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Chapter One 文章开头句型


Chapter One 文章开头句型 1-1 对立法 : 先引出其他人的不同看法,然后提出自己的看 法或者偏向于某一看法 , 适用于有争议性的主题 . 例如 (e.g) [1]. When asked about....., the vast/overwhelming majority of people say that ....... But I think/view a b

it differently. [2]. When it comes to .... , some people bielive that ....... Others argue/claim that the opposite/reverse is true . There is probably some truth in both arguements/statements , but (I tend to the profer/latter ...) [3]. Now, it is commonly/generally/widely believed/held/acknowledged that .... They claim/ believe/argue that ... But I wonder/doubt whether..... 1-2 现象法 引出要 剖析的现象或者问题, 然后评论 . e.g [1]. Recently the rise in problem of/(phenomenon of) ... has cause/aroused public/popular/wide/ worldwide concern. [2]. Recently the issue of the problem of/the phenomenon of ...has been brought into focus. ( has been brouth to public attention) [3].Inflation/Corruption/Social inequality ... is yet another of the new and bitter truth we have to learn to face now/constantly. ----- To be continued !! 1-3 观点法 ----开门见 山,直接了当地提出自己对要讨论的问题的看法. e.g: [1]. Never history has the change of .. been as evident as ... Nowhere in the world/China has the issue/idea of .. benn more visible/popular than... [2]. Now people in growing/significant numbers are beginnig/coming to realize/accept/(be aware) that... [3]. Now there is a growing awareness/recognation ot the necessity to......Now people become increasingly aware/conscious of the importance of ...... [4]. Perhaps it is time to have a fresh look at the attitude/idea that....... 1-4 引用法 ----- 先引出名 人名言或者有代表性的看法, 来引出文章要展开论述的观点! e.g: [1]. "Knowledge is power." such is the remark made by Bacon.This remark has been shared by more and more people . "Education is not complete with gradulation." Such is the opnion of a great American philosopher. Now more and more people share his opnion. [2]."........." How often we hear such statements/words like thoses /this . In our own days we are used to hearing such traditional complains as this "......". 1-5 比较法 ------ 通过对过去,现在 两种不同的倾向, 观点的比较 , 引出文章要讨论的观点. e.g: [1]. For years, ...had been viewed as ... But people are taking a fresh look now. With the growing ... , people ....... . [2]. People used to think that ... (In the past, ....) But people now share this new. 1-6 故事法 ---- 先讲一个较短 的故事来引发读者的兴趣, 引出文章的主题. e.g: [1]. Once in (a newspaper) , I read of/learnt .... The phenemenon of ... has aroused public concern. [2]. I have a friend who ... Should he .... ? Such a dilemma we are often confront with in our daily life. [3]. Once upon a time , there lived a man who ... This story may be (unbelievable) , but it still has a realistic significance now. 1-8 问题法 ----- 先用讨论或解答的设问, 引出自己观点, 适用于有争 议性的话题. e.g: Should/What ...... ? Options of ... vary greatly , some ..., others ... But in my opinion , ...... . Chapter 2 文章中间主体内容句型 原因结果分析 3-1-1. 基本原因 --- 分析某事物时, 用此句型说明其基本的或者多方面的原因. e.g: [1]. Why ... ? For one thing.. For another ... [2]. The answer to this problem invovles many factors. For one thing... For another...... Still another ... [3]. A number of factors , both physical and psychological affect .... /both individual and social contribute to .... 3-1-2 另一原因 --------> 在分析了基本原因之后 , 再补充一个次要的或者更重要时用 ! e.g: [1]. Another important factor is .... [2]. ... is also responsible for the change/problem. [3]. Certainly , the ... is not the sole reason for ..... 3-1-3 后果影响 --------- 分析某事物可能造 成的后果或者带来的影响 . e.g: [1]. It will produce a profound/far-reaching effect/impact on.... [2]. In involves some serious consequence for ........ 比较对照句型 3-2-1. 两者比较 ---> 比较两事物, 要说出其一超过另一个, 或肯定一事物的优点, 也肯

定其缺点的时候用 ! e.g: [1]. The advantages gained from A are much greater than the advantages we gain from B. [2]. Indeed, A carries much weight when compared with B. [3]. There is no doubt that it has its negative effects as well as positive effects. 3-2-2 . 两 者相同/相似 ------> 比较两事物共同都有或者共同都没有的特点时用! e.g: [1]. A and B have several thing in common. They are similar in that..... [2]. A bears some sriking resemblance(s) to B. Chapter Three 文章结尾形式 2-1 结论性--------- 通过对文章前 面的讨论 ,引出或重申文章的中心思想及观点 . e.g: [1]. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that ..... [2]. In summary/In a word , it is more valuable ....... 2-2 后果性------ 揭示所讨论的问题若不解决, 将产生的严重后果. e.g: [1]. We must call for an immediate method , because the current phenomenon of ... , if allowed to proceed, will surely lead to the heavy cost of ....... [2]. Obviously , if we ignore/are blind to the problem , there is every chance that .. will be put in danger. 2-3 号召性 -------- 呼吁读者 行动起来, 采取行动或提请注意. e.g: [1]. It is time that we urged an immediate end to the undesirable tendcy of ...... [2]. It is essential thar effective measures should be taken to correct the tendency. 2-4 建议性 -------- 对所讨论的问题提出建议性的意见, 包括建议和 具体的解决问题的方法. e.g: [1]. While it cannot be solved immediately, still there are ways. The most popular is .... Another method is ... Still another one is ..... [2]. Awareness/Recognition of the problem is the first step toward the situation. 2-5 方向性的结 尾方式 ---- 其与建议性的唯一差别就是对问题解决提出总的 , 大体的方向或者指明前景 . e.g: [1]. Many solutions are being offered here , all of them make some sense, but none is adequate enough. The problem should be recognized in a wide way . [2]. There is no quick method to the issue of .., but .. might be helpful/benefical. [3]. The great challenge today is ...... There is much difficulty , but ........ 2--6 意义性的结尾方式 --------> 文章结尾的时候,从更 高的更新的角度指出所讨论的问题的重要性以及其深远的意义 ! e.g: [1]. Following these suggestions may not guarantee the success, but the pay off might be worth the effort . It will not only benefit but also benefit ..... [2]. In any case, whether it is posotive or negative, one thing is certain that it will undoubtedly ..
1. 表示原因 1)There are three reasons for this. 2)The reasons for this are as follows. 3)The reason for this is obvious. 4)The reason for this is not far to seek. 2. 5)The reason for this is that. . . 6)We have good reason to believe that. . . 例: There are three reasons for the changes that have taken place in our life.Firstly,people’s living standard has been greatly improved. Secondly, most people are well paid, and they can afford what they need or like.Last but not least,more and more people prefer to enjoy modern life. 注:如考生写第一个句子没有把握,可将其改写成两个句子。如:Great changes have taken place in our life. There are three reasons for this.这样写可以避免套用中的表达失误。 .表示好处

1)It has the following advantages. 2)It does us a lot of good. 3)It benefits us quite a lot. 4)It is beneficial to us.

5)It is of great benefit to us. 例: Books are like friends. They can help us know the world better, and they can open our minds and widen our horizons.Therefore,reading extensively is of great benefit to us.
表示坏处

1)It has more disadvantages than advantages. 2)It does us much harm. 3)It is harmfulto us. 例: However, everything divides into two. Television can also be harmful to us. It can do harm to our health and make us lazy if we spend too much time watching televi- sion. 3.4.表示重要、必要、困难、方便、可能 1)It is important(necessary,difficult,convenient, possible)for sb.to do sth. 2)We think it necessary to do sth. 3)It plays an important role in our life. 例: Computers are now being used everywhere,whether in the government,in schools or in business.Soon, computers will be found in every home,too.We have good reason to say that computers are playing an increasingly important role in our life and we have stepped into the Computer Age.
5.表示措施

1)We should take some effective measures. 2)We should try our best to overcome(conquer)the difficulties. 3)We should do our utmost in doing sth. 4)We should solve the problems that we are confronted(faced)with. 例 : The housing problem that we are confronted with is becoming more and more serious.Therefore,we must take some effective measures to solve it. 4.6.表示变化 1)Some changes have taken place in the past five years. 2)A great change will certainly be produced in the world’s communications. 3)The computer has brought about(导致) many changes in education. 例: Some changes have taken place in people’s diet in the past five years.The major reasons for these changes are not far to seek.Nowadays,more and more people are switching from grain to meat for protein,and from fruit and vegetable to milk for vitamins. 5.写作模板——辩论式议论文
模版 1

Some people believe (argue, recognize, think) that 观点 1. But other people take an opposite side. They firmly believe that 观点 2. As for me, I agree to the former/latter idea. There are a dozen of reasons behind my belief. First of all, 论据 1. More importantly, 论据 2. Most important of all, 论据 3. In summary, 总结观点. As a college student, I am supposed to 表决心. 或 From above, we can predict that 预测.
模版 2

People hold different views about X. Some people are of the opinion that 观点 1, while others point out that 观点 2. As far as I am concerned, the former/latter opinion holds more weight. For one thing, 论据 1.

For another, 论据 2. Last but not the least, 论据 3. To conclude, 总结观点. As a college student, I am supposed to 表决心. 或 From above, we can predict that 预测.
模版 3

There is no consensus [k?n'sens?s] 一致 of opinions among people about X (争论的焦点) 。 Some people are of the view that 观点 1,while others take an opposite side, firmly believing that 观点 2。As far as I am concerned, the former/latter notion(观念) is preferable in many senses. The reasons are obvious. First of all, 论据 1。 Furthermore, 论据 2。 Among all of the supporting evidences, one is the strongest. That is, 论据 3。 A natural conclusion from the above discussion is that 总结观点。 As a college student, I am supposed to 表决心. 或 From above, we can predict that 预测 6.提纲式作文
1. 对立观点式

A.有人认为 X 是好事,赞成 X, 为什么? B. 有人认为 X 是坏事, 反对 X,为什么? C.我的看法。 Some people are in favor of the idea of doing X. They point out the fact that 支持 X 的第一个原 因。They also argue that 支持 X 的另一个原因。 However, other people stand on a different ground. They consider it harmful to do X. They firmly point out that 反对 X 的第一个理由。 An example can give the details of this argument: 一个例子。 There is some truth in both arguments. But I think the advantages of X overweigh the disadvantages. In addition to the above-mentioned negative effects it might bring about, X also may X 的有一个坏处。
2. 批驳观点式

A.一个错误观点。 B. 我不同意。 Many people argue that 错误观点。By saying that, they mean 对这个观点的进一步解释。An example they have presented is that 一个例子。 (According to a survey performed by X on a group of Y, almost 80% of them 赞成这个错误观点或者受到这个错误观点的影响) 。 There might be some element of truth in these people’s belief. But if we consider it in depth, we will feel no reservation to conclude that 与错误观点相反的观点。There are a number of reasons behind my belief. (以下参照辩论文的议论文写法)。 7.3. 社会问题(现象)式 A.一个社会问题或者现象。 B. 产生的原因 C.对社会和我们生活的影响 D. 如何杜绝。 (如果是问题的话) E. 前景的预测。 Nowadays, there exists an increasingly serious social/economic/environmental problem. (X has

increasingly become a common concern of the public). According to a survey, 调查内容说明这 种现象的情况。 (或者是一个例子) 。 There are a couple of reasons booming this problem/phenomenon. 下面参照辩论式议论文的写 法。 X has caused substantial impact on the society and our daily life, which has been articulated(表 达) in the following aspects. 参照辩论式议论文的写法。 A dozen of measures are supposed to take to prevent X from bringing us more harm. 参照辩论 式议论文的写法。 Based on the above discussions, I can easily forecast that more and more people will …….. 1. According to a recent survey, four million people die each year from diseases linked to smoking.依照最近的一项调查,每年有 4,000,000 人死于与吸烟有关的疾病。 8.2. The latest surveys show that quite a few children have unpleasant associations with homework.最近的调查显示相当多的孩子对家庭作业没什么好感。 3. No invention has received more praise and abuse than Internet.没有一项发明像互联网一样同 时受到如此多的赞扬和批评。 4. People seem to fail to take into account the fact that education does not end with graduation.人们似乎忽视了教育不应该随着毕业而结束这一事实。 5. An increasing number of people are beginning to realize that education is not complete with graduation.越来越多的人开始意识到教育不能随着毕业而结束。 6. When it comes to education, the majority of people believe that education is a lifetime study.说到教育,大部分人认为其是一个终生的学习。 7. Many experts point out that physical exercise contributes directly to a person's physical fitness.许多专家指出体育锻炼直接有助于身体健康。 8. Proper measures must be taken to limit the number of foreign tourists and the great efforts should be made to protect local environment and history from the harmful effects of international tourism.应该采取适当的措施限制外国旅游者的数量,努力保护当地环境和历史不受国际旅 游业的不利影响。 9. An increasing number of experts believe that migrants will exert positive effects on construction of city. However, this opinion is now being questioned by more and more city residents, who complain that the migrants have brought many serious problems like crime and prostitution.越来越多的专家相信移民对城市的建设起到积极作用。然而,越来越多的城市居 民却怀疑这种说法,他们抱怨民工给城市带来了许多严 重的问题,像犯罪和卖淫。 10. Many city residents complain that it is so few buses in their city that they have to spend much more time waiting for a bus, which is usually crowded with a large number of passengers. 许多市民抱怨城市的公交车太少, 以至于他们要花很长时间等一辆公交车, 而车上可能已满 载乘客 11. There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extremely serious problem: the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it.无可否认, 空气污染是一个极其严重的问 题:城市当局应该采取有力措施来解决它。 12. An investigation shows that female workers tend to have a favorable attitude toward retirement.一项调查显示妇女欢迎退休。 13. A proper part-time job does not occupy students' too much time. In fact, it is unhealthy for them to spend all of time on their study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.一份适当的业余工作并不会占用学生太多的时间,事实上,把全部的时间都
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用到学习上并不健康,正如那句老话:只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻。 14. Any government, which is blind to this point, may pay a heavy price.任何政府忽视 这一点都将付出巨大的代价。 15.Nowadays, many students always go into raptures at the mere mention of the coming life of high school or college they will begin. Unfortunately, for most young people, it is not pleasant experience on their first day on campus.当前,一提到即将开始的学校生活,许多学生 都会兴高采烈。然而,对多数年轻人来说,校园刚开始的日子并不是什么愉快的经历。 16. In view of the seriousness of this problem, effective measures should be taken before things get worse.考虑到问题的严重性,在事态进一步恶化之前,必须采取有效的措施。 17. The majority of students believe that part-time job will provide them with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, which may put them in a favorable position in the future job markets.大部分学生相信业余工作会使他们有更多机会发展人际交往能力,而 这对他们未来找工作是非常有好处的。 18. It is indisputable that there are millions of people who still have a miserable life and have to face the dangers of starvation and exposure.无可争辩,现在有成千上万的人仍过着挨饿受冻 的痛苦生活。 19. Although this view is wildly held, this is little evidence that education can be obtained at any age and at any place.尽管这一观点被广泛接受, 很少有证据表明教育能够在任何地点、 任 何年龄进行。 20. No one can deny the fact that a person's education is the most important aspect of his life. 没有人能否认:教育是人生最重要的一方面。


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