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一.非限制性定语从句的相关特性: 1.非限制性定语从句提供附加的而非必要的信 息,对先行词作进一步的解释、补充或说明。若去掉, 句子大意仍然明确,不会引起误解和歧义。如: Mr. Li is manager of our company, who you saw at the meeting yesterday. 李先生是我们公司的经理, 昨天你在会上见过他。 [分析] 本句主要

内容是“李先生是我公司经理” , 说话者要侧重表达的信息已完整,而后加上一个非限 制性定语从句只是对先行词的进一步补充,提供给对 方获得更多的信息内容。以帮助对方明确所指对象。 2.非限制性定语从句只是先行词的附加补充说 明, 与先行词之间的关系较为松散, 之间有逗号分隔。 We won the final match, which was the last match before we graduated. 我们在决赛中获胜了,这是我们毕业前的最后一 次比赛。 3 .在非限定性定语从句中不能用 that 来代指人或 物,而应当用 who/whom 指人,用 which 指物。指人 和指物的关系代词在定语从句作宾语时也不能省略。 指人作宾语时只能用宾格 whom; 不能用 who 替换。 如:

He takes exercise regularly, which helps to keep him fit. 他有规律地从事锻炼,这有助于他保持健康。 (which 不能用 that 代替) Please give the note to Mr. Li, who is standing under the tree. 请将这个便条交给李先生,他正站在树下 面。 (who 在定语从句作主语,既不能用 that,也不 能用 whom) Miss Yang is our favorite teacher, whom we honor most. 李小姐是我们最喜爱的老师,我们对她最为尊 敬。 (whom 在定语从句中作宾语不能用 who 和 that, 也不能省略。 ) 4.非限制性定语从句不能用 why 引导。要用 for which 代替 why。 No one knows the exact reason why / for which he didn’t come yesterday. 没有人知道他昨天不来的准确 原因。 (限定性定语从句 why 或 for which 都可以) We couldn’t accept the reason he explained, for which he was late yesterday. 我们不能接受他解释的理 由, 他昨天是如何因此而迟到的。 (非限定性定语从句 用 for which 来代替 why。 ) 5. 有些名词后既可带限定性定语从句, 也可带非 限制性定语从句,但它们表达的意义也略有不同。试

比较: The old man has a daughter who is a nurse. 那位老人有个当护士的女儿。 (老人还有别的女 儿。 ) The old man has a daughter, who is a nurse. 那位老人有个女儿, 她是个护士。 (老人只有这惟 一的女儿。 ) 6.非限定性定语从句只是对先行词的补充说明, 因此,我们常将其译为一个后置的并列句,而限定性 定语从句是先行词不可或缺的修饰语,常将其译为前 置定语。如: They asked for civil rights, for which they had struggled for hundreds of years. 他们要求民权,他们为此奋斗了几百年。(非限定 性定语从句译为一个后置的并列句。) Do you know the boy whose name is Li Lei? 你认 识那个名叫李雷的男孩吗?(限制性定语从句译为前 置定语) 二.只能用非限定性定语从句的常见情况: 1.先行词为人物、地点等专有名词 the sun, the universe, the Great Wall, China, Tom, Tsinghua University 等时。如:

Have you ever visited the Great Wall, which attracts thousands of tourists each year? 你浏览过长城吗?它每年吸引了成千上万的游 客。 2.先行词为惟一性的名词或代词 my father, my mother, I, you 等。如: The man in the car is Jim’s father, who now teaches English in our school. 坐在小汽车里的人是吉姆的父亲,他现在我校教 英语。 [分析] 对于任何人来说,父亲是惟一的,若用限 定性定语从句,则意味着吉姆还有别的父亲。这显然 是不符合常理的,所以只能用非限定性定语从句。 3.当先行词为整个句子时,只能带非限定性定语 从句。引导这类从句的关系代词只有 as 和 which。其 中, 引的非限定性定语从句位置灵活, as 可置于句首、 句中和句末,而 which 引导非限定性定语从句不能置 于句首。如: As is known to all, the earth moves around the sun. 正如大家所知,地球围绕太阳转。 He was educated at the local high school, after which he was admitted to Beijing University.

他就读于当地的一所中学, 之后他考入北京大学。 4. 当定语从句中的名词、 代词与先行词存在部分 与整体关系,用 “名词/不定代词/ 分数/百分数+关系 代词 which/whom”表示时,定语从句用非限制性定语 从句。如: We should protect the forests, some of which are still disappearing in the world. 我们应当保护森林,世界上有些森林仍在消失。 China has a population of 1.3 billion, more than 80% of whom are farmers. 中国有十三亿人口,其中 80%以上的是农民。 巩固练习: I. 单项选择. 1. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, _______ wanted to buy it. A. none of them B. both of them

C. none of whom D. neither of whom 2. Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, ______ used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. A. that B. which C. who D. where

3. My aunt, for ______ life was hard, earned only 300

yuan a month. A. whose C. whom B. who D. which

4. The owner of the cinema needed to make a lot of improvements and employ more people to keep it running, ______ meant spending tens of thousands of pounds. A. who C. as B. that D. which

5. You can find whatever you need at the shopping centre, _____ is always busy at the weekend. A. which C. where 6. Tom, B. that D. what many of you remember, got killed in a

car accident yesterday. A. who C. whom B. that D. /

7. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, ________, of course, made the others envy him. A. who C. what B. that D. which

8. Eric received training in computer for one year, _____ he found a job in a big company. A. after that B. after which C. after it D. after this

9 ._____ has already been pointed out, grammar is not a set of dead rules. A. As B. That

C. It D. Which 10. It is reported that two schools, _______ are being built in my hometown, will open next year. A. they both B. which both C. both of them D.both of which

1. 我父亲,刚才在会上做报告的,明天坐飞机去上海。 2. 北京大学,中国的顶尖学府,吸引了国内外的优秀学生。 3. 正如大家所知,吃减肥药对健康有害。 4. 我们班有 57 名学生,其中三分之一是女生。 5. 这是我惟一的自行车,我每天骑它来上班。 II. 1.My father, who gave a talk at the meeting just now, will fly to Shanghai tomorrow. 2. Beijing University, which is a top university in China, attracts excellent students from at home and abroad. 3. As is known to all, taking weight-loss pills is harmful to health. 4. There are 57 students in my class, one third of whom are girls. 5. This is my only bike, on which I come to school every day.



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