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非谓语动词 动词不定式


专升本英语辅导语法专题 非谓语动词之 不定式

非 谓 语 动 词

不定式 过去分词
现在分词

-ing 形式
动名词

1. 不定式的句法功能
to+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。 不定式作主语 不定式作表语 不定式作宾语 不定式作宾语补足语 不定式作状语 不定式作定语

2. 不定式的时态和语态

1. 不定式的句法功能
1.1 不定式作主语 不定式在句中可作主语。在实际运用中 往往由“it”代替它作形式主语,不定式则 移至谓语之后。不定式也可有它的逻辑主 语,当系动词后的表语是用来说明不定式 本身的,用for+代词/名词;当系动词的 表语是用来说明逻辑主语的,用of +代词/ 名词。

* It is important / hard/ easy/ necessary for sb. to do sth. * It is kind / foolish/ nice of sb. to do sth. * It is a pity/ a shame/ an honor/ a pleasure to do sth. * It takes/ took sb. some time to do sth.

1.2 不定式作表语
表示目的、安排、命令或预计要发生的动 作、情况等。如果主语部分有实义动词do, 则可省略to。

e.g. The best way to do in the present situation is wait and see.

1.3 不定式作宾语 1.3.1 动词+不定式 :此类动词有:afford, arrange, appear, agree, attempt, choose, claim, decide, decline, determine, desire, expect, fail, hope, intend, learn, manage , mean, prepare, pretend, plan, promise, refuse, seek, volunteer, want, hesitate, long, know, threaten, wish等。 e.g. There is a man at the reception desk who (B) seems very angry and I think he means ______ trouble. A. making B. to make C. to have make D. having made

1.3.2 动词+wh… + 不定式作宾语 e.g. The director of this organization must know (C) ______. A. money management, selling, and able to satisfy the stockholders. B. how to manage money, selling his product, and be able to satisfy the stockholders. C. how to manage money, sell his product, and satisfy the stockholders. D. money management, selling, the idea of being able a satisfy the stockholders

1.3.3 动词+it + a./ n..+ 不定式 e.g. I find it difficult to follow the professor for I haven’t prepared for the class.

1.4 动词不定式作宾语补足语 省略to 的不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:hear, listen to, feel, see, look at, watch, notice, observe, perceive, let, make, bid, have, note, leave, help等。 (C) her e.g. My sister’s professor had her ______ paper many times before allowing her to present it to the committee. A. rewritten B. to write C. rewrite D. rewriting

1.5 不定式作状语 表示目的、结果、原因、条件、伴随等。 (A) a teacher in a university, it is e.g. _______ necessary to have at least a master’s degree. A. To become B. Become C. One becomes D. On becoming

1.6 不定式作定语 1.6.1动词不定式与其所修饰的词之间往往有动 宾关系。如果该不定式是不及物动词,其后应 有必要的介词。 e.g. Give me a sheet of paper to write on. Visitors to the site are mostly young.
1.6.2有些名词后常跟不定式作定语,此类常 见名词有:way, right, chance, ambition, ability, attempt, promise, tendency等。 e.g. His attempt to solve the problem turned out to be a failure.

1.6.3 不定式用在句子中作定语经常表示将 来时态。 e.g. The lecture to follow will include the radical changes brought about by French Revolution.
the building to be built the candidate to be interviewed

2.不定式的时态和语态
2.1 一般时态 ? to do: 表示的动作与谓语的动作是同时发 生的,或是在其后发生的。 ? e.g. The students are learning to sing an English song.
?

2.2 进行时态 to be doing: 表示的动作与谓语的动作是同时发生的, 而且正在进行着。 e.g. The teacher seems to be getting along quite well with the students. When her parents came back last night, she happened to be doing her homework

2.3 完成时态 to have done: 用来表示先于谓语动词发生的动作或状 态。若用在intended, hoped, meant, planned 等词后, 表示过去没有实现的愿望、期待或计划等。 e.g. I am sorry to have kept you waiting. I meant to have dropped in at your office. (但没来)

2.4 动词不定式的被动语态
在不定式中,如果不定式的逻辑主语是不定式动 作的执行者时,不定式要用主动语态;如果不定式 的逻辑主语是不定式动作的承受者,不定式用被动 语态。试比较: The teacher asked the students to go out for some fresh air. (主动式) The celebrations have to be put off because of the stormy weather. (被动式)

e.g. The thing to be done is to carry away the earth. e.g. A Dream of the Red Chamber is said A into dozens of languages in the last _______ decade. A. to have been translated B. to translate C. to be translated D. to have translated


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