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Whereas other societies look to the past for guidance, we cast our nets for ward(面向未来)

It is the belief in a brighter future that gives us optimism.

Even these days, when not all progress seems positive (nuclear weapons, air pollution, unemployment, etc.), the belief remains that for every problem ther e is a rational solution.

The job of the parents is to give the children every opportunity while they are growing up and then get out of their way.

What deference people in authority do command is based on their actual powe rs rather than on their age, wisdom, or dignity.

In a society that changes as fast as ours, experience simply does not have the value that it does in traditional societies.

It has taken a long time to convince the public that free enterprise does n ot mean that a company should be free to pollute the air, foul the rivers, and destroy the forests.

The assembly line reduced workers to cogs of machinery and made their jobs unutterably boring, but it produced goods fast.

Food is prepackaged and shopping is impersonal, but the efficiency of the o peration produces lower prices and less shopping time.

As an American is always striving to change his lot, he never fully identif ies with any group.

In America, there are no such expressions such as in china where “the fat pig gets slaughtered,” or in Japan, where “the nail that sticks out gets hamm ered down.”

This freedom from the group has enabled the American to become “Economic M an” -one directed almost purely by profit motive, mobile and unencumbered(不受阻 碍的)by family or community obligations.

Equipped with the money, one can acquire the taste, style, and ideas that m ark each class and launch a quick ascent of the social ladder.

Actually, persons in status societies who are secure in their niches (适当 的位置)are allowed more eccentricity than Americans, who rely heavily on signal s that other people like them.

When half the population goes to college, one cannot expect the colleges to maintain the same standards as in countries where only the elite attend.

Just as not every Japanese is hardworking and deferential to superiors (长 者、上司), not every Chinese is devoted to family, not every American is ambiti ous or patriotic - or even unsophisticated.

No one could seriously think that anyone who grows up poor, lives in a bad neighborhood, and attends an inferior school has an opportunity equal to that o f someone more favored.

Americans may not have achieved equality, but at least they aspire to it, w hich is more than many other nations can claim.

In many countries, when jobs become available for young people in distant c ities, when television begins to dominate home life, when ready - made foods ap pear in the markets, the culture appears more “American” - although the resem blance could be entirely superficial.

Someone who looks around or down appears shifty (不可靠的)to Americans, alt hough in fact one doesn’t stare continuously at the other person, but glances elsewhere every few seconds.

When the demand for something is greater than its supply, producers and sup pliers will sense the possibility of making a profit - the excess of revenues o ver expenses is the profit.

As the case illustrates, competition takes four general forms: pure competi tion, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly(少数制造商对市场的控 制).

The classic example of pure competition occurs with a commodity, like wheat or corn, that has so many producers that no one of them can control its sellin g price.

A monopoly occurs when one company alone offers a particular food or servic e and therefore controls the market and price for it.

Private restaurants serve gourmet food for $70 per person; incentives boost ed agricultural production 25 percent and industrial output 80 percent in just three years; farmers are encouraged to raise as much as they can on their own p lots, and some become almost rich in the process.(注意本句中分号的使用)

All these changes in China’ economic life have brought changes in China’ s s social and cultural life as well, many of which unwanted.

If productivity measures the efficiency of an economy, a measure of what an economic system produces is its gross national product (GNP), which is the cur rent market value of all final goods and services that a nation produces within a particular period.

Current wisdom says that (当前流行的看法认为)if you want a successful produ ct, you need first to perform detailed market analysis, making sure that there are plenty of people who need the new product and that your entry into the mark et will be able to gain a significant share of that market.

Started at the turn of the century, 3M ( a giant American company) has been growing at a healthy rate of about 10 percent a year and it boasts of having 4 5,000 products on the market.

An entrepreneur is someone like Tom Monaghan, the man who after brushes wit h bankruptcy turned Domino’s Pizza into the nation’s fastest - growing franch ise chain.

The extent to which the broadcast media should be censored for offensive la nguage and behavior involves a conflict between our right as individuals to fre ely express ourselves and the duty of government to protect its citizenry from potential harm.

Although we may not have conclusive scientific evidence of a cause - effect relationship, ample anecdotal evidence establishes a significant correlation.

Moreover, both common sense and our experiences with children inform us tha t people tend to mimic the language and behavior they are exposed to.

Those who advocate unbridled individual expression might point out that the right of free speech is intrinsic to a democracy and necessary to its surviva l.

In sum, it is in our best interest as a society for the government to censo r broadcast media for obscene and offensive language and behavior.

While individuals have primary responsibility for learning new skills and f inding work, both industry and government have some obligation to provide them with the means of doing so.

The suggested reason for buying the car is obvious: it is the intelligent c hoice.(注意冒号的使用)

In conclusion, I agree that appeals to emotion are more powerful tools than arguments and reasoning for promoting products.

Advertising is obviously the most influential art form in this century; it is, therefore, tempting to think that it is the most important.

The lesson here is that advertising, in itself, probably will not achieve a s great importance as art.

Requiring businesses to provide complete product information to customers p romotes various consumer interests, but at the same time imposes burdens on bus inesses, government, and taxpayer.

While I doubt that buildings determine our character or basic personality t raits, I argue that they can greatly influence our attitudes, moods, and even l ife styles.

Numerous psychological studies show that different colors influence behavio r, attitudes, and emotions in distinctly different ways.

Women differ fundamentally from men in childbearing ability; related to thi s ability is the maternal instinct - a desire to nurture - that is far stronger for women than for men, generally speaking.

In consumer - driven industries, innovation, product differentiation, and c reativity are crucial to lasting success.

And in technology, when there are no conventional practices or ways of thin king to begin with, companies that fail to break away from last year’s paradig m are soon left behind by the competition.

Whether an individual saves too little or borrows too much depends on the p urpose and extent of either activity.

The evidence suggests that, on balance, people today tend to concern themse lves with only practical matters that are related to their life.

Traditionally, saving is viewed as a virtue, while borrowing is considered as a vice.

However, just the opposite may be true under certain circumstances.

逻辑问题分析论证句式 逻辑问题分析论证句式

The mere fact that ticket sales in recent years for screenplay-based movies have exceeded those for book-based movies is insufficient evidence to conclude that writing screenplays now provides greater financial opportunity for writer s.

It is possible that fees paid by movie studios for screenplays will decreas e in the future relative to those for book rights.

The argument fails to rule out the possibility that a writer engage in both types of writing as well as other types.

In any event, the advertisement provides no justification for the mutually exclusive choice that it imposes on the writer.

The argument simply equates success with movie ticket sales, which is unwar ranted.

The author assumes that physical capabilities are the only attributes neces sary to operate a motor vehicle.

Moreover, the author provides no evidence that the realism of color photogr aphy is the reason for its predominance.

This assumption presents a false dilemma, since the two media are not neces sarily mutually exclusive alternatives.

Common sense tells us that a photographer can succeed by working in both me dia.

The argument ignores the factors - such as initiative, creativity, technica l skills, and business judgment - that may be more important than the choice of medium in determining success in photography.

The major problem with the argument is that the stated similarities between Company A and B are insufficient to support the conclusion that Company A will suffer a fate similar to Company B’s.

Consequently, the mere fact that Company A holds a large share of the video - game hardware and software market does not support the claim that Company A will also fail.

Thus, the author unfairly assumes that highly - rated public television pro grams are necessarily widely viewed, or popular.

While this may be true in some cases, it is equally possible that only comp anies with products that are already best - sellers can afford the higher ad ra tes that popular shows demand.

Admittedly, the vice president’s reasoning linking employee benefits with company profits seems reasonable on the surface.

One can infer from the survey’s results that a full one - third of the res pondents may have viewed the current benefits package unfavorably.

Lacking more specific information about how these other employees responded, it is impossible to assess the reliability of the survey’ results or to make s an informed recommendation.

It is unlikely that the brief one - week periods under comparison are repre sentative of longer time periods.

If so, even though 3 percent more accidents occurred after the change, the author’s argument that changing the speed limit increases danger for drivers w ould be seriously weakened.

The editorial fails to take into account possible differences between East and West Cambria that are relevant to how drivers react to speed - limit change s.

In addition, while it is true that many voters change their minds several t imes before voting, and that some remain undecided until entering the voting bo oth, this is not true of everyone.

Without knowing the extent and nature of the damage resulting from the bad publicity or the reason for the violation, we cannot accept the author’s concl usion.

The author’s proposal is inconsistent with the author’s conclusion about the consequences of adopting an ethics code.

To begin with, the author fails to consider health threats posed by inciner ating trash.

The author’s conclusion that switching to incineration would be more salut ary for public health would be seriously undermined.

However, this is not necessarily the case.

The author’s implicit claim that incinerators are economically advantageou s to landfills is poorly supported.

Consequently, unless the author can demonstrate that the city will incur ex penses that are not covered by the increased revenues from these projects, the author’s concern about these issues is unfounded.

First of all, while asserting that real incomes are rising, the author prov ides no evidence to support this assertion.

But no evidence is provided to show that this explanation is correct.

Moreover, the author fails to consider and rule out other factors that migh t account for proportional decreases in spending on food.

The author ignores other likely benefits of agricultural technology that af fect food pieces only indirectly or not at all.

In the first place, a great deal of empirical evidence shows that sequels a re often not as profitable as the original movie.

However, unless the original cast and production team are involved in makin g the sequel, there is a good chance it will not be financially successful.

Since the difficulties inherent in this process make it hard to predict whe ther the result will be a success or a failure, the conclusion that the sequel will be profitable is presumptuous(武断的)

This assumption overlooks other criteria for determining a bridge’s import ance - such as the number of commuters using the bridge, the role of the bridge in local emergencies and disasters, and the impact that bridge closure would h ave on the economies of nearby cities.

Without such evidence, we cannot accept the author’s conclusion that no go vernment funds should be directed toward maintaining the Styx River bridge.

The fact that the nearby city has a weakening economy does not prove that t he city will not contribute significantly to tax revenues.

Substantiating this assumption requires examining the proper duty of govern ment.

Accordingly, this assumption is simply an unproven claim.

The author is presenting a false dilemma by imposing an either - or choice between two courses of action that need not be mutually exclusive.

It is equally possible that legislators can address both areas of concern c oncurrently.

The argument relies on the assumption that the legislators in question(所讨 论的)have the opportunity to address urban crime problems.

Finally, the author unfairly trivializes the severity of rural crime by sim ply comparing it with urban crime.

It is possible that the sales trend in a particular location is not represe ntative of sales in other regions.

However, the author fails to acknowledge and rule out other possible causes of such accidents.

A third problem with the argument is that the statistical evidence upon whi ch it relies is too vague to be informative.

If the subjects for the study were randomly chosen and represent a diverse cross section of the population of shampoo users, the results will be reliable regardless of the number of participants.

Experience alone is far from being enough to guarantee minimized processing costs.

Given that Olympic Foods does benefit from lowered processing costs due to its years of experience, the prediction about maximum profits is still in lake of solid ground.


1. 开头

The arguer may be right about …, but he seems to neglect (fail) to mention (take into account) that fact that…

As opposed to (Contrary to) widely (commonly/generally) held (accepted) bel ief (ideas/views), I believe (argue that…

Although many people believe that …, I doubt (wonder) whether the argument bears much analysis (close examination).

The advantages of B outweigh any benefit we gained from (carry more weight than those of / are much greater than) A.

Although it is commonly (widely / generally) held (felt / accepted / agreed) that …, it is unlikely to be true that…

There is an element of truth in this argument (statement), but it ignores a deeper and more basic (important / essential) fact (reason) that…

It is true that (True, / To be sure, / Admittedly,)…, but this is not to s ay (it is unlikely / it doesn’t follow / it doesn’t mean / it won’t be the c ase) that…

The main (obvious / great) problem (flaw / drawback) with (in) this argumen t (view / remark) is that it is ignorant of (blind to) the basic (bare) fact th at …

It would be possible (natural / reasonable) to think (believe / take the vi ew) that…, but it would be absurd (wrong) to claim (argue) that …

In all the discussion and debate over…, one important (basic) fact is gene rally overlooked (neglected).

There is absolutely (in fact) no (every) reason for us to believe (accept / resist / reject) that…

Logical (Valid / Sound) as this argument and I wholeheartedly agree with it, it appears insignificant (absurd) when … is taken into consideration (accoun t).

To assume (suggest) that … is far from being proved (to miss the point).

A close (careful) inspection (examination / scrutiny) of this argument woul d reveal how flimsy (groundless / fallacious) it is.

On the surface (At first thought), it (this) may seem a sound (an attractiv e) suggestion (solution / idea), but careful weighing on the mind (on closer an alysis / on second thought), we find that…

Too much emphasis placed on (attention paid to / importance attached to) … may obscure (overlook / neglect) other facts…

The danger (problem / fact / truth / point) is that…

What the arguer fails to understand (consider /mention) is that…

We don’t have to look very far to see (find out) the truth (validity) of t his argument (proposition).

However just (logical / sound / valid) this argument may be, it only skims the surface of the problem.

2. 正文

Although the popular belief is that…, a current (new / recent) study (surv ey / poll / investigation) indicates (shows / demonstrates) that…

Common sense tells us that…

The increase (change / failure / success) in… mainly (largely / partly) re sults from (arises from / is because of)…

The increase (change / failure /success) in … is due to (owing to / attrib utable to) the fact that…

Many people would claim that…

One may attribute (ascribe / owe) the increase (decrease / change) to …, b ut … is not by itself an adequate explanation.

One of the reasons given for … is that…

What is also worth noticing is that…

There are many (different / several / a number of / a variety of) causes (r easons) for this dramatic (marked / significant) growth (change /decline / incr ease) in .. First,… Second,… Finally,…

There is no evidence to suggest that…

Why are (is / do / did) …? For one thing, … For another, …

Another reason why I dispute the above statement is that…

It gives rise to (lead to / bring / create) a host of problems (consequence s).

There are numerous reasons why …, and I shall here explore only a few of t he most important ones.

It will exert (have / produce) profound (far-reaching / remarkable / consid erable / beneficial / favorable / undesirable / disastrous) effect (influence) on…

A multitude of factors could account for (contribute to / lead to / result in / influence) the change (increase / decrease / success/ failure / developmen t) in…

In 1999, it increased (rose / jumped / shot up) from 5 to 10 percent of the total (to 15 percent / by 15 percent).

By comparison with 1998, it decreased (dropped / fell) from 10 to 5 percent (to 15 percent / by 15 percent).

It account for 15 percent of the total.

There were 100 traffic accidents in April, and increase of 5 percent in a f ive-month period.

By 1999, only (less than / more than / almost / about / over / as many as) three quarters (40 percent of / one out of five / one in four) college populati on (graduates / housewives) as against (as compared with) last year (1998) pref erred to (liked)…

3. 结尾

From what has been discussed above (Taking into account all these factors / Judging from all evidence offered), we may safely draw (reach / come to / arri ve at) the conclusion that…

All the evidence (analysis) supports (justifies / confirms / warrants / poi nts to) a(n) unshakable (unmistakable / sound / just) conclusion that …

It is high time that we place (lay / put) great ( special / considerable) e mphasis on the improvement (development / increase / promotion) of…

It is high time that we put an end to the deep-seated (unhealthy / undesira ble / deplorable) situation (tendency / phenomenon) of…

We must look (search / all / cry) for an immediate action (method / measur e), because the present (current) situation (phenomenon / tendency / state / at titude) of …, if permitted (allowed) to continue (proceed), will surely (certa inly) lead to (result in) the end (destruction / heavy cost) of…

There is no easy (immediate / effective) solution ( approach / answer / rem edy) to the problem of …, but … might be useful (helpful / beneficial).

No easy method (solution / recipe / remedy) can be at hand (found / guarant eed) to solve (resolve / tackle) the problem of …, but the common (general / p ublic) recognition of (realization of / awareness of / commitment to) the neces sity (importance / significance) of … might be the first step towards change (on the right way / in the right direction).

Following these methods (suggestions) may not guarantee the success in (sol ution to)…, but the pay-off will be worth the effort.

Obviously (Clearly / No doubt), if we ignore (are blind to) the problem, th ere is every chance that…

Unless there is a common realization of (general commitment to)…, it is ve ry likely (the chances are good) that…

There is little doubt (no denying) that serous (special / adequate / immedi ate /further) attention must be called (paid / devoted) to the problem of …

It is necessary (essential / fundamental) that effective (quick / proper) a ction (steps /measures / remedies) should be taken to prevent (correct / check / end / fight) the situation (tendency / phenomenon).

It is hoped (suggested / recommended) that great (continuous / persistent / sustained / corporate) efforts should be make to control (check / halt / promo te) the growth (increase / rise) of …

It is hoped that great efforts should be directed to (expended on / focused on) finding (developing / improving)…

It remains to be seen whether…, but the prospect (outlook) is not quite en couraging (that rosy).

Anyhow, wider (more) education (publicity) should be given to the possible (potential / grave / serious / pernicious) consequences (effects) of…

To reverse (check / control) the trend (tendency) is not a light task (an e asy job), and it requires (demands / involves / entails) a different state of m ain towards (attitude towards / outlook on)…

For these reasons, I strongly recommend that…

For the reasons given above, I feel that…



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