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论悲剧美


外国语学院 2009 级《学术论文写作》课程实践写作考核

论悲剧美 On Tragic Beauty 班级: 班级: 英语 091 姓名: 姓名:王 洋 洋 学号: 09406100128

摘 要:悲剧美是美学的主要范畴之一。它是在戏剧性的矛盾冲突和悲剧性 的艺术表现中对美的肯定,而且往往与崇高和壮美相联系,使人产 生深沉而巨大的同情共感和心灵震撼,并以其深刻的艺术感染力, 给人以激励和启示,引发人们深层次的审美感受。本文在学者专家 们的研究成果上,通过分析研究战争,爱情及命运中的悲剧美,总 结出悲剧性的本质特征。

关键词: 关键词:悲剧;美;美学 Abstract: As one of the aesthetic major brunches, tragic beauty eulogizes beauty through dramatic conflict and tragic performance, usually connected with dignity and grandeur and resonating with people’s emotion and initiating a deeper esthetic feeling with its profound artistic appeal. Based on the study of the previous experts and scholars, this paper is just a rough analysis and study of tragic beauty in war, love and fate. In the end, the substantive characteristics of tragedy are given.

Key words: tragedy;beauty;aesthetics

1 Introduction Tragedy has always been regarded as dignified poetry in the western aesthetic history. However, how can we comprehend the beauty in tragedy? Beauty is the high unity of the subject and the object, which eminently exemplifies itself in the nonutility of beauty and the active creativity of the subject. The beauty of tragic does not lies either in how much starry fantasy it shows people in its text or in the extraordinarily strong power of human beings it presents, but in the description of the frailties of human and the cruelty of destiny and the reveal of the agony of life.

2 Tragic Beauty in War— The Beauty of Humanity in Saving Private Ryan The educational meaning is always the gist of war movies—showing the brutality and terror of war on one aspect and reflecting in depth on the history and the
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外国语学院 2009 级《学术论文写作》课程实践写作考核

pain and hurt war brings. What Saving Private Ryan highlights is the interrogation of humanity and the value of living. At the very beginning, the film comes up with an intriguing question: is it worthy of sacrificing eight soldiers to save one? On one side, it is a mother who has already lost three sons; on the other, it is sons of eight mothers. Giving up on either of them would be ruthless sacrifice. Yet the scale of value finally leans to the mother. And so the touching story that Captain Miller guide his team to look for and save Ryan begins. When the letter written to Ryan’s mother by Captain Miller in the end, the feeling surging inside people is not the relentlessness of war or the sorrow of death, but the warm humanity spirit and the eulogy of heroism. By far, the implied meaning of this movie is completely bared there—the meaning of war is to eliminate war; the death of those matyrs has not only saved Ryan’s family, but saved Ryan’s soul.

3 Tragic Beauty in Love— The Beauty of Loyalty and Brevity in Buttery Love The love story between Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai is almost a household name in China. Clever and sensible Zhu Yingtai disguised herself as a man to leave to learn and later fell in love with Liang Shanbo, who was excellent in character and learning. Despite of Zhu’s active and passionate chase, Liang still did not understand her feeling for him. After lots of twists and turns, Zhu was betrothed to another man reluctantly by her father. This finally led to their death for love. The most valuable thing in life is life, and the destruction of life is to seek object that is more important than life. In this love story, the determination of pursuing love leads to these two youths’ premature death, nevertheless it helps us understand the nature of this tragedy—it is a solemn tragedy. The traditional tragedy theory holds the view that although the protagonists do not take the major responsibility for the occurrence of the tragic conflict and the tragic ending for they turn out to be the weak ones and the victims, their weakness and some improper or even wrong behaviors resulted in by the weakness is one of the reasons of the tragedy. Besides, it claims that tragedy of this kind can touch people’s soul more powerfully. It will only stir greater fury when very fines things are destroyed by the ugly and the evil. Liang and Zhu are the tragic protagonists of these fine qualities. What we should pay attention to is that Liang is a

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外国语学院 2009 级《学术论文写作》课程实践写作考核

bookish lad and Zhu is a delicate lady, the two of them are indeed too weak to be a threaten anyone. However, it is them who exploded tremendous and fearless power in a hopeless fight. It seems to be a sharp contrast to their identities. But in turn it shows people the invincible strength through the superficial phenomenon of love, which sequentially inspire people to fight for the truth, kindness and beauty.

4 Tragic Beauty in Fate—The Beauty of Fighting against Fate in Tess of the D'Urbervilles 4.1 Fight against the Capitalist Class Society In Tess of the D'Urbervilles, Alec is from the bourgeoisie and the representative of the pressure groups. Relying on the wealth of his family, he always dallied with others. But when he met Tess, he was so deeply attracted by her beauty that he set a trap to get her. His trick won him the girl and stole the virginity and a whole life happiness from the poor soul. Yet Tess disdained Alec, she stood up against him bravely. When Alec begged Tess to go back to him, Tess rejected determinately. Although Tess could not escape from Alec’s evil talons, she never gave up fighting. In the end, Tess was impelled to be Alec’s lover because of helplessness. And this time Tess finally raised a sharp knife and penetrated it into Alec as the most stern struggle against the unfair society. 4.2 Fight against the Rotten Mores The courage of Tess to live stanchly is quite respectable. When she was back from The Slopes, she gave birth to a son, Sorrow, the product of the rape. She chose to keep silent and go out as few as possible, leaving all those rumors high and dry. She took care of her son carefully. When Sorrow died, she baptized him. Tess believed in herself and her innocence. All she needed to do was to live bravely and she would never bend to the decayed traditional moral ideas. 4.3 Fight for True Love At the very beginning, Tess refused Angel’s proposal, because she thought that she was unworthy of Angel’s love and care. The shadow casted by Alec impinged on her decision and her courage to accept Angel’s proposal. But eventually she was touched by Angel’s persistence and efforts and decided to marry him. After the

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外国语学院 2009 级《学术论文写作》课程实践写作考核

wedding, Tess and Angel confessed their pasts to each other. Tess forgave Angel for his past indiscretion, but Angel could not forgave Tess for having a baby with another man. Angel suggested that they split up with Angel going to Brazil for a year and Tess going back home. When Angel left, Tess did not gave up on herself and the marriage. She kept Angel in her mind all the time. For a long time after they split, Tess had been waiting for Angel’s change of mind and refusing Alec in the strongest terms. Sadly, the price for attaining the short happiness was execution for murdering the culprit who had ruined her life—Alec.

5 Conclusion To a certain degree, tragedy equals greatness. But the nature of tragedy goes deeper than greatness. The conflict between the subject and object of a tragedy is more intense and sharper. There exist rational social power that is inevitably tortured or demolished. As Lu Xun put it, tragedy is to destroy valuable things right in front of you, it is from the destruction that people truly realize their value, which make people fight and struggle when they are confronted with grief and woe. That’s why the meaning of tragedy is positive and in line with greatness. The tragic beauty is a kind of lofty beauty. Chernyshevsky said: “People usually admit that tragedy is the greatest and most meaningful one in loftiness.” . The aesthetic effect of tragedy is so rich in power that the glory of humanity becomes more resplendent because of the misfortune, suffering and the ruin of the tragic protagonist. Tragedy is more powerful to inspire people, shock the heart, sublimate the spiritual state, encourage people to overcome difficulties and hardships and persist the unswerving pursuit of the truth, kindness and beauty.

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外国语学院 2009 级《学术论文写作》课程实践写作考核

References

[1] David, Lodge. The Art of Fiction[M]. Eastbourne: Gardners Books, 2011. [2] Friedrich, Nietzische. The Birth of Tragedy[M].NuVision Publications, LLC, 2007. [3]Horton, R& Edwards, H.W. The United States Literary Ideological Background[M]. 北京: 人民出版社,1991. [4] Thomas, Hardy. Tess of the D'Urbervilles[M].Washington Square Press, 1998. [5] 高玉芬.苔丝命运悲剧的思维解读[J]. 辽宁师范大学学报, 2006(4). [6] 刘建军.西方文学的人文景观[M].吉林:吉林人民出版社, 2003. [7] 施 津菊 .中 国 当代文 学 的 死亡 叙事 与 审美 [M].北 京 :中 国 社会 科 学 出 版 社,2007. [8] 张佐邦.文艺心理学[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2006. [9] 邹萱萱.论悲剧美[J].景德镇高专学报,2002(1). [10] [英]哈代著.张若谷译.德伯家的苔丝[M].北京: 人民文学出版社, 2005.

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