person may have been hurt without knowing it for some time.? 4.The second sentence(in Para.2) “the skin was peeling off” means__________.? A. the skin was coming off B. the skin was turning off? C. the skin was breaking away D. the skin was fleeing Passage 5： The United States of America is mainly an English-speaking country. The majority of the population speak English as their native language. Besides, education, social activities, etc. are conducted in English. Across but for the most part, Americans speak one common language. This language is sometimes called American English. However, not everyone in the USA is a native speaker of English. Most immigrants(移民)are speakers of other languages. There are hundreds of communities around the USA where English is not the most commonly used languages. Chinese, Italian, German, Greek, Spanish and French are all spoken in various communities in the USA. Spanish is the second most commonly spoken language after English. It is widely spoken in New York and across the southern part of the country. For speakers of other languages, learning English is important, but teaching people to speak English as a second language was given little attention. Non-English speakers were expected to “pick up ” the language by meeting with others in public. Recently, this has changed.? Today, most large public schools and community colleges have ESL(English as a Second Language) programs; American English teachers feel that English students should learn the language the way they will use it. Therefore, ESL programs offer different English lessons to different students. Some programs teach students to communicate in English in public. Other programs teach the kind of English people who will need for their jobs. American ESL instructional methods do not lay emphasis on grammar or translation, but on the importance of communication. The goal is to get the English learners to learn by using the language.? 5.The phrase “pick up” in the second paragraph means__________.? A. try to master? B. repeat again and again? C. go to school sometimes? D. learn without studying or taking lessons
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