标题，话题 title, topic 要点、提纲 outline 主题 : theme 定义 definition 介绍 introduction to/of 背景 : setting, background 原因：reason (for) , cause (of) ； 结果 result; outcome，consequence（后果） 异
同点 与优缺点： difference(CN) , similarity(CN) ； advantage/benefit , disadvantage ， weakness(CN), strength(CN) 功能：function 目的：purpose , aim , goal （to do sth） 观点与态度：opinion , view (on/about) , viewpoint , idea ；attitude (to/towards) 评论、评价：comment (on) , remark (on/upon) , assessment 表方式、方法：means , way of doing, way to do , method (of) ; solution (to doing), approach ( to doing sth. ); take measures/steps/action to do sth. 积极和消极：positive ,negative; optimistic(乐观), pessimistic(悲观) 建议： advice [u] , suggestion(CN) , tip(CN) 概括、总结: summary , conclusion 特点： feature , characteristic 种类：kind , type , category , 精神上与身体上：mentally ，physically 影响 : influence/impact/effect (on ) 情形 ，状况 : situation，condition 建立：build , create , establish , found 出现：appear ,occur 实现，完成：reach , realize , accomplish 必要，必需 : must /necessity 方面，项目条款：item / aspect 材料 : material(s) 知识消息：knowledge / information 日程计划 : schedule / agenda 百分比：percentage 性别 :sex 年龄 : age 满意 :satisfaction 忧虑，担忧，焦急 : concern, worry (不)熟悉 :familiar /unfamiliar 个人，个人的: individual 细节 :description , detail 文化 : culture 责任 : (take) responsibility 贡献 : (make) contributions to 重要 : value importance significance 比较 : contrast comparison 时期 : period / time 存在 : existence exist 花费 : cost / expense 人口 : population 天气 / 气候 : weather[U] / climate [C] 位置 : location/place 情节 : plot 结 尾 :ending 反对者与支持者：supporter , opponent 比较: comparison; contrast 过程 process,cause, precedure 现象 phenomenon/phenomena 因素 factor(s) 起源 origin 转换类常用句型： 1.100 years = 1 century = 10 decades 2. take advantage of = make use of make full use of= make the best/ most of… 3. parental attention = with the help / aid / assistance of parents 4. oppose the move = be oppoded to the move=be against the move = object to = disagree with 5. consider … = take … into consideration / account
6. at the beginning = at first 7. be responsible for = take/ shoulder / bear responsibility for =answer for 8. since the beginning of human evolution = throughout human history 9. Americans have been migrating south and west for decades in search of better job opportunities. = Americans have been migrating south and west for decades, seeking a better job. / searching /looking for a better job. 10. housing-related reasons = reasons related / linked/relevant to / connected with housing 11. take an active part in = take part in sth. actively=be active in 12. encourage participation in quiet activities = encourage children to participate in / take part in/ play a role in quite activities 13. be hooked on headphones = be addicted to headphones 14.valuable information = information of great value 15.understand clearly = have a clear understanding of sth. 16.affect = have an effect / influence / impact on sth. 17.matter = count = be very important = be of importance = make sense = make a difference 18. kills sb. = sth. costs sb. sth. = claim one’s life 19. make an apology = apologize to sb.=say sorry to sb. 20.be over = end = put …to an end 21.despite = in spite of 比较 although/though/while/as 22. share less than 2% = account for less than 2%= make up 23.online = on the Internet 24.learn good citizenship = learn to be good citizens 25.list the things that you are good at = list what / all you are good at 26.explain sth. = make an explanation 27.offer sth. to sb. = provide / supply sth. for sb. 28.besides = on top of = in addition to = apart from 29. be better than = be superior to 30. approve of = subscribe to = be in favor / support of = favor sth. 31.have access to = be acceptable / accessible / available to 32.stop = quit = give up 33.compensate for = make up for 34.in part = partly 35.every year = yearly = annually 36.use up = run out of (主动) 37.run out = give out = be used up (被动) 38.be accused of = be charged with 39.most of the people = the majority of the people 40.cater to /for one’s needs / demands /requirements = satisfy / meet one’s …. 41.starve to death = die of hunger/ starvation 42.be tired out = be worn out = be exhausted = be weary=be burnt out
43.socially responsible = social responsibility 44.sth. benefit sb. = be beneficial to sb. = be of benefit to = sb. benefit from sth . 45.commit oneself to doing sth. = promise to do sth.
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