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定语从句-(介词+关系代词)


that, which, who, whom, whose 定语从句: 由关系代词____________________________ 或关系 when, why 引导的句子用来修饰主句中的某一个名词 副词where, ________________ 或代词的从句,起着定语的作用. 先行词 定语从句所修饰的词叫做________; 定语从句跟在先行词的后面. 关系代词或副词

+陈述语序 构成方式: ____________________________. 关系代词或副词的三重功能: 连接主从句; 指代先行词; 在从句中作 句子成分.

The Attributive Clause in the text on P34

Para 1 The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life. 主干句:The time was a very difficult period of me. when指时间,在从句中作时间状语。 when I reached here. I will never forget the day _____ Mandela was the black lawyer to whom I went for advice. He was generous with his time, for which I was grateful. 介词+ whom / which, 不能用that

Para 2 The school where I studied for only tow years was three kilometers away. 主干句: The school was three kilometers away. where指地点,在从句中作地点状语。 关系副词= 介词 + 关系代词 where Jiangjieshi once used to lived The place ______ has become a place of interest. = in which

However, this was a time when one had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg.

= on which The day when Nelson Mandela helped me was one of my happiest. (Para 3) when a deep blue sky, the There was a time _____ song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound. We have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. (Para 4) = in which where many The USA is a large country _____ different dialects are spoken

Para 5 They could not get the jobs they wanted. They could not get the jobs ( which/that ) they wanted. 作宾语 = where The parts of town in which they had to live were decided by white people.

= in which The places outside the towns where they were sent to live were the poorest parts of South Africa. ( which / that ) they had to live in The places _____________ were decided by the white. which The places in ________ they had to live were decided by the white.

Para 6 where We were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important, or fight the government. 先行词是position, situation, point, case, condition等时在定语从句中作状语用关系副词 where连接.

where most Sometimes we find a situation ______ students can remember words and expressions well but can’t write a good composition.

that We first broke the law in a way which was peaceful. 作主语 ( that / in which ) I don’t like the way __________ he talks. 作状语 ( that / which ) The way _________ he thought of to solve the problem was very good. 作宾语

for his absence is that he is ill. The reason ____ why he is absent is that he is ill. The reason _____ why指原因,在从句中作原因状语。 关系副词:

when, where, why = for which (1) when指时间,在从句中作时间状语。 (2) where指地点,在从句中作地点状语。 (3) why的先行词只有reason,why在从句中作原因状语。

关系副词 = 介词 + 关系代词

关系副词 where

This is the house (which/that ) he used to live in.
This is the house in which / where he used to live.

I know of a place (which /that ) we can swim in. I know of a place in which / where we can swim.

试比较:
The place ____________ (which/ that) we visited yesterday is a school for disabled children.

/ in which where Jiang Jieshi once used to The place ______
lived has become a place of interest.

关系副词when = on which when Hong Kong They’ll never forget July 1 _____ returned to its motherland.
= on which when we used foreign oil are The days ______ gone forever. when the businessman lost There was a time _____ heart.

试比较:
(which/ that) ? Do you still remember the day ___________ we spent happily together? when ? Do you still remember the day ______we spent our holiday happily together? when we went ? Do you still remember the day______ to visit the Summer Palace?

先行词是表示原因的名词,即reason,在定语从句中充 当原因状语,用why,这时一般可以用for +which来代 替: I don’t know the reason why/ for which he did it.
The reason why/ for which he was fired was not clear. 试比较: (which/ that) The reason ____________he explained to the teacher is not true. (作宾语)

which /that was explained to the The reason ___________ teacher is not true. (作主语)

This is the date ___________ (which/that) we’re proud of. This is the date ________________ he was born. when/on which (which/that) we spent I will never forget the time __________ together. which This is the factory where/in _____________my mother works. This is the factory __________ (which/that) we visited last week.

that) Is this the school (which/ _____________we visited

yesterday ?
one (which/that) we visited Is this school the ________________

yesterday?

which/ that Is this school ____________we visited yesterday very modern? that we visited yesterday ---This school which/ ________ is very modern. the one where Is this lab ________________ we did the experiment yesterday? the one where we did the ---This lab is _____________ experiment yesterday.

believe it. ? He is one of the students who ______ ? He is the only one of the students who believes it. (believe) _______

want (want) to go to the cinema ? Those who _______ please sign your name here. who wants to go to the cinema ? Anyone __________ please sigh your name here.

as, which的比较

a.在非限制性定语从句中,均可替代整个主句或句中某个部分,在 从句中作主语,宾语,表语.如从句在主句之后,两者皆可用 They failed in the exam, as/which is natural. She seems a scientist, as/which in fact she is. b.如从句在主句之前,用as As we all know, his parents were killed in this war. As is known to all, the earth travels around the sun. c.如关系代词代表主句全句意思,有"正如...""就 象..."之意时,用as We won the match, as we had expected. He agreed to the plan, as was to be expected. 正如: As everyone knows, as you may still remember, as you said, as I can see, as has been mentioned above, as you may have heard/told/expected. 用来引导非限制性定语从句, 用来指待一件事,这时它的位置 可以放在句首、句中和句尾。

d. 当先行项被the same, such, so修饰时,用as This is the same book as you bought yesterday. (同类不同一本书) 比较: This is the same book that you bought yesterday. (同一本书) Don’t believe in such men as praise you to your face. I never give my students so difficult a question as no one can work out. (定语从句) 比较: This is so difficult a question that no one can work it out. (状语从句)

Choose the best answers B brought 1. She heard a terrible noise, ____ her heart into her mouth. (NMET91)
A. it B. which C. this D. that

2. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single D she could turn for help.(92) person _____ A.that B.who C.from whom D.to whom

3. The weather turned out to be very good, ____ B was more than we could expected. (NMET94)
A.what B.which C.that D.it

4. After living in Paris for fifty years he A he returned to the small town _____ grew up as a child. (NMET96)
A. where B.which C.that D.when

5. Carol said the work would be done by October,______ D personally I doubt very much. (NMET1999)
A.it B.that C.when D.which

D I am thinking 6. This is the way _____ of to do it. A.how C.by which B.with which D.\

7. He invited ten friends to his home ; C are foreigners. ___ A. six of whom B. the six of whom
C. six of them D. the six of them

8. He invited ten friends to his home , A are foreigners. ___ A. six of whom B. the six of whom C. six of them D. the six of them

B 9. My hometown is not the same ____ it used to be ten years ago.

A.like B.as

C.that

D.which

10. Is this the factory ____ C you work? A.which B.in that C.where D.what A you visited? 11. Is this the factory ____ A.which B.in that C.where D.what

C you visited 12. Is this museum____ last week? A./ B.which C.the one D.where

13. Is this the museum ____ A you visited last week?
A./ B.what C.the one D.where

14. _____ A is known to all, Taiwan is part of China. A.As B.Which C.That D.It
is

15. ____ D is known to all that Taiwan part of China. A.As B.Which C.That D.It

16.All_____ B is needed is a supply of oil.

A.which B.that

C.what

D. /

17. They both talked happily about the men and books _____ D interested them in the school.
A.which B.who C.when D.that

18. I don’t like the way _____ C you talked to her. A.which
C. /

B.in that
D.by which

The Attributive Clause

which
关系代词 (relative pronounce s)

thing(s. o.)

指先行句(as) that (person/thing)(s. o.)

who ( person)(s. o.)
whom (person)( o. )

关系词 (relative s)

whose (person / thing)(attribute)
when (time) = 介词 + which

关系副词 (relative adverbs)

where (place) = 介词 + which why (reason) = for which

填空:

1. Look at that lady ______ whose name is Pochi.
(whom/that/who) 2. He is a teacher _________ I like very

much. 3. Those pictures _________ which/that were drawn by Tom are nice. 4. Those _____will go to the park stay here. who 5. That was all the money ______I that had.

6. Tom is the first boy _____left the room. that 7. Look at the boy and his dog _____are that coming this way. 8. You can read any book _____I that have. 9. That was the year _____I when went to America. 10. we came to the town, ______we stayed where for 2 hours.

11.This is the place where _______ I stayed for two days. when 12.The moment _______ she won the gold medal was shown on TV. where 13.The factory _______ he worked has been pulled down. (which/that) we are going to 14.The factory ___________ visit produces watches. (which/that) he explained to his 15.The reason _________ father was a false one. why that 16.The reason _______ he was late is _______ he had been caught in the traffic.

Whose从句可转换为“ of +关系代词”型, e.g. They live in a house, whose door opens to the south. of which They lived in a house, the door _______ open to the south. of which the door They lived in a house, ____________ open to the south.

preposition + relative pronouns
1. The person whom/who/that you should write to is Mr. Ball.

to whom The person ________ you should write is Mr. Ball. with which The pen _________ he is writing now was bought yesterday. 3. The gas which we can not live without is called oxygen.
without which The gas ___________ we can not live is called oxygen

2. The pen which he is writing with now was bought yesterday.

More examples
about whom he was speaking? Have you met the person __________

to whom you can turn for help. He is the man _________
on which we worked then years ago isn’t The farm _________ what it used to be.

This is the tree ___________ under which we used to play games. with which he is writing now was bought The pen __________ yesterday.
The gas _____________ without which we can not live is called oxygen.

Can you work them out????

????

Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions: without 1. The sun gives us heat and light, ________ which we can’t live. about whom we were talking 2. The student ________ just now is the best student in our class. on which she said 3. I’ll never forget the day _____ good-bye to me. for which he 4. Who can give me the reason ______ hasn’t turned up yet?

Use a preposition and a relative pronoun, whom/which, to complete the following sentences.
1. The book ___________ about which I heard was written twenty years ago. 2. The people ________ to whom the man spoke weren’t listening. 3. The film ____________ during which I fell asleep was very boring.

4. The pen __________ with which she wrote that book can now be seen in a museum. 5. The little creature ________ in which scientists are interested is known as ET.
6. The gun __________ with which he was shot was never found.

Correct the sentences:
1. I’m using the pen which he bought it yesterday.

2. Is that factory which your father once worked in? ^ the one 3. The man whom I spoke is from Canada. ^ to 4. July 1,1999 is the day when _____ we’ll never forget. which

5. I still remember the holidays I stayed with ^ them. when 6. I’m going to work in the hospital _______ where needs me. that/which who 7. Those ____ that haven’t been to the West Lake will gather at the school gate. 8. I don’t like the way which you talked to your ^ in friend.

9.This is the last time when ______ I’ve given you lessons.

that 10. Soon they came to a farm house, and in front of which ____ sat a small boy. it 11. The reason______ which he explained it sounds reasonable. why


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