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高二新人教版英语选修8课件 Unit 2 Cloning 第4课时 Using language


Ⅰ.词汇:
根据提示写出相应单词。 1 . ________(v.) 打 ; 撞 击 ; 罢 工 → ________( 过 去 式)→________(过去分词) 2 . ________(adj.) 虚 荣 的 ; 自 负 的 ; 徒 劳 的 →________(n.)自负;虚荣心;无意义 3 . ________(vt.) 抵 抗 、 对 抗 →_______

_(n.)→________(adj.)

4.________(adv.)仅;只;不过→________(adj.)
5.________(n.)装饰→________(vt.)

6.________(vt.)崇拜;爱幕;喜爱→________(n.)崇
拜者;赞美者;热爱者 7 . ________(adj.) 合 情 理 的 ; 讲 道 理 的 ; 公 道 的 →________(n.)理由;道理 8.________(n.)假定;设想→________(v.) 9.________(vi.)退休→________(n.)

答案:1.strike; struck; struck/stricken 2.vain; vainty
3 . resist; resistance; resistant 5.decoration; decorate reason 6.adore; adorer 8.assumption; assume 4.merely; mere 7.reasonable;

9.retire; retirement

Ⅱ.短语:
1.strike...________one's heart 使??刻骨铭心 2.from time________time 不时地;偶尔 3.bring back________life使复兴;使复活 4.________vain 白费力气;枉费心机 5.(be)________good/poor condition 状况良好/不好 6.owe...________... 欠??,把??归功于?? 7.(be)________to(do)...一定或注定(做)??

答案:1.into

2.to 3.to

4.in

5.in 6.to

7.bound

1.strike(v.)
1)撞;碰;撞击;碰撞 She fell, striking her head against the side of the boat. 她摔倒时头撞在船舷上。 2)打;击 One man was struck on the head with a stick. 一名男子头部遭到棍击。 3)击打,踢(球等)

He struck the ball into the back of the net.
他射出的球直入网底。

4)(想法,念头)突然想到;一下子想起;猛地意识到

An idea suddenly struck me.
我心中忽然产生了一个念头。 5)~sb(as sth)给(某人以??)印象;让(某人)觉得

How does the idea strike you?
你感觉那主意怎么样? 6)(疾病,灾难)侵袭;爆发 The area was struck/hit by an outbreak of cholera. 那一地区爆发了霍乱。 7)(钟)敲,鸣,报时 The clock struck nine. 钟敲了九下。

8)罢工
The workers were striking because they wanted more money. 工人们在罢工,因为他们要求增加工资。 9)擦,划(火柴);击出火星 The matches were damp and he couldn't make them strike. 火柴受潮了,他划不着。

【知识拓展】 1)be struck by/on/with sb/sth 被某人(或某物)打动;迷 恋某人(或某物) I was struck by her beauty. 她的美貌给我留下了深刻的印象。

2)on the strike 罢工;处于工作停顿状态的
Most of the employees were on strike. 许多雇员在罢工。

3)strike...into one's heart 使??刻骨铭心
The ghost story struck fear into the hearts of the children. 那个鬼故事使孩子们心惊肉跳。

4)It strikes me that... 我觉得??; 我的印象是??
It suddenly struck me that we ought to make a new plan. 我突然想到, 我们应该制订一个新的方案。 5)Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁 He should strike while the iron is hot. 他应该趁热打铁。

【词语辨析】
strike, hit, beat, knock 这些动词均含有“打”之意。 1)strike普通用词,多指急速或突然一次猛击。 I've struck my foot on a stone. 我把脚踢在石头上了。 2)hit普通用词,比较口语化,常与strike换用,侧重 有目标的猛击,强调用力击中。

The stone hit the window.
石头打中了窗户。

3)beat普通用词,含义广泛,指连续打击。游戏、竞
赛或战争中作 “打败”解。 The rain was beating against the window. 雨击打在窗上。 4)knock 侧重用拳头或硬物敲打。 As the man came near, the prisoner knocked him to the ground with a sharp blow. 当这个人走近时,战俘猛地一拳将他打翻在地。

【知识运用】
(1)(河南省信阳市2010届高三第二次调研考试 )Very often, it________me that I have left the key indoors when I'm about to lock the door. A.strikes C.occurs 答案:A B.reminds D.mentions 本题题意:一直以来, 我在锁门的时候才

会想起把钥匙忘在室内了。It strikes me that... 表示“我觉

得??;我的印象是??”。

(2)Audiences
opening ceremony. A.happened C.occurred 答案:D

and

critics

were________by

its

originality, vitality, and excitement of the Beijing Olympic B.reflected D.struck

本题题意:北京奥运会开幕式是那样地别

开生面,生气勃勃,激动人心,观众和评论家无不为之倾 倒。strike表示“给(某人以??)印象;让(某人)觉得”。

(3)(原创)It was a bitter sweet moment, only her family
and few close friends knew that Engrid had been ________with the cancer the year before. A.knocked C.beat 答案:B B.struck D.hurt 本题题意:这是个悲喜交加的时刻,只有

她的家人和几个亲近的朋友知道:在这前一年英格利患了 癌症。strike表示“(疾病,灾难)侵袭;爆发”。

(4)( 原 创 )Mr. Lin shook his head and sighed, but
Shousheng, on hearing these words, was suddenly ________with a bright idea. A.hit C.occurred 答案:D B.aroused D.struck 本题题意:林先生摇头叹气。 寿生听了这

话,猛的想起了一个好办法。strike表示“(想法,念头) 突 然想到;一下子想起;猛地意识到”。

(5)采用strike, hit, beat或 knock的适当形式填空:
① We played the top class at football but we couldn't________them. ②The bullet________the police officer in the shoulder. ③It suddenly________me how we could improve the situation. ④She________some nails into the wall. ⑤The silence around________fear into him.

答案:
①beat 他们。 ②hit 枪射中了警官的肩膀。 ③struck 局面。 ④knocked 她把一些钉子钉在墙上。 ⑤struck 四周的静寂使他心里很害怕。 我突然想到一个办法可以让我们改进这种 我们踢足球是一流水平, 但是我们不能战胜

2.resist(v.)
1)抵制;阻挡 They are determined to resist pressure to change the law. 他们决心顶住要求改革法律的呼声。 2)反抗;回击;抵抗 If the enemy continue to resist, wipe them out. 如果敌人继续抵抗,就把他们消灭掉。

3)(通常用于否定句)忍住;抵挡
I was unable to resist laughing. 我忍不住笑了。

4)使不受??的伤害;抗(伤害)
A healthy body resists disease. 健康的身体能抵御疾病。

【知识运用】
(1) (原创)They will be able to look for plants with the right qualities to ________new diseases and the effects of climate change. A.resist C.refuse 答案:A B.boycott D.reject 本题题意:他们可以寻找具有良好性状的

品种来抗病或应对气候的变化。resist表示“使不受??的

伤害;抗(伤害)”。

(2)(原创)He was a brilliant man but he was ahead of
his time and his theories were ________by his contemporaries. A.accepted C.rejected 答案:C B.admitted D.resisted

本题题意:他是一位杰出人才,但他的思

想很超前,因此他的理论受到了同代人的排斥。reject表示 “拒绝接受(某人/某事物)”。

(3) (原创)They looked so beautiful in the moonlight
that the soldier could not resist ________one with him for memory. A.to have taken C.taking 答案:C B.to take D.being taken 本题题意:在月光下它们显得煞是好看,

以致于士兵忍不住想摘一片回去作纪念。resist通常用于否 定句,表示“忍住;抵挡”,后接名词或动名词担任宾语。

3.reasonable(adj.)
1)~(to do sth)公平的;合理的;有理由的;明智的 No reasonable person could refuse. 凡是明事理的人都不会拒绝此事。 2)可以接受的;合乎情理的;公道的 He gave me a reasonable explanation. 他对我作了合理的解释。 3)不太贵的;公道的

Ten pounds for a good dictionary seems reasonable
enough. 花十镑买一部好词典算是够公道的了。

【词语辨析】
reasonable, sensible 这两个形容词均有“明智的,合情合理的”之意。 1)reasonable一般不十分着重推理的能力,而往往用 来表示合乎情理、公正或务实。 His conclusion certainly sounded reasonable. 他的结论听起来确实有一定的道理。 2)sensible一般指合乎常情、切合实际的行为与思想,

侧重明白事理。
It was sensible of you to lock the door. 你把门锁上了, 做得对。

【知识运用】
(1)It is________to assume that he knew beforehand that this would happen. A.practical C.reasonable 答案:C 公道的”。 B.sensible D.sensitive

本题题意:有理由认为他事先就知道会发

生这样的事。reasonable表示“可以接受的;合乎情理的;

(2)Are you________of the dangers of your position?
A.practical C.reasonable 答案:B B.sensible D.sensitive

本题题意:你觉察出你处境中的危险了吗?

be sensible of sth(=be aware of sth)表示“觉察到某事物”。

(3)( 原 创 )It is ________to believe that the disabled
cause will be increasingly recognized and supported as China's overall national strength escalates. A.reasonable C.favorable 答案:A B.potential D.practical

本题题意:有理由相信,随着中国综合国

力的逐步增强,残疾人事业将得到越来越多的重视与支持。 reasonable表示“(指情感﹑ 见解等)合情理的, 不荒谬的,

合逻辑的”。

1.from time to time 不时;有时;偶尔;间或
①I only go to the cinema from time to time. 我只是偶尔去看看电影。 ②He went fishing from time to time. 他不时去钓鱼。

【知识拓展】 1)once in a while 有时,偶尔 Theatre tickets are expensive so we only go to the theatre once in a while. 戏票很贵,所以我们只是偶尔去看一场戏。 2)at times 有时 He behaves very oddly at times, I don't think he's quite all there. 他有时很怪——我觉得他头脑不太正常。 3)now and then时而,不时地 In summer I go swimming in the Lijang River now and then. 夏天我经常到漓江去游泳。

【知识运用】
(1)We get letters from our uncle________. A.from time to time B.for some time C.at a time D.for the time being 答案:A 本题题意:我们不时收到叔叔的来信 。 from time to time表示“不时;有时;偶尔;间或”。

(2)(2006
smoking.



西

-33)

Experts

have

been

warning________of the health risks caused by passive A.at a time C.for some time 答案:C 日”。 B.at one time D.for the time

本题题意:专家告诫人们被动吸烟危害健

康已有些时日了。for some time表示“一段时间;有些时

(3)(原创)They sat about in a circle, passing the canteen
________and talking in slow indifferent voice. A.on the other hand C.on the contrary 答案:D B.for one thing D.from time to time

本题题意:他们坐成一圈,一边依次传酒,

一边懒声怠气地说些闲话。from time to time表示“不时; 有时;偶尔;间或”。

2.bring...(back)to life使复生;使苏醒
①They brought the drowned swimmer back to life. 他们使溺水的游泳者苏醒过来。 ②The doctor brought the patient to life. 医生使病人醒过来了。

【知识运用】
(1)In this story, Shakespeare was brought back to______but lived out of order in modern society. A.energy C.life 答案:C B.strength D.power 本题题意:在这个故事中,莎士比亚复活

了,但却在现代社会中处处碰壁。bring...(back)to life 表示 “使复生;使苏醒”。

(2)It was said that she was as effective as god ,
________the dying back to life. A.bringing C.carrying 答案:A B.taking D.fetching

本题题意:据说她是个妙手回春的民间医

生。bring...(back)to life表示“使复生;使苏醒”。

(3) (原创)Painters and workers had to be very careful
when they were trying to bring the city back to ________. A.appearance C.atmosphere 答案:D 使苏醒”。 B.construction D.life

本题题意:画家和工匠在努力使城市恢复

生机时必须小心认真。bring...(back) to life表示“使复生;

3.in vain 枉费心机;徒劳无益;白费力气
①They tried in vain to persuade her to go. 他们极力劝说她去,但枉费了一番口舌。 ②All our efforts were in vain. 我们所有的努力都付诸东流。

【知识运用】
(1)(2009湖北-30) His efforts to raise money for his program were________because no one showed any intention to take a cent out of their pockets. A.in place C.in effect 答案:D B.in sight D.in vain

本题题意:他为自己的项目筹款的努力付

诸东流了,因为没有人愿意掏腰包。in vain表示“枉费心

机;徒劳无益;白费力气”。

(2)We tried________to make him change his mind.
A.in public C.in vain 答案:C 气”。 B.in return D.in turn 本题题意:我们试图使他改变主意, 结果

是白费心机。in vain表示“枉费心机;徒劳无益;白费力

(3) (原创)They tried in every way they knew to bring
her back to ________, but ________. A.energy; in vain C.energy; in short 答案:B B.life; in vain D.life; in short

本题题意:他们试尽了每一种方法想使她

醒过来,但却徒劳无功。bring...(back) to life表示“使复生; 使苏醒”。in vain表示“枉费心机;徒劳无益;白费力 气”。

1.Diversity in a group means having animals with
their genes arranged in different ways. 群体的多样性是指这群动物的基因要以不同的方式排 列。 【知识剖析】 with their genes arranged in different ways 为with的 复合结构,在句中担任定语,修饰名词animals.“with+宾 语+宾语补足语”所构成的复合结构在句中可以担任定语

或状语;作状语时表示伴随情况或者原因。此外,在
“with+宾语+宾语补足语”结构中,补足语成分可以是 现在分词、过去分词、不定式,介词短语或形容词。

1)with +宾语 + 现在分词(短语)
①When mother went into the house, she found her baby was sleeping in bed, with his lips moving. 当妈妈走进房子的时候,她发现自己的孩子正睡在床 上,嘴唇一直在动。 ②My aunt lives in the room with the windows facing south. 我姑妈住在那间窗户朝南开的房间。

2)with+宾语+ 过去分词(短语)
①With more and more forests damaged , some animals and plants are facing the danger of dying out. 由于越来越多的森林遭到破坏,一些动植物正面临着 灭绝的危险。 ②With his legs broken, he had to lie in bed for a long time. 他双腿都断了,只得长时间躺在床上。

3)with+宾语+不定式(短语)
①With so many children to look after, the nurse is busy all the time. 有这么多的孩子需要照顾,保育员一直都很忙。 ②With a lot of papers to correct, Mr. Li didn't attend the party. 李老师有许多试卷需要批改,所以没有参加聚会。 ③With Li Ping to help us,I'm sure we can finish our

task.
有李平来帮助我们,我敢肯定我们一定能提前完成任 务。

4)with+宾语+副词 ①You should read with the radio off. 在看书的时候应该把收音机关掉。 ②With the temperature up, we had to open all the windows.

气温上升,我们不得不打开所有的窗户。
5)with+宾语+形容词 ①With the window open, I felt a bit cold.

窗户开着,我感到有点冷。
②It was cold outside, the boy ran into the room with his nose red. 外面天气很冷,那个男孩跑进屋子时,鼻子红红的。

6)with+宾语+介词短语
①The woman with a baby in her arms is getting on the bus. 怀里抱着婴儿的那位妇女正在上车。 ②John starts to work very clearly in the morning and goes on working until late in the afternoon with a break at midday. 约翰早上开始工作,中午稍作休息后又接着工作到下

午稍晚些时候。

【知识运用】
(1)(2010山东-29) The living room is clean and tidy, with a dining table already________for a meal to be cooked. A.laid C.to lay 答案:A B.laying D.being laid 本题题意:客厅干净、整洁,已经摆放了

准备煮饭的餐桌。本题考查with复合结构的用法。名词 table与动作lay(搁放)之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系,采用过

去分词形式,表示动作上“被动”以及时间概念上的“完
成”。

(2)( 原 创 )With
A.go on C.to go on 答案:B

the

project

________ ,

our

understanding will deepen. B.going on D.gone on 本题题意:随着项目的进行,我们的理解

也加深了。本题考查with的复合结构。动作正在发生,采 用现在分词短语担任补足语。

(3)(原创)With so much work________, we had to sit
up through the night. A.to do C.doing 答案:A B.done D.being done 本题题意:有这么多工作要做,我们不得

不彻夜不眠。本题考查with的复合结构。根据句意可知, 工作正在进行,但还没有完成,排除选项C以及选项D。此 外,动作do虽然与名词work之间存在逻辑上的“动宾”关

系,但由于句子的主语we恰好是动作do的执行者,所以不
定式采用主动形式表示被动含义。

(4)( 原 创 )Mr. Miller stood looking at the picture
______tears in his eyes. A.beyond C.across 答案:D B.through D.with 本题题意:米勒先生站着看那幅画,他的

眼眶中含着泪水。本题考查with的复合结构。

(5)( 原 创 )Doctor Manette sat down, with his eyes
looking around, and his lips________. A.trembled C.to tremble 答案:B B.trembling D.being trembled

本题题意:曼内特医生坐下,眼睛四面望

着,嘴唇发抖。本题考查with的复合结构。采用现在分词 表示一个与谓语动作同时发生的动作。注意:并列谓语通 常表示主语所发出的,在时间上存在先后顺序的一系列动

作,因此排除选项A。

(6)(原创)Fortunately, however, I took no steps, for
looking up I saw that the older man was standing in the doorway, with his eyes ________upon me. A.fixing C.to fix 答案:B B.fixed D.being fixed 本题题意:不过,幸而我还没有动,因为

我一抬头就看到那年纪大的人站在门口,虎视眈眈地盯着 我。fix sth onsb/sth 表示“集中(目光,注意力、思想等)

于??”,动作fix与所修饰的词之间存在逻辑上的“动宾”
关系,采用过去分词形式担任补足语。

2.So the chances of dinosaurs ever returning to the
earth is merely a dream! 所以说恐龙回归地球的可能性仅仅是个梦想罢了! 【知识剖析】 dinosaurs ever returning to the earth 为“动名词的复 合结构”,在句中作介词of的宾语。动名词带上自己的逻 辑主语,就构成了动名词的复合结构。其逻辑主语一般由 物主代词、名词所有格、人称代词的宾格和名词来充当。

在口语中,物主代词和名词所有格可分别由人称代词的宾
格或名词代替。在句中可以担任主语、宾语或表语。例如:

①Would you mind my/me opening the window?
我打开窗子你介意吗? ②He insisted on his son's/his son going to college. 他坚持让他儿子上大学。

【知识拓展】
1)动名词复合结构作主语或动名词本身为being时,用 “物主代词/名词所有格+v-ing.” Mary's coming late made her teacher Mr. Smith quite angry. 玛丽的迟到使她的老师史密斯先生非常生气。 2)动名词的逻辑主语为无生命的东西时,用“普通格 +v-ing.”

Is there any hope of our team winning the game?
我们的球队有获胜的希望吗?

3) 有 生 命 的 名 词 但 表 示 泛 指 意 义 , 用 “ 普 通 格 +
v-ing.” Have you ever heard of women playing football? 你听说过妇女踢足球的事吗? 4)两个以上的有生命的名词并列时,用“普通格+ v-ing.” Do you remember my brother and me coming to see you the other day?

你记得我弟弟和我前几天来看你那件事吗?

5)动名词的逻辑主语为复数名词时,用“普通格+
v-ing.” There are many reasons for animals dying out. 动物灭绝有多种原因。 6)动名词的逻辑主语被其他成分说明或修饰时 ,用 “普通格+V-ing.” Have you heard of Miss Gao, our English teacher, going to the USA?

你听说我们的英语教师高老师要去美国吗?

【知识运用】
(1)(2006 陕 西 -13)It A.accept C.to accept 答案:B is difficult to imagine his________the decision without any consideration. B.accepting D.accepted 本题题意:很难想象他竟然不假思索就接

受了这个决定。imagine 只能后接动名词(或动名词的复合 结构)作宾语,不能接不定式作补语(即:imagine sb to do

sth句式不存在)。

(2)(2004 上 海 春 -40)Victor apologized for________to
inform me of the change in the plan. A.his being not able B.him not to be able C.his not being able D.his to be not able 答案:C 本题题意:未能通知我们计划中的变更情 况,维克多向我们道歉。本题考查动名词的复合结构以及 其否定形式。介词for后面接名词或动名词作宾语;此外, 动名词的否定结构是在其前面加not.

(3)(2003 上 海 )The discovery of new evidence led
to________. A.the thief having caught B.catch the thief C.the thief being caught D.the thief to be caught 答案:C 本题题意:新证据的发现导致盗贼被警方 抓获。lead to表示“导致;通向”,to为介词,后接动名

词作宾语。此外,the thief与动作catch之间存在动宾关系,
所以动名词的复合结构采用被动式。

(4)(上海2003春-38)________the meeting himself gave
them a great deal of encouragement. A.The president will attend B.The president to attend C.The president attend D.The president's attending 答案:D 本题题意:总统亲自参加会议给了他们莫 大的鼓舞。本题考查动名词的复合结构作主语,必须采用

“名词的所有格+V-ing的形式”。

(5)(2000 上 海 春 )Our English teacher________our
buying a good English-Chinese dictionary. A.asked C.suggested 答案:C B.ordered D.required 本题题意:我们的英语老师建议我们买本

英汉双语词典。suggest doing sth表示“建议(某人)做某 事”;在本考题中,our buying为“形容词性的物主代词 +动名词”所构成的“动名词的复合结构”。

(6)What worried the child most was ________to visit
his mother in hospital. A.his being not allowed B.not allowed C.his not being allowed D.not allowed 答案:C 本题题意:使那孩子最感到焦虑的是不允 许他到医院去探望他妈妈。本题考查动名词的复合结构再

句中担任表语。此外,动名词的否定结构必须在V-ing形
式前加否定词not.


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