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介词+关系代词结构讲解


“介词+关系词”结构用法精讲
在定语从句中,我们经常见到“介词+关系词”结构,它体现了定语从句与前面所修饰的先行词之间的紧密关系。正确 使用“介词+关系词”结构,关键是要确定其中的介词。归纳起来,有以下几种方法: 一、根据与定语从句中动词的搭配来确定介词。如: It was in 1952 and Mandela was the black lawyer to whom

I went for advice. 当时是在1952年,曼德拉是位黑人律师,我到他那里征求意见。 (注意相关搭配go to sb“到某人那里去”) In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person to whom she could turn for help. 在漆黑的大街上,没有一个她可以向之求助的人。 (注意相关搭配turn to sb for help“向某人求助”) 注意,有些固定短语动词如listen to, look at,look after, depend on, look for, take care of,通常不宜将它们拆 开使用,如: The boy (whom) my sister is looking after is getting better. 不能说成:The boy after whom my sister is looking is getting better. 二、根据与定语从句中形容词的搭配来确定介词。如: He was generous with his time, for which I was grateful. 他在时间方面很慷慨,对此我非常感激。 (注意相关搭配be grateful for“对……感激”) He referred me to some reference books with which I am not very familiar. 他要我去参考一些我不熟悉的参考书。 (注意相关搭配be familiar with“对……很熟悉”) 对于这种搭配, 我们应该多记一些相关的结构, 如be interested in, be famous for, be pleased with, be satisfied with, be popular with, be good at, be proud of等等。 三、根据与先行词的搭配来确定介词。如: The room in which there are a few machines is a workshop. 有几台机器的房间是个车间。 (注意相关搭配in the room) This is our classroom, in the front of which there is a teacher’s desk. 这是我们的教室,前面是老师的讲台。 (注意相关搭配in the front of our classroom) I’ll never forget the day on which she said goodbye to me. 我永远不会忘记她与我们告别的那一天。 (注意相关搭配on the day) 四、根据句意来确定介词的使用。如: Look at the building over which is flying a red flag. It’s where I work. 看那栋上面飘着红旗的房子,这就是我上班的地方。 (由于句中含有“在房子的上面飘着红旗”的意思,所以用介词 over) This is the book from which I got the story. 这就是那本书,从中我读到这个故事。 (由于句子含有“从……”的意思,所以用介词from) This I did at nine o’clock, after which I sat reading the paper. 九点钟时我做这事,之后我坐着看报。 (由于句意含有“在……之后”的意思,所以用介词after) 介词+关系词”结构用法精讲第 2 页02 五、根据句中的习惯表达来确定介词。如: There were two possessions of James Dillingham Youngs in which they both took great pride. 詹姆斯· 德林汉姆· 扬夫妇拥有两样他们俩特别感到自豪的东西。 (相关的习惯表达take pride in “对……感到自豪”) Mary is the only girl with whom he has ever been in love. 玛丽是他唯一爱过的女孩。 (相关的习惯表达be in love with sb“爱上某人”) 六、根据定语从句与先行词之间的关系,如所属关系,部分关系,同位关系,构成 ... of which/whom结构。如: The room the door of which (=whose door) is blue belongs to me. 门是蓝色的那间房是我的。 (the door 和the room 是一种所属的关系) He has read lots of books, some of which are English ones.

他读过许多书,其中一些是英语书。 (some of which 与 lots of books 是一种部分关系) Both players, neither of whom reached the final, played well. 两个运动员都没有进入决赛,但都表现的很好。 (neither of whom与both players是同位关系) 当然, 我们在英语中常常见到的“介词+关系词”结构是“介词+which/whom”, 但有时我们也可见到from where的用法, 这时因为from是一个比较特殊的介词,因为它有时可以后接介词短语作宾语。如: Come out from behind the door. 从门后面出来。 所以,尽管关系副词where在意义上相当于“介词+which”,有时由于语义的需要,也可在where之前使用介词from。 如: I have bought that house, where I can enjoy the beautiful scene of Yangpu Bridge. 我买下了那栋房子,在房子里可以欣赏到杨浦大桥的美景。 还有in which case,by which time, “in whose+名词”这样的一些结构引导非限制性定语从语,相当于and in that/this case, by that time, in his/her ... +名词。如: I may have to work late, in which case I’ll telephone. 我可能得晚点下班,那样我会打电话的。 Tom is the manager in whose department my brother works. 汤姆是我哥哥工作所在部门的经理。 1. Don’t forget the day________ you were accepted as a League member. A. which B. in which C. on which D. where 2. The accident happened on the spot, , there was no one nearby. A. at which B. in which C. for which D. on which 3. In the library, there is a desk, , you can read. A. on which B. at which C. on which D. from which 4. The stories about the famous athlete, , this is one example, are well written. A. of which B. in which C. about which D. on which 5. Tom is a man of great knowledge, , much can be learned. A. in whom B. about whom C. of whom D. from whom


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