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高中英语被动语态基础讲解


Passive Voice

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

1.一般现在时 Do/does 2.一般过去时 did 3.一般将来时 Will/shall do 4.一般过去将来时 Would/should do 5.现在进行时 Am/is/are doing 6.过去进行时 Was/were doing 1.This /it is the first/second time that (完成时) 7.现在完成时 Have/has done 2.It is +形容词最高级+that (完成时) 3.It has 过去的过去 8.过去完成时 Had done been +段时间+since(过去时) 1.Had hoped/expected/meant/intended/ 本来希望、打算做某事 9.现在完成进行时 Have/has been doing 2.Hardly had +主语+done+when
No sooner had +主语+done+than 一….就

1,现在的状态 2.经常习惯的动作 3.客观事实 4.状语从句表将来 1.Be going to 计划,迹象表明 5.规定,安排的事 2.Be to do 职责义务 3.Be about to do正要做某事 4.Be doing 5. 祈使句+and/or+一般将来时 1,现在正在进行的动作 2.现阶段进行的动作 3.用于go,come等表去向的的动词表将来 4.与always,constantly连用表示埋怨,称赞

语态

时态
一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 过去完成时 v. /v.s ved

主动

被动
am /is /are + Vp.p was / were + Vp.p will be + Vp.p would be + Vp.p had been + Vp.p

will + v. would + v. had + Vp.p

现在完成时
将来完成时 现在进行时 过去进行时

have /has + Vp.p
will have + Vp.p am /is / are + Ving was /were + Ving

have /has been + Vp.p
will have been + Vp.p am /is /are + being + Vp.p was /were + being + Vp.p

英语语态

语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和动词之间 的关系。英语动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语 态。主动语态动词的主语是动作的执行者,而被动 语态动词的主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词 的一种特殊形式,一般说来,只有需要动作对象的 及物动词才有被动语态。
被动语态的构成

由助动词be + 及物动词的过去分词(V-ed)构成。 助动词be有人称、数和时态的变化。
e.g. work close see worked closed seen open ask teach opened asked taught

英语的谓语动词有两种语态 We
主语

speak
谓语

English.
宾语 主动语态

English is spoken
主语 谓语

by us.
宾语

被动语态

宾变主,主变宾,前加by 动变被,看清be, 结构分别be+ pp

主变被解题步骤: 1. 找宾语 ----即动作的承受者 2. 判断宾语的单复数 ----即be动词的单复数. 3. 判断动词的时态 ----即be动词的时态. 4. 修改谓语的时态 ----即原句动词改为过去分词 5. 修改原句的主语 ----即by+ 主语/ 宾语.

They make shoes in that factory.
Shoes are were made by them.

Tom broke the window. The window was broken by Tom.
Tom broke the windows.

The windows were broken by Tom. He broke the windows.
The windows were broken by him.

语态

时态
一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 过去完成时 v. /v.s ved

主动

被动
am /is /are + Vp.p was / were + Vp.p will be + Vp.p would be + Vp.p had been + Vp.p

will + v. would + v. had + Vp.p

现在完成时
将来完成时 现在进行时 过去进行时

have /has + Vp.p
will have + Vp.p am /is / are + Ving was /were + Ving

have /has been + Vp.p
will have been + Vp.p am /is /are + being + Vp.p was /were + being + Vp.p

Fill in the blanks with the proper form of the words given in the brackets.

1. The bridge was built 2. The Olympic Games every four years.

( build) last year. are held (hold)

3. The problem is being discussed (discuss) at the meeting now.

4. His new book will be published (publish) next month.
5. The classroom has not been cleaned (not clean) yet.

6. The machine was being repaired (repair) at this time yesterday.
7. She said the report had been typed (type) by Li Mei for two weeks. 8. Miss Li said the book would be given (give) to the students the next morning. 9. By the end of next term two thousand English words will have been learned(learn).

10. He said the project would have been finished . (finish) by 2010.

When can we use the passive voice? 1. 不知道动作的执行者是谁,或没有必要指出动 作的执行者时。 My bike was stolen last night. 昨晚我的自行车被偷了。 Letters are collected at eight every morning. 信件每天早晨八点收取。
2. 为了强调或突出动作的承受者时。 The desk was made by Master Wang. 这张课桌是王师傅做的。 The bag was taken away by his sister. 那个口袋是她姐姐提走的。

3. 为了更好地安排句子。 The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people. (一个主 语就够了) 那个名人一上车就立刻被大家认出来了。 4. 在上下文中,为了使句子间连接紧密时。如: I have a new skirt. It was given to me as a birthday present by my aunt. 我有条新裙子。它是我阿姨送给我作为生日 礼物的。

英语中用主动表被动的几种特殊情况 1. 连系动词为不及物动词,它们没有被动语态形式。 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词(如look, sound, smell, feel, taste 等)可用主动表被动: The building looks very beautiful. 这座建筑看上去很美。 Her voice sounded quite sweet. 她的声音听起来非常甜美。 2.某些“be+形容词+to do”结构中的不定式通常 要用主动形式表示被动意义: The book is difficult to understand. 这书很难懂。 The music isn’t pleasant to listen to. 这音乐不好听。

5. be worth后的动名词要用主动表被动。 This movie is worth seeing. 这部影片值得一看。 The problem is not worth discussing. 这个问题不值得讨论。 6. 在need, want, require等少数表示“需要” 的 动词后的动名词用主动形式表被动意 义。 house needs cleaning. 房子需要打扫了。 The These children require looking after. 这些孩子需要照看。

The house needs to be cleaned. These children require to be looked after.



带复合宾语的被动语态结构.

(1)make sb. do sth.

sb. be made to do sth.

Mr Green made Jim do his homework at home. Jim was made to do his homework by Mr Green at home. watch let have hear see notice

We often hear them sing this song.
They are often heard to sing this song (by us). This song is often heard (by us) to be sung (by them).

1). 不及物动词没有被动语态。

如:belong, happen, take place, last, come true, remain, succeed, fall, die, arrive, 等。
* Great changes have taken place in this city.

* That bike doesn’t belong to Mike.

2) 表示静态的及物动词不用被动语态
have / fit

I have a TV set. The coat fits me well.
3)祈使句一般没有被动语态。

【正】Look at the blackboard,please.
【误】The blackboard is looked at by you.

4.系动词没有被动态和进行时态
这鱼味道很好。 The fish tastes good. 这条围巾摸上去很软。 The scarf feels soft.

5.反身代词在句中作宾语时,不能用被动语态。例如:

【正】You must look after yourself. 【误】Yourself must be looked after 4.某些动词形式是主动,但含有被动的意思。 这书很好卖。 The book sells well. 这书卖完了。 这种布很好洗。 The book is sold out.

This kind of cloth washes very well.

高考题点击: D 1. I need one more stamp before my collection _____. (94 N) A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed D. is completed
说明:集邮册只能被完成,且在 before 从句中没有将来时, 故只能选D。 C 2. Cleaning women in big cities usually get _____ by the hour. (98 N) A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 说明:该句的意思为“在大城市中清洁女工的工资通常是 按小时支付的。”很明显该用被动语态。

3. Books of this kind _____ well. (99 上海) A A. sell B. sells C. are sold D. is sold
说明:sell 既可作及物动词又可作不及物动词,当用作

“销售情况如何”时,sell 为不及物动词,故没有被动语
态。 类似的词还有:wash, translate, write 等。 B 4. Hundreds of jobs _____ if the factory closes. (01 北京春) A. lose B. will be lost C. are lost D. will lose 说明:lose job 为“失业”,job 只能被失去,且动作应该 发生在将来。

5. A new cinema _____ here. They hope to finish it next D month. (2001 北京春季) A. will be built B. is built C. has been built D. is being built
说明:从后句可知电影院应该正在修建。需要注意的是现 在进行时态的被动语态的动词形式。 B 6. The new suspension bridge _____ by the end of last month. (2001上海) A. has been designed C. was designed B. had been designed D. would be designed

说明:by the end of 短语一般都与过去完成时或将来完成 时连用。

7. This is Ted’s photo. We miss him a lot. He _____ trying to C save a child in the earthquake. (2002 北京春季) A. killed B. is killed C. was killed D. was killing
说明:不要被前面使用的现在时所蒙蔽,在地震中抢救小 孩并献身的动作只能在过去。 A 8. I feel it is your husband who ______ for the spoiled child. (2002上海) A. is to blame B. is going to blame C. is to be blamed 一个强调句型。 D. should blame 说明:be to blame 是固定结构,不能用被动语态。该句是

C 9. Rainforests _____ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. (2002上海春季) A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut

说明:该句的意思为“雨林正在以如此快的速度被砍伐和

烧毁以至于在不久的将来它们就会消失。”从语境中可以
看出应该使用现在进行时。况且进行时可以表达出说话人 的一种特殊的情感。说话人是想呼吁人们停止乱砍乱烧雨

林,给人们提出的一种警告。


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