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人教版高一英语unit1 Friendship grammar 语法 直接引语 间接引语


By Wu tonglai

Let’s play a small game
Diaoyu Island belongs to China.
The teacher said “Diaoyu Island belongs to China.”

The teacher said Diaoyu Island belong

s to China.

One and one is two.
The teacher said “one and one is two.”

The teacher said one and one is two.

Grammar
Direct speech & indirect speech
直接引语和间接引语

直接引语和间接引语
直接引用别人的原话叫做直接引语, 直接引语通常置于引号内。
例如:Mary said “What are you doing?”

用自己的话转述别人的意思,或引用 自己说过的话,叫做间接引语。间接引语 一般用宾语从句来表达。
例如:Mary asked what I was doing.

Observing & Finding
1. “ I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary.” said Anne. Anne said (that) she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary. 2. “ Does a friend always have to be a person?” the writer asks us. The writer asks us if / whether a friend always has to be a person.

3.Tom asked me , “Can you come or not now?” Tom asked me whether I could go or not then. 4.Mary said to me, “What do you like?” Mary asked me what I liked.

5.The teacher said to the boy,“Open the window .”

The teacher told the boy to open the window.

直接引语变间接引语需注意:
1、引导词的选用 陈述句用that引导,that可省略; 一般疑问句用if/whether引导;
选择疑问句用whether…or not引导;

特殊疑问句用原特殊疑问词引导; 祈使句变成ask/tell sb to do sth 2、使用陈述句语序

3、某些成分的变化与不变

8 变 4 不 变
①标点符号的变化:引号去掉,结尾标点 变句号。 Lily said to me , “ Do you like learning English?” Lily asked me whether / if I liked learning English. Mother said to me , “ Watch the steps !” Mother told me to watch the steps .

②人称的变化
口诀 一 随 主 二 随 宾 三 不 变 说明

一随主,二随宾,三不变
直接引语 间接引语

引号内的第一人 称变间接引语后 与主句主语的人 称保持一致

She said,“ I like She said that she liked tennis. tennis.” He said to Lily, He told Lily that “ you must get she must get up up early” early. She said to me , She told me that “ They want to they wanted to help him” help him.

引号内的第二人 称变间接引语后 与主句宾语的人 称保持一致

引号内的第三人 称在变间接引语 后人称不变

③转述动词的变化 e.g. ⑴ Mother said to me , “ I don’t know.” Mother told me that she didn’t know.

即say / said(陈述句)变为 tell / told
⑵Father said to me , “ Do you come back today?” Father asked me whether I went back that day. 即say / said(疑问句) 变为 ask / asked

④时态的变化:引号内动词按递减规律变为相应的 过去时态。 e.g. Tom said , “ I like swimming.”
Tom said that he liked swimming. Mark said to me , “ I will do it.” Mark told me that he would do it.

直接引语 direct speech
一般现在时 现在进行时 一般将来时 一般过去时

间接引语 indirect speech
一般过去时 过去进行时 过去将来时 过去完成时

现在完成时
过去完成时

过去完成时
过去完成时(不变)

⑤时间状语的变化:
now today tonight ago yesterday last night tomorrow next week the day after tomorrow then that day that night
before/earlier(之前,早些时候)

the day before the night before
the next/following day(第二天)

the next/following week in two days’ time

the day before yesterday

two days before/earlier

⑥地点状语的变化 here there

e.g. He said to me ,“I don’t want to come here.” He told me that he didn’t want to go there.

⑦指示代词的变化 this that these those

e.g. Tom said to me ,“I like this book.” Tom told me that he liked that book.

⑧方向性动词的变化

come

go

bring

take

e.g. ⑴He said to me ,“I don’t want to come here.” He told me that he didn’t want to go there. ⑵He said to me ,“Can you bring me a coat?” He asked me if / whether I could take him a coat.

时态四不变
①客观真理,永恒不变的事实
He said, “The earth moves around the sun.” He said that the earth moves around the sun.

②直接引语中有表示具体的过去时间状语;
He said, “I was born on May 23, 1989.” He said that he was born on May 23, 1989.

③习惯性动作或说话时仍存在的情况
The boy said “I eat eggs every day.” The boy said that he eats eggs every day.

④谓语中含有would, should, might, must, used to, ought to, had better等情态动词时.
She said to me, “You should get up early.” She told me that I should get up early.

Exercise
1. Jack said to me, “You look worried today.” Jack told me that ___ worried ___. A. he looks…today B. you look…today C. we looked…that day D. I looked…that day

2. Tom said to her, “Where do you
spend your holidays?”

Tom asked her where ____ holidays.
A. she spent her B. you spend your

C. she spend her

D. you spent your

3. We said to her, “They’re walking through the street now.” We told her that ___ through the street ___. A. we were walking…then B. you are walking…now C .they were walking…then D. they walking…now

4. Mr Black said, “I have walked a long way this week.” Mr Black said that __ a long way __. A. I had walked…last week B. he had walked…that week

C. I walked…last week
D. he has walked…this week

5. The man thought, “I shall take it back tomorrow.” The man thought that __ take it back ____. A. I shall…tomorrow B. I shall…the next day C. he should…tomorrow D. he would …the next day

6. She asked, “Whose house will he break into next time ?” She asked whose house ____ break into _____. A. will he…next time B. would he…the next time C. he would…the next time D. he will…next time

7. Jane said, “What did he hear about a
week ago?”

Jane asked ____ about _____.
A. that he heard…a week ago

B. what he had heard…the week before
C. what he had herd… a week ago

D. if he heard…the week ago

8. They said to us, “Are you afraid to leave this house ?” They asked us ____ afraid to leave _____ house. A. that were we…this B. that we were…that C. if were we …this D. if we were…that

9. Black asked me, “ Why haven’t you
left here yet?”

Black asked me why ____ yet.
A. I hadn’t left there

B. I haven’t left here
C. hadn’t I left there

D. haven’t I left here

10. The teacher asked her, “Does the sun rise in the east ?” The teacher asked her ___ the sun ___ in the east. A. if…rise B. if…rises C. whether…rose D. whether did …rise

Goodbye!
Thank you!


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