定义： 将某些句子成分移至句首而引起主语和谓语语序的颠倒，称为倒装（Inversion） 。 倒装分为完全倒装和部分倒装两种。
结构： 提前成分+谓语动词+主语 1） 将状语 here, there 前移，谓语动词一般为 be, come, go。 例如： Here comes the b
us. There goes the bell. Here are some examples. Here comes the bus. 思考： 对比以上例子，我们是说 Here are you 吗？ 按照经验，我们是说 Here are you 还是 Here you are。
例如： Here he comes. Aren’t you looking for your bag? Look, here it is. 2) 表示位置转移的副词，如 up, down, in, out, away, ahead 移至句首。 例如： The driver couldn’t control his car and down came the car. In comes Mr. Smith. Down flew the eagle to seize the chicken. 思考： 当主语为人称代词时，需要引起倒装吗？ 比较： Away went Mr. Smith. Away they went. Away went they. Higher and higher it flew. ● 当主语为人称代词时，不引起倒装。 3) 句首状语为表示地点或时间的介词词组 例如： In the centre of the square stands a high monument. On either side of the road were rows of houses. On the back wall hung a huge oil painting. After the banquet came a firework display in the garden.
比较： In the morning students are usually very busy. In the morning are students usually very busy. In this chapter will be found a satisfactory answer. In this chapter a satisfactory answer will be found. 思考： 你认为以上句子哪几句正确？ 说明： ◆ 谓语是及物动词或由“be+表语”构成时不用倒装形式： At the top of the tower she could see the whole city. ◆ 谓语是及物动词的被动语态可以用倒桩形式： To the list may be added the following names. 4) 分词结构位于句首 例如： Seated on the grass are a group of students. Lying about on the floor are books and magazines. 5) 用于 so，nor, neither 开头的句子 前句是肯定句，重复前句内容用 so， 前句是否定句，重复前句内容用 neither 或 nor。 ▲ 倒装结构中的谓语应与前句谓语的时态、形式一致。 He has been to Beijing. So have I. Li Wei can’t answer the question. Neither can I. 比较： Zhang Ping is a top student in our class. So he is. / So am I. 区别是什么？ （答案本讲义中有） 思考： Zhang is a top student in our class and he also does sports everyday to keep fit. 怎么回应表示“我也是”？
结构： 提前成分+情态动词/助动词+主语+（主要动词） 1） 句首为含有否定意义的副词 如： never, little, seldom, rarely, not , hardly。 例句： Little does he care for dress. Hardly did he know that the police were after him. Never shall I do this again. Not simply is this book interesting, but also instructive.
当 not…only 位于句首时， not only 部分引起部分倒装。 注意 but also 部分不引起 倒装。 【练习】 ： He could not only drive but also he could ride a horse.
He not only praised the students but also he gave them a big reward.
2) 在 so… that 的结果状语从句中，so 位于句首。 So hot was the weather that we couldn’t sleep indoors. So loudly did he shout that all the people in the room got a fright. 3) so 作替代词表示与上文提到的情况一样： Her son has gone to Britain for further studies. So has my son. ◆ 有时为了表示对上文情况的肯定，表示“确实如此” ，须用正常语序，无需倒装。 He often takes his daughter out for a drive. So he does. 4) only +状语 置于句首 Only in my house do they feel at home. Only then did he learn about the truth. Only after you have done the experiment can you understand this law better. ● 如果 only 后面的词组不是状语，则不用倒装 ● Only 修饰主语，不倒装 Only Wang knows this. Only Miller has got the invitation. 5）so，such 位于句首时 结构： So/Such +倒装结构+that+句子(陈述句语序) So fast does the light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. So much did he like his job that he would not stop working even after he was seventy-five. Such a fierce dog did he have that we had to wait before we could get in. 当“so+形容词”或“such”为表语时，用完全倒装语序。 So great was the destruction that it took them several years to recover. Such was the force of the explosion that all the windows were broken. ★ 如果 so/such 位于句首修饰主语时，则不用倒装 So few people came to his birthday party that he felt disappointed. 6)* 虚拟条件句的倒装句
Were he my friend, I would expect his help. Were he here (=If he were here), he would come to our help. Should it snow tomorrow ( =If it should snow tomorrow), we would put off our trip.
【练习】 ： 一． 在下列句子中填入正确的词，每格一词 1.It was not until the fire brigade arrived 2. Never 3. Try the fire was brought under control. I able to enjoy the works of Charles Dickens until I went to England and I might, I could not bring him round to the realization of his abnormal behavior. problems of keeping the traffic flowing, but there is the added problem of parking. 5. Not until the eleventh century, when a young lady brought a fork to Italy, reach Europe. 6. Not only understand. 7. The explorers said that if the farmers drank the water without coming to any harm, could they. 8. Some researchers are trying to find out what faster than butter. 9. No longer these days in the kitchen. 10. No sooner enough to wake the dead. I got back to the kitchen the door bell rang loud necessary for women to spend hours of hard work that makes cream go bad emotional feelings hard to describe in words, they are difficult to the custom
visited the places he’d described so beautifully in his novels. 4. The problem in the centre of cities is becoming increasingly serious, for not only
二、 汉译英 （使用倒装或强调结构） 1. 瞧，车来了。 （here） 2. 铃响了。 （There） 3. 随着一声巨响，火箭向上飞入太空。 （up） 4.他不想再那个国家定居，我也不想。 （nor） 5.还有几个例子可以说明这一点。 （here） 6.一些美国老师坐在教室后面，听英语课。 （Seated） 7.在她的作文里我没发现一个拼写错误。 （Not） 8. Peter 在事故中受重伤，不得不住院治疗。 （So…）
9.谎言不仅伤害了受害者， 也损害了说谎者的声誉。 （Not only） 10. 他很少喝我在网上聊天。 （Seldom…）
【新题型操练】 (A) There is a photo hanging above my desk. Whenever I look at that photograph, it takes me back to those early years 25 every new experience was important for me. I can still remember the shouts of the spectators as I 26 (go) out onto the sports field with my classmates. Two days 27 (early). I had qualified for the finals of the 100 metres. Now 28 (look) around, I was determined to win. While I was walking across to the start, I began to feel more and more nervous. I looked around and saw my proud parents waving enthusiastically. My heart was beating fast when I lined up with the other eager competitors. I look some deep breaths and waited for the signal. Then the starting signal 29 (give) and I set off down the track. I ran as fast as I could, not looking at anything but the finishing line. By the time I crossed the line, I was so exhausted that I 30 hardly breathe. As soon as I heard the result 31 (announce), I realized I had won! Overjoyed, I collapsed on the soft grass with a broad smile on my face. “Well done!” said the Headmaster later, as I was presented with the winner’s certificate. I had never felt so happy and proud in my life.
(B) One of the first questions young children ask is “Why?” It is human nature to want 32 (find) out why things are the way they are. You can find out “Why” by turning the question into a hypothesis (假设) for 33 experiment. 34 example, suppose you have been trying to grow tomato plants, but insects keep destroying 35 . Someone tells you that 36 (put) large strips of colored cloth around the plants will keep insects away. Your question might be “Do certain colours of cloth keep insects away?” Then you’d begin your experiment. The first step would be to place different-colored strips of cloth around all of the plants except one. Then, as regular intervals, you would observe and record and note 37 the plant had any insect damage or not. This experiment may prove that the answer to your question is “No, it is not different-colored strips of cloth 38 keep away insects.” Or you may find that answer is “Yes, certain insects are kept away by blue cloth, but not yellow cloth.” ...... 39 you have found, you are well on your way to understanding how you can use scientific thinking to solve a problem in your own life.
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