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2定语从句1


Attributive Clauses

定语从句

which
1. 指物,在从句中作主语 I live in a house which was built ten years ago. 2. 指物,在从句中作宾语 These are the photos (which) I took in the States.

3. 用于非限定性定语从句,指物

The moon, which is nearer to the earth, has no light of its own.

4. 用于非限定性定语从句,指代一件事情 She married Joe, which surprised everyone.

who / whom
指人,在从句中作主语时用who,作宾语时 who/whom皆可,且可省略; 也可用于非限 定性定语从句,但不能省略 A doctor examined the astronauts who returned from space today. He is the boy (who / whom) I met in the States.
The boss of the company, who(m) I met at a party last week, is a billionaire.

that
只能用that而不能用which的几种情况 1. 先行词为不定代词如everything, nothing, anything

既可指人也可指物,但不能用于非限定性定语从句

I’ll do anything (that) I can.

2. 先行词由最高级修饰

This is the silliest thing (that) I have ever heard.
3. 先行词由序数词修饰

This is the first time that I’ve been here.
4. 先行词中既有人有物

The authors and their works that I know are excellent.

5. 先行词被all, the only, the very, just 所修饰

All that remains for me to do is to say good-bye. The chance is the only one that I’ve ever got.

This is the very dictionary that I want.

whose
在从句中作定语,先行词既可是人,也可 是物

Students whose experiments completed may go home.

are

This is the room whose windows were broken in the storm.

when
在从句中作时间状语,先行 词通常是表示时间的名词

Four o’clock is the hour when the school is dismissed. The summer of 1969, when men first set foot on the moon, will never be forgotten.

where
在从句中作地点状语,先行 词通常是表示地点的名词

A one-way street is a street where vehicles can only go one way.
The Tower of London, where so many people lost their lives, is now a tourist attraction.

why
在 从 句 中 作 原 因 状 语 , 先 行 词 通 常 the reason

The reason why he failed the exam is not clear to us.
(注:the reason后的定语从句也可 用for which引导)

介词 + which / whom
This is the pot in which I boiled the milk. This is the pot (which / that) I boiled the milk in.
The person to whom I complained is the manager. The person (who / whom / that) I complained to is the manager.

1979 was the year in which my son was born. (= when) This is the place in which I grew up. (= where)

That’s the reason for which he dislikes me. (= why)

介词 + whose + n.
He is the man from whose house the pictures were stolen. Mr. Lee, in whose bag a gun was found, died last night.

名词 / 代词 + of + which / whom
用于非限定性定语从句中表示数量。这些 名词或代词包括:

many, much, some, a few, most, all, the majority, none, either, neither, a number, half 等

The two players, neither of whom reached the final, played well. The money, all of which has been given to the Hope project, was collected in the performance. The foreigners, most of whom have been to China for the first time, come from different countries.

These people, the majority of whom are farmers, disagreed with the plan. There are many islands in China, the largest of which is Taiwan.
The cake, half of which was eaten, was bought for Lily’s birthday.

as
1. 引导限定性定语从句,指代被the same, such, as, so等修饰的名词 Don’t talk about such things as you don’t understand. We’re facing the same problems as we did years ago.

It is as pleasant a film as I have ever seen.
Here is so big a stone as no one can lift. 比较:Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.(结果状语从句)

2. 引导非限定性定语从句,as含有“正如”的 意思
As is known to us all, heat is a form of energy.

It is of great help to our study, as our teacher pointed out. The machine, as was expected, stopped working.
类似结构还有:as we know, as we can see, as is imagined, as is shown in …, as is described in …, as has been said before

几点注意事项
the way 表示方式时,其后的定语从 句有以下几种情况

Can you tell me the way (that) you solve the problem. Can you tell me the way in which you solve the problem.

先行词是时间时,并非都用when 引导的从句来修饰。试比较:

Do you still remember the days when there was no electricity? Do you still remember the days (which / that) we spent together?

先行词是地点时,并非都用where 引导的从句来修饰。试比较:

The place where Lu Xun once worked has become a museum. The place (which / that) I visited last week is Hong Kong.

先行词是the reason时,并非都用 why 引导的从句来修饰。试比较:

That’s the reason why he was late.
That’s the reason (which) he gave me.

定语从句练习
1. He stayed with us last year, during which ________ time he helped us with our work.
which 2. Mummy treats me just like a baby, _______ I can’t bear.

3. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten which windows, most of __________ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.

4. I can still remember the sitting-room where _________ we used to sit in the evening. the one 5.Is this place _________ you visited last year? (that, which, where, the one) that 6.Watch the girl and her dog _________ are crossing the bridge.
where 7.There is a mountain ________ the top is always covered with snow.

whose 8.There is a mountain ________ top is always covered with snow that 9.This is one of the largest rooms ________ I’ve ever slept in.
10. The retiring teacher made a speech, in which ________ she thanked the class for the gift. 11. I don’t think the number of people to whom _________ this happens is very large.

12. – Why does Dr. Lee prefer this lab? -- Because here he is free to do any way his research __________ he wants. ( what, any way, all that, which) 13. The old man had three sons, all of whom ________ died during the last earthquake. as 14. Keep away from such things ________ will do you harm.

whom 15. He is the man ________ we think to be worthy of praise. who 16. Ahead of me I saw a woman ________ I thought was my aunt. whose 17. The building ________ windows are bright at night is our school library. that 18. This is just the place ________ I wish to pay a visit to.

that 19. All _______ is needed is a supply of oil. without which 20. His glasses, ______________ he was like a blind man, were missing. As 21. _______ can be seen from his face, he is quite satisfied.
22.We’ll put off the outing until next week, when _______ we won’t be so busy.


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