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戴云写作笔记


二、托福写作圣经
要多记笔记: 1、可以保证 focus on my lecture,不会 absent-minded 2、保证将来 会有复习的 clues 写作的第一要务是把观点表达清楚。 1、写作必须有观点 2、要给出一个清楚的观 点 写作考试不基于考生的真实身份。 托福作文中所有的例子和细节可以是真的, 也 可以是假的。 写作考试只考察语言水平,不考察思想水平。 举例:建工厂不同意的 理由有三:1、造成污染;2、交通堵塞;3、物价上涨 写作考试不测试考生的真实想法。 作文不是写想写的, 而是写好写的、 能写的。 举 例:父母是最好的老师,你同意吗? 同意的理由:1、how to behave myself; 2、value system;3、experience 上述理由都不能证明该题目 “后天的知识是老师教的,而不 是父母教的”存在逻辑错误,将老师与父母并列起来, 应该在老师前面加上修饰语“学校的”。 写作是基于表达,而不是基于翻译。 举例:婀娜多姿:beautiful;妩媚动人:lovely You are extremely smart. extremely means very 托福考试 30 分钟最低要写 300 字, 一 般要求写 400 到 500 字 写作内容和语言同等重要。 把内容表达清楚可以拿到高分 clarity 高于 variety,variety 高于 complexity clarity is the priority 观点的层次比观点的数目更重要。 逻辑错误比语法错误更严重。 跑题你就完蛋了。 授课流程: 提出观点——解释——举例——练习——解惑 要求: 1、课堂上 多记笔记 2、 熟悉题库和机经 机经比题库更重要 3、 要认真阅读和分析讲 义上的范文,包括段落和完整的篇章 两个方面的分析:a. 内容方面,搞清句与句 的关系,段与段的关系,知道文章如何 develop;b. 语言方面,挑出漂亮句型和短语。 4、熟悉讲义的句型集,要学会背诵讲义中每个类型的至少一个句型。 不要贪多, 要学精学透。 Reading makes fullment, writing makes exactment. 5、背诵因果关 系表达方法、综合写作句型 三大关系:因果关系,转折关系,并列关系 6、考 前完成 20 篇作文 1—5 篇写完不做任何修改, 立即销毁, 不要求不限时写作; 6—10 篇,要求 1 小时 之内完成,写完后进行修改语法拼写错误、表达不清和跑题错误;11—20 篇,写完后 修改,并对文章进行润饰 to polish your writing, to perfect your writing, to make your writing more beautiful, more powerful 绝不能重复错误 明确而坚定的目标是不绝的动力之源 写作基本知识: 1、托福作文不需要标题,写标题不扣分 2、任何标点符号的后面空一格 英语中省 略号是三点,没有书名号和顿号,一般通过斜体或引号来表示 3、段落格式使用缩行式或者 空行式 缩行式指每一段的第一行向右缩进四个字符, 其余行顶格写 空行式指每一段 的每一行都顶格写,但段与段之间空一行 四、“黄金规则一” The longer, the better! 基于内容的充实性,内容越充实,文章越好 官方指南:一篇短的文 章是不太可能把一个问题说清楚的 一般文章写到 550 字以上,基本都是满分 How to develop your idea into paragraph, even to a composition. 举例:I have a big family. There is my father, my mother, my sister and I... My father is a worker.之后可以写 what kind of job, how he behaves, what's his achievement Be the best of yourself Best structure 最好的框架 Best sentences 最好的句子 Best

words 最好的词 Best examples 最好的例子 例如: 我认为…... I feel \ think \ hold \ claim\ believe \ deem \ maintain \ reckon \ argue \ assume that… in my opinion from my point of view from my perspective \ angle for my part As far as I'm concerned... I hold / share the opinion / belief / position / standpoint / idea that... As I see \ view \ perceive the problem \ question \ issue \ case \ discussion \ argument \ controversy… My viewpoint \ belief \ opinion is that… problem 就是一个 trouble, 可能是 question, 也可能不是 controversy 的形容词: controversial 基本要求: 阅读完教材: 尤其是 OFFICIAL GUIDE 练习独立作文, 每周两篇 句型练习、 变换 将讲义最后十二个句子每个用三种或三种以 上方法来表达 举例:More and more people realize the importance of the environment protection. 句型练习、变换(参考) : 科学技术的发展使人们能够非常轻松地学习知识。 越来越多的人意识到环境保护的重要性。 我认为在我们社区建工厂是不好的。 由于年龄的关系, 父母亲对孩子的了解有时还不如他们的同伴。 要是团队里的每个人都竭尽全力, 他们的工作效率会有很大提高。 语言环境对外语学习的影响是很大的。 我们要象保护自己的亲人那样保护野生动物。 我们从电视上学会了好多有用的东西。 我赞成政府花钱进行外太空探索. 如果人们愿意在太空探索上面多花一些钱, 人们就会在不久的将来更多地享受高 科技给我们的生活带来的便利。 强健的体魄是实现伟大理想的前提。 偶尔的失败有时候会有助于日后的成功。 五、句子训练方法三种 句子是写作的基础 句子训练方法(一) 用多种方法表达同一句意. 例如: A 对 B 很重要. 1)A is important to B. 2) A plays an important role\part in B. 3)A is of (great \ amazing \ enormous \ considerable \ remarkable) importance \ significance to B. 注:be of + n. = be + adj. amazing 令人惊讶的 enormous 巨大的 considerable 可观的 置于 importance 前面都表示“非常” 4)B cannot live \ develop \ grow \survive without A. 5)A means a lot \ a great deal\much to B. 6)The importance of A to B can never be exaggerated \ denied \ ignored \ doubted. 注:exaggerate 夸大,夸张

例如: A 对 B 很重要. 练习: 教育对一个国家的发展来说是非常重要的 1. A nation can not develop without education. 2. Education means a lot \ a great deal \ much to the development of a nation. 3. The importance of education to the development of a nation can never be exaggerated \ denied \ ignored \ doubted. 练习:如果大学生在校外住将会有利于他锻炼独立自主能力 改造:在校外住对锻炼独立 自主能力是很重要的 1. The personality of independence can not be developed without experience of living outside the campus. 2. Living outside the campus means a lot to the development of the personality of independence. 练习:跨文化交际能力在我们这个多元化社会中对我们的成功非常重要 注:跨文化交际能力 cross cultural social skill 在多元化社会中 in the plural society 事业成功 career success 1. One's career success can not be achieved without the excellent cross cultural social skill in the plural society. 2. The excellent cross cultural social skill is important to one's career success in this plural society. 3. The social skill plays an important role in one's career success. 练习:身体是革命的本钱 引申:身体是事业成功的保障 Health is important to one's career success. 注:身体通常指英文中的 health 例如:早睡早起身体好 You have excellent health. 保重身体 take good care of your health 7)A is essential \ significant \ crucial \ critical \ vital \ indispensable to B. 8)A is everything \ the whole world to B. 9)A is fundamental \ basic \ elementary \ rudimentary \ underlying to B. 练习: 父母对我们的影响非常非常大 The influence of our parents on our growth can never be exaggerated \ denied \ ignored \ doubted. 练习: 赵薇的眼睛很大 The size of Zhao Wei's eyes can never be exaggerated. 西施很美 丽 The beauty of Xi Shi can never be exaggerated. 语言就是力量 The power of language can never be exaggerated. 王二小很勇敢 The bravery of the little hero Wang Erxiao can never be exaggerated. 建工 厂有很多好处 The advantages of building a factory near our community can never be exaggerated \ denied \ ignored \ doubted. 建工厂会有噪音, 很烦 The noise of the construction of the factory near my community can never be exaggerated. The harm of the noise produced by the factory can never be exaggerated. 看电视伤害视力 The harm of the children's eyesight can never exaggerated if they watch television too much televi. 10) A matters \ counts to B. 注:matter 要紧 count 重要 语法很重要: Grammar counts. 11) Nothing is more important to B than A. 练习: 建工厂好处很多 Nothing brings more advantages than the building of a factory near our community. 父母对我们影响很大 Nobody influences us more deeply than our parents.

12) Nothing is the match of A to B. 练习:保护濒危动物对维护生态平衡很重要 The protection of the endangered animals is essential \ significant \ crucial \ critical \ vital \ indispensable to the maintenance of the ecological balance. The protection of the endangered animals is everything \ the whole world to the maintenance of the ecological balance. The protection of the endangered animals matters \ counts to the maintenance of the ecological balance. Nothing is more important to the maintenance of the ecological balance than the protection of the endangered animals. Nothing is the match of the protection of the endangered animals to the maintenance of the ecological balance. 13) A is to B what the foundation is to a skyscraper \ water is to fish \ the heart is to a human. 句子训练方法(二) 扩充句子 将一个简单的句子进行扩充,增加至 15 字, 25 字, 35 字, 尽量使用不同的语法结构,如同 位语,插入语,非谓语结构, 各种从句,并列结构等。 (教主要求:文章里多于 25 字的句子 至少有 3 句。 ) 句子最长不能超过 50 个字 句子训练方法(三) 对句式进行各种变化。 开头的变化 ( 名词 , 不定式 , 介词词组 , 分词 , 从句 , 动名词 , 代词 …) 结尾的变化 长短句的变化 主被动的变化 考试应该以长句为主,以主动为主 六、新旧托福分数对照 重要分数值的位置 ---100 ---96.8 ---89.0 ---79.7 ---66.2 原始分数和最终分数换算表 5 30 3.5 4.75 29 3.25 4.5 28 3 4.25 27 2.75 4 25 2.5 3.75 24 2.25

115---99.5 105---93.6 95---85 85---73.1 75---59

22 21 20 18 17 15

七、学习新托福写作须知 1、独立写作字数要求 400—500 字,综合写作要求 200—300 字 2、段落要求写四段或 五段 3、拼写 pasttime \ pronounciation \ changeable \ writting \ truely \ suceed \ ninteenth \ Maintenance 4、 应使用书面语, 而不是口语 wanna \ gonna \ ok & Eg. ∵ ∴

Kid Can’t,应该使用 cannot 但是在疑问句中必须使用缩略语 例如: My girlfriend is beautiful, isn't she? 不能说 is not she Why don't you go with me to the cinema? 2B or not 2B, that is a ? Make some water (for you?) 上厕所 go to the toilet \ washroom 口语:上厕所 to do one's duty answer the call of nature go somewhere to go to Egypt to pick a flower 语法的问题: People working in big company are supposed to be able to use computer. 在 working 前加 who are company 变复数,或 in a/the big company 单数可数名词 不能单独存在,应该加限定词或者变复数,限定词中主要是冠词 There is an evidence that advertising profoundly affects human being the world over. profoundly means deeply affect 影响; influence 影响 二者都是及物动词 effect, influence, impact 可数名词, 影响 on 对…… have, exert, bring about 产生,施加,带来 A person with broad and profound knowledge can has a better life than the person who does not. can have Nobody has bigger eyes than Zhao Wei. His life is better than mine. the person 可以改成 a person 把 who does not 去掉,改成 without Judgements made in most of the book are believable. A large amount of people go abroad to learn advanced knowledge. a large amount of 不能修饰可数名词,应用 a large number of; learn knowledge 不对,学习知识应该用 acquire \ obtain \ gain \ increase \ accumulate \ develop The majority of Chinese are fond of watching television. majority 大多数,后 面加 of,一定要接名词复数 反义词:minority minority nationality 少数民族 Dinosaurs have extincted. extinct 形容词 修改方法: Dinosaurs are extinct.或 Dinosaurs have been extinct. die out 灭绝 英汉语区别:逻辑性,表达方式,文化的影响 英语逻辑性比汉语逻辑性更强 好着急=好不着急; 好容易=好不容易; 好 可怜=好不可怜; 刘翔比所有中国人跑得快。 小芳的辫子比小翠长。 解决就 业问题 遥控器一按,图像就来了 汉语表达的特点 ------曲折,委婉(曲线型思路) 荷花,你愿意死后埋在我家的祖坟里 吗? 海霞,让我照顾你一辈子! 虎子哥,瞧你冻的。我给你织了条围巾 英语表达的特点------明确,直接(直线型思路) clearly and directly 小鸟经常换 巢穴。为什么大鸟不? 因为:大鸟不是小鸟?大鸟大?小鸟的适应能力强?小鸟会长 大?小鸟经常找不到家?大鸟懒?小鸟在外面有情况? 正常论述过程: 大鸟体型大---巢穴大---需要大量鸟力,物力和财力---建造不易 ---不能迅速建一个新巢--不能经常换巢穴 大鸟大:Big birds are big. 例如:——老王去哪里了? ——今天星期六! common culture, common background, common information 文化的影响 As stupid as a donkey\ goose like a drowned rat 落汤鸡 like a peacock among sparrows 鹤立鸡群 as busy as a bee 忙的团团转 as proud as a peacock 骄傲的大公鸡 Money makes the mare go. 有钱能使鬼推磨 mare 母马,母驴 Where there is a will, there is a way. All roads lead to Rome. Practise makes preface. Time and tide wait for no man.

八、阅卷人心理分析 4 分是最保险的给分 有些中国教师花在高考作文试卷上的时间仅为十秒以内。 1、论 点是否清楚 2、文章结构是否合适、完整 3、文章中的论证是否完整和充分 4、文章的语法 和词汇是否有变化 最重要的一点: You clearly express your opinion. 使用模板永远不会 finish egg. 可以背诵文章结构,但不需要背其模板,有些固定句型需要背 评分过程,不只是吸引,而是征服 新鲜感---兴趣感---兴奋感---他\她爽---给高分---你爽 我们的口号 3 是: 要想自己爽, 先让别人爽! 一定要多写作文,量变引起质变 按照方法写 看讲义上提供的范 文即可

第二章 独立写作攻略 一、评分标准 1、5 分标准 Effectively addresses the topic and task Is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications, and/or details 结构精当,论证充分,要用解释、例 证、细节 Displays unity, progression, and coherence 文章要完整统一,有头有尾,文章要体 现出层次感,好的衔接 Displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiomaticity, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors. 保证文 章中有一定量的句子和短语使用的很漂亮 词汇应该有选择 地道性, 固定用法可以体现出地道性 文章允许出现小的词汇和语法方面错 误 2、4 分标准 Addresses the topic and task well, though some points may not be fully elaborated 凡是五分 标准,所有观点都应该得到充分展开 Is generally well organized and well developed, using appropriate and sufficient explanations, exemplifications, and/or details Displays unity, progression, and coherence, though it may contain occasional redundancy, digression, or unclear connections 文章中偶尔有一句是废话或跑题或逻辑不清 Displays facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety and range of vocabulary, though it will probably have occasional noticeable minor errors in structure, word form, or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning 词汇量 3、3 分标准 Addresses the topic and task using somewhat developed explanations, exemplifications, and/or details Displays unity, progression, and coherence, though connection of ideas may be occasionally obscured May demonstrate inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice that may result in lack of clarity and occasionally obscure meaning 4、0 分标准 merely copies words from the topic, rejects the topic, or is otherwise not connected to the topic, is written in a foreign language, consists of keystroke characters, or is blank.

二、题库及机经分析 题型分类 1.比较对比类 25% 2.观点选择类 75% 3.自主定义类 官方指南的题库中有相当 大一部分是自主定义类 题型分类举例 比较对比类:给出两个观点或者一个观点的两个方面,要求进行比较论述, 并给出个人 观点。 核心内容: 要求进行比较论述 例如: It has been said, “Not everything that is learned is contained in books.” COMPARE knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why? 问题是 which source,回答不应该是 knowledge,而应该是 books 或 experience 由于人生活在一定的时空里, 他的时间和精力都是有限的, 要通过实践获得知识太慢了, 范围太狭窄了,根本不能跟上时代的步伐,不能满足社会对我们的需求,所以我认为,书本 是更重要的知识的源泉。 虽然这是个知识爆炸的年代,但是真正对我们有用的知识是很少 的,我们只需要攫取其中的一部分就可以了,所以我认为,实践获取到的知识刚好全部适合 我们本人,是有用的,所以它是更重要的知识的源泉。 虽然那些东西来源于书本, 可是最终也是来源于实践的, 所以实践才是最终的知识的源 泉,所以它也是更重要的知识的源泉。 一旦发现托福作文只有唯一答案,一定是审题出错 了。 例如:Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. They may choose to live in university dormitories, or they may choose to live in apartments in the community. Compare the advantages of living in university housing with the advantages of living in an apartment in the community. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for your preference. 我愿意住校内:1、便于和同学交流、讨论;2、可以向老师请教;3、上课比较方便, 不会迟到;4、自习方便,图书馆近;5、做实验方便;6、查阅图书方便;7、听讲座方便; 8、买书方便;9、气氛好 总结: 比较对比类的标志词汇: compare discuss than \more\most\best 观点选择类 比较对比类必须比较,观点选择类不要求必须比较 观点选择类: 给出两个对立观点或者一个观点的对立两方面,要求支持其中一个方面或一个观点. 例如: Some people prefer to work for a large company. Others prefer to work for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 将“观点选择类”转化为“比较对比类” 例如:“Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big city. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.” 比 较 的 好 处 : 1 、 增 加 论 述 客 观 性 和 说 服 力 2 、减轻论述己方理由的压力 3 、衬托出作者论点的优势 4、增加字数 住在大城市比较好,交通方便,购物方便,娱乐方便,教育方便,成功机会多 小城镇 的好处:环境好:空气清新,人与人之间关系好,竞争压力小,物价低,交通不堵塞 上次我们讲了两个题型:观点选择类和比较对比类。比较对比类比较标志性的词 compare , discuss ,than。另外讲了一个类别叫做观点选择类,观点选择类和比较对比类的区别是: 观点选择类不是强制比较, 而比较对比类是强制比较。 上次我们说可以将断点选择类转化成 比较对比类,但是我们说是可以转化,而不是说必须转化。我们推荐转化。转化的原因是更 符合 create thinking 的思维模式。另外对写作来讲,文章更加的客观,更加有说服力。如果 我们只写一面,找三个理由非常困难,但是如果写两面,都去找它的优点和缺点的话就会容

易的多。这样内容也会比较丰富。但是有一点,当我们写了 A 的好处,写了 B 的好处的时 候,后面紧跟着写 A 比 B 更好,或者 A 的好处比 B 的好处更多,更明显,更重要,更紧迫, 更合适当中的一种。 这句话要在文章开头处写。 因为英文的写作模式就是要在开头表明非常 明确的观点。 下面我们讲黄衣教总纲: 黄一黄一,永放光芒。 千秋万载,一统江湖。 戴云教主,万寿无疆。 3.自定义类:给出一个范围或论题,要求自己确定观点并进行论述。 自定义类考的比率非常低,不是讲课的重点。 例如: 1. You have the opportunity to visit a foreign country for two weeks. Which country would you like to visit? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 首先是中国能不能写?我们不建议大家写中国, 因为中国人在写的过程中容易暴露身份。 另 外如果写巴黎也不太好,因为巴黎不是一个 country。另外非洲也有问题,它也不是一个 country。 大家最好集中写美国。美国有三点:1)人口来自不同地方,民族文化多样化的地方;2)美 国科技非常发达;3)经济特别发达;4)美国山水特别美丽。从美国的东部徒步走到西部, 一路遍赏美国的美景,遍尝美食,遍交美女。 2. If you could change one important thing about your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 1)要改变家乡的环境,教育,经济,旅游状况;2)题目中有必要写家乡的名字,家乡的名 字不一定是真的; 三、审题 如何审题: 1.确定题目的类别: 两个方面:1)题材 2)题型 2.确定切入点,一般从两个角度: 1)找限定词(for two weeks\a big city\ a smaller town) 2)找绝对词 (only\never \ forever) 提 纲 简略提纲=观点+理由+闪现的例子和名言 详细提纲 四、文章主体框架 文章框架 分为三个部分:主体 开头 结尾 主体(中间三段)框架六种:1+1;2-1;2+1;折中 1+1 支持面的理由两点充分论述,写出来是四段,开头段、结尾段加中间两段,中间两段进行详 细论述。 比如:选择低工资没经验的员工还是高工资有经验的员工? 没有经验的人的好处:1)工资低节省开支 2)可塑性比较强 3)管理起来比较容易 4)创 造力比较旺盛 5)干起来比较带劲 6)对公司有很强的情感 有经验的人的好处:1)工作效率比较高 2)不用培训,省出时间和金钱 3)易于管理,有

很深的职业素养 4)人脉 5)激励 2+1 (A 型) 支持面的优点两点充分论述+反对面的缺点一到两点进行简略论述。 好处:观点鲜明,指向特别一致 例如:自己选室友还是学校决定? 自己选:1)可以选合得来的 2)选的过程当中,学会自己综合考虑问题 3)专业相同,学 习可以互相促进 4)来自同一省份,交流比较方便 学校决定:1)不熟悉,锻炼一下特殊技能,比如容忍 2)生活方式 假定自己选: 1.可以选兴趣相同(投缘)的,如喜欢打扑克的; 2.可以选习惯同的,比如爱干净的,环境会更好; 3.学校决定的不了解,会有冲突,需要时间沟通 2+1(B 型) 支持面的理由两点充分论述+支持面的另一个理由简略论述(两祥一略) 例如:快速决定永远是错的? 1.有些决定不用长时间考虑 2.有些决定可以凭经验作出 3.有些时候必须快速决定 2-1 极力推广 2-1(A 型) 支持面优点两点充分论述+反对面优点一到两点简略论述 例如:现场观看表演比看电视更好? 1.电视更清楚:有讲解,有不同角度摄影,有精彩回放 2.看电视费用更低,更安全,更放松 3.虽然现场气氛好,可能见到明星,可能有偶遇 2-1(B 型) 讨论点的优点两点充分论述+讨论点的缺点一到两点简略论述 例如:电视破坏了我们和朋友以及家人的交流? 优点: 1.看电视提供交流时间和场地 2.看电视提供交流素材 但是: 花费大量时间,影响交流 意见不合,影响情感,影响交流 事实类(预测类)题目: 它和一般类题目的区别是,它不问你是支持还是不支持,而是 问你觉得回呢还是不会呢。戴云会当上美国总统吗? 例如:1.戴云会当上美国总统吗? 2.戴云是美国总统吗? 3.你支持戴云当美国总统吗? 第一类:事实前 第二类:事实中 第三类:事实后 例如:20 年后人们做饭时间会减少? 正面因素: 1.人们会压力更大,更忙 2 高科技产品帮忙(冰箱微波炉)

负面因素: 更重视健康(营养,休闲) 更重视家庭(交流,团聚) 例如:20 年后印刷的书籍会消失吗? 20 年后大街上行使的汽车数目会减少吗? 20 年后人们的休闲时间会减少吗? 新能源将迅速替代就能源,你同意吗? 例如:20 年后大街上行使的汽车数目会减少吗? 正面因素: 重视环保;重视健康 汽油涨价,开车成本高,公交发达 负面因素: 经济发展,汽车降价,人们有钱 注重私人空间和舒适性 身份 新能源环保便宜 细节:2-1 方案先写 2 还是先写-1 的问题 先写2,再写-1 原因:先写了 2 就能保 证能把文章写完,如果先写-1,写 2 的时候可能时间就不够了。文章重点就不突出了,观点 就不鲜明了。 折中方案 1.不同的阶段 2.不同的年龄 3.不同的人群 4.不同的目的 例:住大城市还是小镇? 年轻时------住大城市(成功机会多,时尚,交通便利) 年迈时------住小镇(生活费用低,环境好,压力小) 住校内还是校外? 折中方案的缺陷:因为折中方案有太强的逻辑性 自己学习还是跟老师学习? 要高薪但长时间工作还是低薪但短时间工作的工作? 你愿意自己玩还是跟导游玩? 各种题型的框架 观点选择类---1+1 , 2+1 ,2-1,折中 比较对比类---2-1,折中 , 自主定义类---1+1, 2+1(B) 文章内容比例 我们要注意支持面的理由和反对面理由的比例问题。支持面的理由最好要比反对面理由多, 段落数多,字数多, 而且阐释得更具体。 六大框架: 我好,我好(1+1) 我好,我好,你也好(2-1 A 型) 我好, 我好, 你不好 (2+1 A 型) 我好, 我好, 我好 (2+1 B 型) 我 好,我好,但是我也有缺点(2-1 B 型) 人称

1. 论 证 说 理 部 分 使 用 第 三 人 称 。 2. 涉 及 个 人 情 况 时 使 用 第 一 人 称 。 3.表达个人观点时使用第一人称。 4.尽量使用复数形式的第三人称, 避免 he\she 和语法错误的出现。 5.不要使用第二人称。 五、主题句 必须是陈述句 必须表明观点 态度必须坚决 In my humble opinion… I am not sure about this, but… I am no expert on the subject, but I suppose… 每段都有主题句 通常位于段首或段末 六、段落的实现 例证法 因果法 比较对比法 并列法 口号 4:例证法是万法之母 例证法框架: 提出论点---列举例证---分析例证(给出细节) ---得出结论 ---(重述论点) 注意:1. 时态和人称 (语言角度) 2. 要简洁,紧扣主题 (内容角度) 口号 5: 每个论点都要有理由 每个理由都要有例子 每个例子都要有细节 我认为……因为我觉得……比如说……你看…… 两种模式: 1. 我认为……因为我觉得……比如说……你看……你再看……你接着看……你继续看…… (更多细节) 2. 我认为……因为我觉得……比如说……你看……又比如说……你看……再比如说……你 看……(更多例子) 例:高科技使我们做饭时间变短了 1.电冰箱 不用每天买菜花时间,买半成品菜,做完 下顿吃 2.微波炉 举例的分类 1 举一例——进行详细分析 (推荐) 2 举多例——进行简略分析 Or 1.举事件为例 2.举物品为例 凡是物例都可以转化为事例 举例(举一例) : 高科技发展给生活带来好处,比如:微波炉---味道保存更好,热得快,避免油烟,可以 定时,控制火势——使生活更美好 热得快:节省时间 腾 spare save use time to do /doing …… instead of 定时 decide the cooking time control the cooking time set 热得快 heat up the food fast cook/prepare/make the meal fast

烹饪 中间段范例 8: The development of science and technology does bring much convenience to our daily life. One of the best examples is the microwave oven, which has been widely used in families. Using a microwave oven for cooking can not only heat up the food faster, but also provide a smoke-free cooking environment. People are able to make use of the extra time saved from cooking to do many other things. Smoke created when cooking in traditional ways is always a threat to people’s health, while a microwave oven will solve the problem easily by using an environmentally friendly power, that is, radiation power. What is more, a microwave oven has a time controller, which will help people decide the cooking time, and it can ensure safety and provide an easy cooking. Without any doubt, the microwave oven, as a typical example of modern science and technology, has indeed improved our lives greatly. 电冰箱: 科技发展带来便利 比如:电冰箱---使生活更便利 储存食物;储存药品;储存 化妆品;制冰制冰---止痛,冰啤酒,退烧;冷冻食物 口号 6: 要事实,更要雄辩(推论) ! 多例法: 多例法: 多例与一例一样 科技发展带来好处—— 微波炉使做饭更健康, 冰箱使 食物保存得更新鲜, 手机使我们联系更方便, 电脑使我们获取最新资讯更及时, 汽车使我们的出行更快捷。 中间段 1: People all over the world benefit enormously from the rapid development of science and technology in various fields. Life abounds with such examples. By using microwave ovens, the process of cooking is cleaner and faster than the traditional way and consequently this makes the dishes more favorable for people’s health and saves a lot of time for people to do more important things; the refrigerator provides an access to the storing of food more conveniently, and thus it is now possible for people to buy many foods at one time instead of purchasing them in small quantities and go to the supermarket every day. The advent of mobile phones, which we are now using in everyday life, turns out to be a brand new way of communicating and transmitting information. Large numbers of business are done via mobile phones in this day and age. No one can deny that people really benefit a lot from the invention of computers. We are now doing a variety of things through computers including searching for the latest information, communicating and chatting online with our families and friends. Regarded as one of the greatest inventions of the 21st century, vehicles, which create a new way of traveling, contribute noticeably to the rapidity and safety of modern transportation. Considering all the analysis above, we may safely come to the conclusion that the improvement of science and technology brings striking convenience to our daily life. 举例之后,不够充分可: 1 给更多细节 2 举同类型的另外一个例子 3 举其它类型的例子 4 举反例 中间段 2: (113 字) A friendly neighbor who is horribly inept is still not very much help. While friendliness is essential, simple good-will is not enough to make a good neighbor. If you suffered from some natural disaster, or some accident, a helpful neighbor would be able to do more things than a neighbor who was concerned, but unable to help. For example, if your car wouldn’t start, imagine

your neighbor didn’t know how to use the jumper cables. Despite good intentions, your neighbor might end up harming you or your vehicle. A capable and friendly neighbor who could help you with many things that you might have trouble doing alone would be of far greater help. 这是这篇文章的第三段,因为之前有个开头,还有 still,肯定不是第二段。 horribly (very) ——修饰不好的词 修饰好的词: Significantly/ highly/ amazingly/ considerably/ unusually simple good-will 是 horribly inept 的替换 If you.....举例子——时态 For example 例子的例子——细节 可以举同类型的例子:水龙头、玻璃...... 还可以举另外类型的例子

中间段 3: (134 字) Of course, while friendliness and capabilities are important, without a mutual understanding and consideration, any neighbor can be horribly frustrating. In the modern world, where your neighbor could be of a completely different culture, understanding and consideration are very important. Imagine a neighbor who happens to be a five star chef invites you over for dinner. Though he certainly has the appropriate talents for cooking, and the good will to invite you over, if he failed to consider your culture or personal preferences, you might not appreciate the meal at all. For example, if you were Jewish and followed your religious limitations on foods, you wouldn’t be able to eat many different kinds of foods. Thus, without consideration for your culture and situation, all of the good-will your neighbor might bring would be useless. if he failed ......虚拟语气
总结这两段: 第一句话给出观点 第二句话解释 第四句话举更细的例子 第五句话总结 例子: Whether It Is Good To Travel Alone(举例法)(179 字) 第三句话举例子

There are several reasons to suppose my opinion, and here I want to put forward some

reasons of the most importance. In the first place, traveling alone without certain paths is extremely adventurous and exciting, which, at the same time, can help us gain a deeper understanding of the place we’re visiting. Take myself for example. Last summer, after the college entrance exams, I decided to go on a trip for relaxation. Instead of following my mom’s suggestion of joining a traveling group, which, from my former experience, is a total waste of time because I can only get some shallow understanding about the place, I made up my mind to travel alone. I chose Xi an, a city I’ve been to once, as my destination. I went there alone and discovered a large number of fresh things by asking the way, talking to the local people and walking through the unfamiliar streets. On my way home, I felt myself filled with new understanding about the city; therefore, I realize how significant it is to have a self-guided travel.
Whether Saving Money Is Important (举例法) (176 字) I have to emphasize the importance of saving money. A plenty of money in the bank account can help us get through sudden emergencies and occasional accidents. I have a friend named Victor. His family is not rich but they

keep a good habit of depositing a certain amount of money into their bank account each month. He sometimes complained to me about this situation because it disables him to spend money buying something he desires. But last month, while he was riding to school in the rush hour, he was involved a horrible accident. He was terribly injured and a large amount of money was immediately required to get him an operation. Most of their family’s deposit was put into use and fortunately, he got through this nightmare. Now when we talk about this, he says he feels so blessed and grateful that their family keeps this habit and he will do everything he can to support it. This incident strikes me tremendously and makes me realize how significant deposits are to us ordinary people. 中间段 11: The first reason I want to put forward is that playing games, as one of the most wonderful ways to relax, can definitely help adults release their pressure. My uncle Victor works in a highly competitive computer company, so he has to work really hard to get all his work done and to meet the demand of the company. The high pressure resulting from the heavy workload has almost broken him down since he has found no way to release it. However, mouths ago, his son introduced a video game to him, which attracted him immediately. And he started to play it after work as relaxation. He played it like a child, shouting, laughing and cheering with his son. Now he always plays games as entertainment and considers it to be the best way of relief from stress. This incident gives me a full understanding of the fact that how important games are to adults as a let-out of their stress.(161 字) 七、段落的实现——因果法 1. 提出论点---提出原因---分析条件(如果这样会有什么好\坏处,而这正是我们所需要\担心 的)---得出结果 2. 给观点时问:为什么呢? 给事实时问:那又怎么样呢? 3. 推论到有明显倾向性的结论或事实为止 举例: (1)同意建工厂---有利人们生活便利-- 如果建工厂---人多---要购物吃饭---建商店和饭馆满 足要求---当地人也可利用这些商店和饭馆---当地人吃饭购物便利 (2)反对建工厂 ---- 噪音大, 危害严重 ----如果建工厂----人员多,机器响,车辆鸣 ---噪音大----学生不能学习,科研人员不能思考,老人不能休息,病人不能康复----危害很大 (3)工业发展坏处明显---不利健康------工业发展需要大量氟利昂(Freon)---导致臭氧层被破 坏---人体被紫外线直射---容易得皮肤癌---健康受损 4. 因果关系的表达 Lead to\result in Result from Because of\due to\thanks to\owing to\by reason of\on account of Because\for\since\as As a result\ outcome\consequence of In consequence\ in the end\ consequently The effect\influence\impact… Affect\influence So therefore\thereby\hence\thus 八、段落的实现——比较对照法

1. 整体比较: A:a1, b1, c1 B:a2, b2, c2 2. 分项比较: a1, b1 a2, b2 a3, b3 实例: 营养 食品安全 生活习惯 体育锻炼 校内 有营养师 国 家重视 集体生活 设施齐全 菜品丰富 严格控制 师友敦促 伙伴很多 校外 自做 摊贩 熬夜 无;贵 菜少 生病 早餐 球类 3. 总结注意事项: (1)对比时必须对双方面进行描写或分析,尤其是反方。 (2)凡是举例,必加推论;凡是对比,必写双方。 The Comparison between Living on Campus and Off the Campus (272 字) It is of more benefits to live on campus than off the campus since it can do more good to students’ health. The first reason I want to put forward is that on campus the meals by professional cooks, which contain a diversity of dishes, are healthier and more balanced, which is what we’ll never have out of the school as the food outside school is always limited in a small variety. What’s more, opposite to the lack of thorough control over the food security off the campus, which gives rise to a possibility of making people sick, meals in universities are what the government pays more attention to and therefore, the food safety is strictly guaranteed. When it comes to the lifestyle, living on campus undoubtedly provides us with an excellent opportunity to keep a healthful habit of daily life, which is in no way to be experienced when living alone in the apartment off the campus. What’s worse, when living out of school, the irregular lifestyle may lead to some psychological and physical diseases such as insomnia. Meanwhile, contrary to the lack of physical exercises off the campus, there is a complete set of public fitness facilities in the university, by using which we can do exercise regularly and keep fit. Students are able to find enough friends to play some collective ball games as well, such as playing football, which is barely possible outside of the campus since it is a tough job to assemble so many people. All these comparisons can directly lead us to conclude that living on campus is apparently more advantageous than off the campus. 4. 如何实现对比 (1)因果推论可以对比:不同条件可以导出不同结果 (2)例证可以对比 A.物例可以对比:有它与没它结果不同 B.事例可以对比:同一人的不同做法结果不同; 不同人的不同做法结果不同 九、段落的实现——并列法 1. 总论点 分论点一

(1) 在 A 方面 (2) 在 B 方面 (3) 在 C 方面 分论点二 分论点三 例如: (1) 医疗 a. 医护人员素质 b. 医疗设施 c. 医疗机构分布密度 d. 保健知识、意识和咨询 (2) 交通 a. 交通设施(信号灯,斑马线,人行道,过街天桥) b. 交通工具(公汽,地铁,的士,火车,飞机,汽车,自行车) c. 交通通畅状况和交通意识 d. 公共交通发达 (3) 科技发展带来很多好处 a. 在工作方面(教师,医生,商人,科研人员; 工业,农业,服务业) b. 在学习方面(学外语,学历史,学生物,学地理) c. 在日常生活方面(衣食住行) 其他例子: 留学吗? 住大城市还是小镇? 父母是最好的老师? 计算机、电视、因特网好吗? 快速决定永远不对? 做计划重要吗? 能干还是幽默的朋友好? 年轻人不能教老年人? 2. 常用词汇和结构: (1) 表示第一项: firstly,to begin\start with, first of all, in the first place, on the one hand, the most important reason is, first and foremost (2) 表示另一项 Secondly, in the second place, on the other hand, besides, furthermore, additionally, in addition, moreover, equally important is, also, too, another (3) 表示最后一项 Last but not the least, most important of all, finally, thirdly, another point\reason that we shall never forget is, in the end 3. 段落框架: (1) 主题句---分论点一---例证\解释---分论点二---例证\解释---分论点三---例证\解 释---结论 (2) 主题句(---解释)---举例---分析例子 ---对比反面情况---结论 十、 论点的确立

(1)好(分)论点=符合基本社会规范的+自己有把握比较擅长的+容易展开的 A. (分)论点不能脱离实际生活。 a. 道德不能过于低下, 也不能过于高尚。 比如:用计算机打字好还是用笔写好, 有人说打字好, 这样写恐吓信不会被警方 识破; 又如:考大学是因为听说大学校园里漂亮妹妹特别多 比如:为钱工作还是为兴趣工作, 有人说为兴趣工作, 认为钱根本不重要, 只要自己感 兴趣, 完全可以不要钱, “全心全意为人民服务”, 好像连 basic necessities 都不要, 饿着 肚皮就可以工作了。 B. (分)论点不能触及政治敏感点。 比如: 让你重新生活一次, 你选择何时何地。有人说, 选择阿富汗, 要成为一 位杰出将领, 重创入侵美军…… C. (分)论点不能涉及宗教争端. 比如:有人说宗教是骗人的. 比如: 有人说释迦摩尼的武功比耶稣,穆罕默德和教主高强. (2)理由的寻找——“黄金规则二”------ “万金由” A.健康和安全(营养\放松心情\缓解压力\食品安全\生活习惯\身体伤害\体育锻炼:早 操,眼保健操,游泳,球类; 生命\财产) B.便利(节省(浪费)时间\时间灵活\交通\休闲\娱乐\健身\吃喝\购物\教育\医疗) C.经济(就业\职业\农业\工业\ 服务业\工资\收入\支出\效益\税收\旅游) Tourism 1.提高就业率 2.促进相关产业发展 3.增加税收 4.提高知名度,吸引投资 5.促进文化交流 Traveling 1.减轻压力,放松心情,振奋精神 2.Career preparation 3.Increased knowledge 4.New experience D. 交流(交友\集体活动\与家人\朋友\同学\同事\领导等交流) 推论:人多人少都不错 1. 人多 ---交友多,会交际 2. 人多---力量大,成功易 3. 人多---合作精神,宽容精神 4. 人少---多交流,交真朋友 5. 人少---自由灵活---便利 6. 人少---独立精神,能干 E.幸福与情感(激情\兴趣\亲情\友情\爱情\ 乐趣\ 好恶) F.成功(成就感\荣誉感\财富\自信\竞争\潜力\动力\压力) G.环保(生态平衡:沙漠化,砍伐森林,沙尘暴,干旱,洪水) \动植物的保护\环境 污染如:废弃物,水,空气 ,光,噪音,辐射,酸雨) H.品格(能干\聪明\合作\坚韧不拔\勤奋\独立\负责任\ 宽容\体贴\谦虚\诚实)

I.科技,教育与培训(科技的发展(电脑,电视,卫星,手机) \效率) J.国家与文明( 公益:慈善事业,志愿者 \人与自然的和谐\文明的传承和发扬) 细节:理由不能太具体,否则不易展开 十一、开头和结尾 开头 1:(背景)+论题+反方观点+(反方理由)+过渡+作者论点+作者理由 1. 开头段写理由的好处: 使读者清楚文章的框架,便于预期和理解 加深读者对文章内容的记忆 限制作者的思维,使作者能深入思考理由和例证 显示语言变化能力 增加字数 2. 怎么写背景: 提出一种普遍现象或值得关注的现象(紧扣论题)作为背景 官方\权威数据,调查研究结果 3. 过渡表达方法集锦 on the contrary\in(by) contrast Nevertheless\nonetheless\however but\while\whereas Different people have different opinions towards this controversy. Each coin has two sides. Our society is divided by the argument whether… This idea is strongly opposed by another group of people. 开头 2:事例+论题+各方观点(和理由)+作者论点和理由 1.媒体(电视,电台,报纸,杂志和网络)的报道 2.朋友,邻居,同事的故事 开头 3:问题+论题+各方观点(和理由)+作者论点和理由 1. 把背景用问题方式提出; 2. 连续提问(煽情式提问) 。 开头 4:引语+论题+各方观点(和理由)+作者论点和理由 【例子在讲义中】 背景法 how to relax As modern society develops, people have to deal with more and more pressure brought by heavy work load. At this time, relaxation becomes an essential part of people’s life, and this is where the controversy arises. Some believe the best way to relax is to spend time alone and enjoy doing something of one’s own interest. Meanwhile, those who are strongly opposed to it cite that it’s the social activity that eventually helps people get rid of stress. From my own perspective, the latter one is more favorable. 背景法: )--cooking time As modern society develops, people will pay more attention to their health. At this time, food supply becomes an essential part of people’s life, and this is where the controversy arises. Some believe, in 20 years, the time spent on cooking will tremendously increase. Meanwhile, those who strongly disagree with it cite that instead of increasing, the cooking time will decline undoubtedly. From my own perspective, the latter one is more reasonable. 背景法---Whose advice is better

As modern society develops, people will face more tough problems in their daily life. At this time, other’s suggestion plays a more essential role in people’s life than ever, and this is where the controversy arises. Some believe that it is of great benefit to get advice from friends older than them. Meanwhile, those who strongly disagree with it cite that the advice from friends of the same age is more valuable. From my own perspective, the former one is more favorable. 背景法—study more or one As modern society develops, people will face more competition in the future. At this time, study in universities plays a more essential role in students’ life, and this is where the controversy arises. Some believe that it is of great benefit to take classes in various subjects. Meanwhile, those who strongly disagree with it cite that students should specialize in only one subject. From my own perspective, the latter one is more favorable.

结尾:
总结全文(论题和各方观点)+重述论点和理由+(提出建议\深化意义) 1. 把对方的优点移植到己方,把己方的缺点消灭掉,提出实施方案和注意事项 2. 深化意义=展望未来+对国家社会的好处 举例: 1、建工厂也要加强环保措施,确保工厂不会污染环境,干扰居民的生活,要维护交通的通 畅,方便群众的出行。 (你的好处我都有,我的坏处,都没有了。把缺点干掉了。把己方的 缺点消灭掉,提出实施方案和注意事项) 2、住校外也要加强与老师同学的交流,多参加集体活动,使自己与他们保持和谐的关系, 并且充分利用校内的学习和体育设施, 促进自己的健康和学业。 (把对方的优点移植到己方) 3、 住大城市也要加强和 1 邻居同事的交流, 2 建立和谐的人际关系网, (在小镇上住的好处) 要善于通过参加体育活动和看电影等娱乐活动减轻压力,保持身心健康。 4、在大公司工作,也要加强和领导同事的交流,1 拥有良好的人际关系,努力工作,挖掘 自身的潜力,2 在竞争中脱颖而出,实现人生梦想。 (在小公司的好处) (你的好处我都有) 戴云要求 每篇文章必须写结尾! 升华的结尾 结尾的例子 写作讲义 9 页 1-4 范文 万能推断模式

十二、重述语意的技巧【黄三】1 系统化

2 强化

1.使用同义词进行替换。 为了准备托福考试我们肯定已经积累了一定数量的同义词, 它们除了在阅读理解的词汇题当 中有用以外, 在写作当中也可以发挥巨大作用。 我们可以利用这些同义词来替换原文当中的 某些表达法,既显示了我们的词汇量,也使文章富有变化。 2.用各种形式的同根词进行替换 某些词通过添加前缀或/和后缀可以衍生出很多新的词汇来。使用这些新的词汇,可以 避免重复原文当中的词语,而且也显示了我们娴熟的词汇变化技巧。

3.使用同义短语进行替换 英语当中有异常丰富的短语,它们是英语学习者的宝库。通过使用短语,可以准确地传达原 文当中的某些信息,还可以体现作者的文化修养。使用短语还可以增加我们的字数呢,不害 羞地说。 4.使用全新的表达法进行替换。 其实英语的表达方法林林总总, 我们完全没有必要在一棵树上吊死。 使用各种各样的表达方 法来表达同样的意思,是我们英语写作实力的展示与炫耀,也是吸引读者眼球、增加得分机 会的有效手段。 A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near the community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position. 使用同义词进行替换: 用 claimed\declared 替换 announced; 用 wants\hopes\expects\ anticipates 替换 wishes; out of my expectation/anticipation 失望 out of the anticipation of many people/unanticipated 让很多人失望 用 impact\effect 替换 influence; 用 corporation\business \firm\ enterprise 替换 company; 用 establish\ construct 替换 build; 用 drawbacks\weaknesses\defects\ shortcomings 替换 disadvantages; 用 merits\strengths\virtues\ benefits 替换 advantages; 用 neighborhood 替换 community, 还可以用 choose to do (doing) \advocate doing\favor doing\prefer A to B (to do A) 替换 support doing Spend doing 使用各种形式的同根词进行替换。 用 announcement 替换 announce; 用 building 替换 build; 用 discussion 替换 discuss; 用 advantageous 替换 advantage 用 disadvantageous 替换 disadvantage 用 opposition 替换 oppose; 用 explanation 替换 explain; 等等。 讲义句型集 有大量词汇互换 使用短语进行替换。 用 set up 替换 build; 用 argue for\vote for\be in favor of\ be supportive of \approve of 替换 support; 用 argue against\vote against\ object to\be opposed to 替换 oppose; 用 positive\ good\ favorable\ beneficial 有利的有好处的 是形容词 benefit 是名词\ helpful\ valuable\ desirable points\ aspects 替换 advantages; 用 negative\ devastating\ damaging\ bad\ harmful\ destructive\ catastrophic\ points\ aspects\ respects 替换 disadvantages; 等等。 使用全新的表达法进行替换。

可以用(A large factory )主语 is supposed to be built near the community according to the announcement issued by a company. 替换 A company has announced that it wishes to build (a large factory )宾语 near the community; 用 There is a growing awareness of both the positive and negative influences that the construction plan brings to our community. 替换 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community.;等等。 (具有可推广性)可在 100%作文中使用 Eg:1.There is a growing awareness of both the positive and negative influences that university students living outside the campus brings to their development of the quality of independence 2.There is a growing awareness of both the positive and negative influences that working for a big company brings to their career development/social skills/ ...... 越来越多的人开始关注 A 对 B 所产生的正面的或者负面的影响。

开头结尾 句子变幻的方法已经结束 接下来 文章段落内部构造 第六讲(上)
我们很快就会发现,原来要重述语意并不是一件很难的事情。只要学会了上述四种技巧,我 们就可以轻而易举地用各种方法来重述语意。 实际上在写作的开头部分和结尾部分, 甚至在 写作的主体部分,我们都完全有必要重述语意。 一方面暗示读者我们是紧紧围绕主题来写的,没有跑题,完全有理由得到一个理想的分数, 另一方面也提醒自己千万不能不着边际、天马行空地乱写,跑题的后果是很严重的。 我们的口号 8 是:绝不重复使用同一个词,除非万不得已! 我们一定要明白我们在写作中的主要任务是用英语表达我们的思想, 而不是用英语翻译我们 想说的汉语。 Example: 我决不嫁给你. I will never marry you. Never will I marry you. If you were the last man in the world, I would definitely remain single. You are the last man I am willing to marry. If you were to marry me, I would go to the temple. If the sun rose in the west, I would marry you. I will marry anybody but you. I can suffer anything but marrying you. If you were to marry me, I would jump into the water\river\lake\sea\well I would rather die than marry you. Under no circumstances\by no means\on no occasion\on no account\in no case\in no way will I marry you. If Bill Gates were your father, I would marry you.

十四、超炫超酷超难句型大比拼 强调句(1-2) The more …the more…(1-2) 倒装句(2-3) 比较结构和倍数关系(1-2) 修辞问句(1-2) 并列结构(2-3) 虚拟语气(1-2) 插入语(2-3) 1、强调句 1)It is …that (who)… 举例: It is in the family of native speakers that you can learn the language most effectively. 2)The more…the more… The more beautiful a girl is, the fewer boys court her. The more frequently we communicate with family members, the more harmonious the relationship in the family is. 2、倒装句 1)So…that… The girl is so beautiful that she remains single today. So beautiful is the girl that she remains single today. The scientist worked so hard that he forgot his lunch. So hard did the scientist work that he forgot his lunch. 2)As…as…(more…than…) I run faster than he does. I run faster than does he. I swim as well as Mao did. I swim as well as did Mao. 3、表示地点, 位置, 范围, 处所的状语或表语提前至句首。 My sister is among those students. Among those students is my sister. New Oriental School lies in Zhongguancun. In Zhongguancun lies New Oriental School. One of the advantages of building a factory is to enhance the employment rate (of the people living around). Among the advantages of building a factory is to enhance the employment rate (of the people living around). 4、分词或形容词短语提前至句首。 主语(+定语)+be+形容词\过去分词\不及物动词现在分词+介词+名词 主语(+定语)+be+及物动词现在分词+名词 Most Chinese students are interested in going abroad to further their studies. Interested in going abroad to further their studies are most Chinese students. Attracting foreigners are those inspiring stories.

Those people who hold the opinion that money is the only symbol of success are satisfied with finding a high-paying and long-working job. Satisfied with finding a high-paying and long-working job are those people who hold the opinion that money is the only symbol of success. contented with\interested in \in favor of\ in agreement with\supportive of \worried about \opposed to 双重倒装 Satisfied with\contented with\interested in \worried about \opposed to finding a high-paying and long-working job are those people\ parents who hold the opinion that among the symbols of success is money. 5、Adj +though \as+主语+be+主句 Though\although I am busy, I will go shopping with you. Busy as\though I am , I will go shopping with you. Considerable\wonderful\numerous though the advantages that owning a business enjoys\leads to\ results in are, they cannot compete with the benefits that working for others brings about\causes, when\if responsibility is taken into consideration\deliberation\account. Though the advantages that owning a business enjoys\leads to\ results in are considerable\wonderful\numerous, we should not ignore\deny\forget\doubt that working for others has some slight\minor advantages. Considerable\wonderful\numerous though the advantages that owning a business enjoys\leads to\ results in are, we should not ignore\deny\forget\doubt that working for others has some slight\minor advantages. 6、表否定的副词或短语+助动词+主语+谓语+其他成分 No\not\never \neither\nor\seldom\rarely\barely\scarcely\hardly Never have I formed an idea that bicycles affect human beings’ life style most profoundly among all transportation means. Seldom did I visit my grandparents with my parents since I lived in a different city. 7、Only +状语置于句首+助动词+主语+谓语+其他成分 Only through this crisis do I understand that you love me best in the world. Only when people are 18 years or older, can they enter the net bar. Only when you are honest to others can you win their respect. 我们的口号 9 是:能倒的坚决倒,不能倒的创造条件也要倒!死了也要倒! 8、比较结构和倍数关系 As…as… More than … 比较结构和倍数关系 A 比 B 大四倍。 A is five times as big as B. A is five times bigger than B. A is five times the size of B. 赵薇的眼睛是林忆莲的两倍大 The eyes of Zhao Wei are twice as big as those of Lin Yilian. The eyes of Zhao Wei are twice bigger than those of Lin Yilian. The eyes of Zhao Wei are twice the size of those of Lin Yilian.

9、修辞问句 If scientists can clone sheep, why can’t they clone people? When human beings enjoy their happy life , isn’t it necessary that they give some consideration to those cute animals without enough playing ground? When human beings enjoy the convenience brought by automobiles , isn’t it necessary that they give some consideration to the heavily polluted air and those people who have been severely injured or died in car accidents? When people enjoy the benefits of …isn’t it necessary that they give some consideration to the advantages\disadvantages of … 10、并列结构 Teaching machines are devices that can store instructional information, present displays, receive response from a learner, and act on those responses. 11、虚拟语气 1)阐述各种假定的恶劣后果时,可以使用虚拟语气 If we built a factory in our community, there would be much pollution. If students worked hard without exercise, their working efficiency would decrease. If you were to leave, my heart would break. 2)表示建议时,可以使用虚拟语气 I suggest the young man should live in a big city while the elderly man should live in a small town. 3)论及不太可能会实现或不可能会实现或不希望实现的事情时,可以使用虚拟语气 If all the endangered animals were protected carefully, there would be no more extinction. The time which should have been spent learning English is wasted on cooking. 12、插入语 A new factory would contaminate the living space of most of our town’s inhabitants to some degree. A new factory would, to some degree, contaminate the living space of most of our town’s inhabitants. 常用作插入语的副词 indeed, surely, nonetheless, however, nevertheless, notwithstanding, admittedly, obviously, besides , furthermore , briefly , similarly , honestly\frankly\generally (speaking) , naturally , luckily\fortunately,astonishingly,conversely,undeniably,undoubtedly 常见的作插入语的形容词或短语 strange to say, needless to say, most important of all, worst of all 常用作插入语的介词短语 in sum\short\ summary , in other words , in a sense , in general , in my view\opinion\judgment,in conclusion, in the first place, in consequence, in addition,on the contrary,in contrast,to my joy\delight\satisfaction\ surprise\astonishment\amazement\ regret \disappointment,of course,for instance\example,in fact, as a matter of fact 常用作插入语的不定式短语 to be sure,to sum up,to tell the truth,to start with 插入句 I am sure, I believe\wonder\suppose, it seems, as I see it, what is important (serious), I’m afraid, it is said

第三章 综合写作 一、评分标准 口号:笔记为王! 1、5 分标准 A response at this level: successfully selects the important information from the lecture; and coherently and accurately presents this information in relation to the relevant information presented in the reading; well organized; occasional language errors that are present do not result in inaccurate or imprecise presentation of content or connections. 2、4 分标准 A response at this level: is generally good in selecting the important information from the lecture and in coherently and accurately presenting this information in relation to the relevant information in the reading, but it may have minor omission, inaccuracy, vagueness, or imprecision of some content from the lecture or in connection to points made in the reading. A response is also scored at this level if it has more frequent or noticeable minor language errors, as long as such usage and grammatical structures do not result in anything more than an occasional lapse of clarity or in the connection of ideas. 3、3 分标准 A response at this level: contains some important information from the lecture and conveys some relevant connection to the reading, but it is marked by one or more of the following: Although the overall response is definitely oriented to the task, it conveys only vague, global, unclear or somewhat imprecise connection of the points made in the lecture to points made in the reading.may omit one major key point made in the lecture. Some key points made in the lecture or the reading, or connections between the two, may be incomplete, inaccurate, or imprecise. Errors of usage and/or grammar may be more frequent or may result in noticeably vague expressions or obscured meanings in conveying ideas and connections. 4、2 分标准 A response at this level: contains some relevant information from the lecture, but is marked by significant language difficulties or by significant omission or inaccuracy of important ideas from the lecture in the connections between the lecture and the reading; a response at this level is marked by one or more of the following: significantly misrepresents or completely omits the overall connection between the lecture and the reading. significantly omits or significantly misrepresents important points made in the lecture. contains language errors or expressions that largely obscure connections or meaning at key junctures, or that would likely obscure understanding of key ideas for a reader not already familiar with the reading and the lecture. 5、1 分标准 A response at this level: is marked by one or more of the following: provides little or no meaningful or relevant coherent content from the lecture. The language level of the response is so low that it is difficult to derive meaning. 6、0 分标准 A response at this level: merely copies sentences from the reading; or ejects the topic or is otherwise not connected to the topic; or is written in a foreign language; or consists of keystroke characters; or is blank. 7、Your Attention to: Note-taking

Structure Coherence Sentence and word variety Grammar Spelling Punctuation 8、Be the best of yourself You are the master of your own fate. Today you do things people won’t do, tomorrow you will do things people can’t do. 二、题型分析 The reading passage provides general background information on the lecture topic. The lecture portion is two to three minutes long. The lecture will not merely repeat information from the reading passage; rather, it will develop and expand on the reading in some way. The writing question asks you to summarize the key points or describe the main idea of the lecture. The writing question is more about the lecture than the reading, but it requires you to draw a connection between the two. 1、出题方式 you might be asked to explain how: 1)ideas in the lecture agree or disagree with ideas in the reading; 2)the lecture presents a different view of the reading topic; 3)the lecture explains causes or effects of something in the reading; 4)information in the lecture supports or illustrates points in the reading; or 5)points in the lecture contradict, refute, differ from or cast doubt on points in the reading. 6)The lecture provides some suggestions to solve the problems stated in the reading. 2、阅读材料 乡村教师收入低 没有培训机会 学生多,压力大 反驳 相对于乡村平均水平,他们的工资不低 教授小学生不需要很高水平 城市教师的课堂上人更多,压力更大 解决问题 增加工资 30% 每年送到大城市或国外培训一次 增加教师数量,缩小课堂规模 3、综合写作学习要点 听力材料要点的确定 文章结构的确定 转述语意的技巧 4、如何确定要点——黄金规则五 主题句 被重复的语意(同根词,同义词,相同词,反义词) 原因和结果,结论

被解释的词汇 带有倾向性和表变化的词 被强调的语意(最高级,比较级,绝对词汇, 修辞问句,特殊停顿和特殊符号如引号破折号等) 问题和答案 重要例子 比较和比喻 表示转折的词汇后面的语义 5、如何结构全文 总分式(重点推荐) 总分总式(可用) 并列式(可用 ) 6、如何结构段落 每个段落必须同时包含下列要素: 阅读的观点 演讲的观点 两者的关系 三、记笔记的方法 1、用大写首字母代替专用词汇和反复出现的词汇 2、用单词的前三四个字母记笔记 3、用汉语记笔记 4、用同义词记笔记 5、用数字和符号记笔记 6、用发音的辅音记笔记 7、寻找并记录要点的训练方法 第一步:看着阅读和听力材料,寻找要点。 第二步:先寻找阅读材料中的要点,接着边听边记要点,并且在需要的时候暂停录音。 第三步:寻找阅读材料中的要点,边听边记要点,中间不停顿。 8、表示相反关系的词和短语 Refute\challenge\doubt\deny\rebut\ differ from\cast doubt on\ contradict\oppose\object to \disagree with Be contradictory\conflicting\opposing\contrary\opposite to Be different from In contrast\on the contrary 9、如何对付阅读中的陌生名词 只在阅读中出现的专用名词不重要。 在阅读和\或演讲中出现两次和以上的专用名词很重要。 10、不必揪心的项目 同时出现大量数字不重要。 同时出现大量列举不重要。 叙述历史事实,故事情节和发展过程不重要。 11、精彩句型 The lecture discusses…which refutes the main idea in the reading that… The professor made the point that… on the contrary\ in contrast\ however, the writer demonstrated a different\contradictory idea that…

Contrary to the belief in the passage that …the professor says that… The professor refutes the viewpoint showed in the passage that… by saying that… The reading material denies(\refutes\challenges?) the listening material.(?) The lecture contradicts\refutes\ is contrary to\ is the opposite of the idea in the reading ( by saying that…) The professor made the point that …The reading , in contrast, held a different view by stating that… The listening material contradicts the reading material regarding the issue\problem of … As regards\In terms of…the listening material contradicts the reading material. Another important point showed in the listening material is that …but the reading presents a conflicting idea that… Finally, the professor stated that ...which challenges the standpoint made by the writer who said that... In general, the professor discussed the problem\issue of …that the reading viewed in a contrary\opposing\ different angle. According to the lecture… on the other hand \while the reading stated that … These two ideas are contradictory to each other. 12、对材料的指称 The speaker\lecturer\professor\listening material\lecture\talk The writer\author\reading material\writing\passage 13、时态的运用 一般现在时态 or 一般过去时态 注意: 框架部分时态的一致性 学术内容的时态要根据上下文来确定 例如: The writing said that antibiotics are useful in that… The listening material said that antibiotics were useful.


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