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高考英语专题复习《阅读理解专题——猜测词义》


2011年高考大纲中关于阅读理解的要求 年高考大纲中关于阅读理解的要求
要求考生读懂熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简 短文字材料,例如公告、说明、广告以及书、 短文字材料,例如公告、说明、广告以及书、报、 杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章。考生应能: 杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章。考生应能: 理解主旨要义; 1、理解主旨要义; 理解文中具体信息; 2、理解文中具体信息; 根据上下文推断生词的词义; 3、根据上下文推断生词的词义; 作出简单判断和理解; 4、作出简单判断和理解; 理解文章的基本结构; 5、理解文章的基本结构; 理解作者的意图和态度。 6、理解作者的意图和态度

猜测词义 读懂文章
---------高三英语阅读指导(阅读篇) 高三英语阅读指导(阅读篇) 高三英语阅读指导

词义猜测题常用的提问方式有: 词义猜测题常用的提问方式有:
1. The word “…” refers to / probably means / could best be replaced by _______. 2.The word “…” is most likely to mean____. 3. What do you think the expression “…” stands for? 4. The underlined word “…” means ______. 5. By saying “…”, the writer means ______. ......

构词法 Word formation

猜测词意

语境法 Context clues

Word Formation 构词法:
英语单词大多是由词根、词头(前缀) 英语单词大多是由词根、词头(前缀) 和词尾(后缀)所组成。 和词尾(后缀)所组成。词根是单词最基本 的部分,表达单词的基本含义。 的部分,表达单词的基本含义。在词根前或 后加上前缀或后缀, 后加上前缀或后缀,可以用来引申或转变原 词的意义。只要我们掌握了各种词根、 词的意义。只要我们掌握了各种词根、词头 和词尾的基本含义, 和词尾的基本含义,那么就可以很容易猜测 出由其构成的新词的含义了。 出由其构成的新词的含义了。

中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀有: 中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀有: super- (超,超级 mini超 超级) micro- (极微小的) re极微小的) mis- (误,恶) im(不,非) inunnon- (不,无)-able -less (不,无) -wards

(极小的 微小的 极小的, 微小的) 极小的 反复) (再,反复) (不) (不,非) ( 能…的 ) 的 (向) 向

Can you guess the right meanings?
supernatural microwave 超自然的 (微波) 微波 nonnon-renewable mispronounce 不能更新的, 不能更新的,不可再生的 (发错音 发错音) 发错音 hopeless nonsmoker 没有希望的, 没有希望的,无望的 (非烟民 非烟民) regain eastwards 重新获得, 重新获得, (向东 向东) 向东 恢复(能力或品质) 恢复(能力或品质)

(复合法,转化法,派生法) 复合法,转化法,派生法) 1. (05重庆卷) It’s true that light house (05重庆卷) were built in out-of-the-way place. out-of-the合成形容词)偏远的, (合成形容词)偏远的,偏僻的 2. When men and women lived by hunting 50,000 years ago, how could they even begin to picture modern life? 词性变化) 描绘, (词性变化)v. 描绘,描述 3. When he reached the place with his army, he found an impassable river in front of him. 词的派生)adj.不能通行的 (词的派生)adj.不能通行的

WordWord-formation

1. 定义描述 语 境 法 猜 测 词 义 2. 同义反义 3. 因果关系 4.举例归纳 4.举例归纳 5.生活常识 5.生活常识 6.上下推断 6.上下推断

Ex.

1、定义描述 、

◎A person who is skilled at making or repairing wooden objects is called a carpenter. carpenter 木匠 zoologist, ◎His uncle is a zoologist an expert who does research on animals. 动物学家 herdsman, ◎The herdsman who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year. 牧人 ◎We are on the night shift — from 夜班 midnight to 8 a.m.this week.

In some countries where there is very little rain, the farmers have to irrigate or irrigate, water, their fields. 灌溉 All whales fall into two groups, those with teeth and those without, Dolphins belong to odontoceti, odontoceti that is to say, they are toothed whales. 有牙齿的 It will be very hard but very brittle — that is , it will break easily. (adj. 易碎的 脆的 易碎的, 脆的)





定义或释义关系常由定语从句或 be called,be known as, be defined as , 等词汇或破折号来表示 ; 或由is, 或由 that is (to say), in other words, , to put it another way, i.e .引出 一些具体的解释性的短语放在生词后 做它的同位语,用逗号隔开, 做它的同位语,用逗号隔开,构成同 位关系。 位关系。

2.同义词 同义词
Cleaning up waterways is an enormous task .The job is so large, in fact, that the government may not be able to save some of the rivers and lakes which have been polluted. .

(adj. 巨大的;极大的) 巨大的;极大的 极大的)

Mother was tall, fat and middle-aged. My aunt was an old woman, almost as plump as mother, and much shorter.

丰腴的, 丰腴的,胖的

反义词 Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. grubby 污秽的, 污秽的,肮脏的 John usually wastes a lot of money on such useless things, his wife, however, is very thrifty thrifty. 节约的

Ex. ◎In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil 混乱 turmoil. dissent, ◎If you agree, write “ yes”; if you dissent write “no”. 不同意 先天的, 先天的,天生的 ◎Some human actions are learned, but quite a few other actions are innate innate. ◎Although a large number of people considered him to have stolen the money, I was sure that he was innocent of the theft. 无辜的





由and或or, like ,as …as, the 或 , same as等连接的两个词构成同义 等连接的两个词构成同义 关系; 关系; 表转折关系的词常有如 表转折关系的词常有如but, while, however, instead of , rather than , unlike, yet, otherwise, though ,on the contrary等。 等

3、因果关系 、 Rubber can be made to stretch more than nine times its normal elastic. length because it is very elastic
有弹性的

The river is so turbid that it is impossible to see the bottom even when it is shallow. 混浊的

Ex. ◎Since I could not afford to purchase the original painting, I bought a replica An replica. inexperienced eye could not tell the difference. 复制品 ◎He’s such a shrewd businessman that he loses no money in any trade. 精明的 ◎She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 修剪

? (06陕西卷) The homeless people (06陕西卷 陕西卷) may have become jobless and then been unable to pay their rent and so no longer have a roof over their heads. ? In paragraph 2, “ a roof over their heads” most probably means ______. ? A. a cap B. a car ? C. a home D. a covering





常用关联词( ,as,since, 常用关联词(如 because ,as,since, for,so,thus, result, for,so,thus,as a result, so … that, such … that , 表示前因后果。 therefore 等)表示前因后果。

4、举例归纳法 、

Cars must have certain safety devices such as seat belt, headlights, and good brakes.

装置
On the farm they mainly raise poultry such poultry, as chickens, ducks and geese, for their eggs and meat. 家禽

The new couple bought a lot of household appliances , such as washing machine, fridge and microwave oven ect.

家电
Difined most broadly, folklore includes all the customes, belief and tradition that people have handed dowm from generation to generation.

民俗





常用such as, like, for example, 常用 , for instance等引出例子,可根据例 等引出例子, 等引出例子 子隶属的类别归纳出总称词即词义 。

5、生活经验, 生活常识 逻辑推理 、生活经验 生活常识,
When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an anaesthetic to make him unconscious, because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him.

麻药

When you throw a stone into still water of a lake, you will watch a ripple spread in rings on the surface of water. 波纹 Metal expands when heated and contracts when cooled. 膨胀 缩小

猜词能力

The old man put on his spectacles and began to read. . 眼镜 The door was so low that I hit the head on the lintel. . (门窗的)过梁 门窗的)

Ex. ◎One of symptoms caused by the peculiar(怪异的) illness is a high fever. (怪异的) 症状 ◎Because this chemical liquid is highly volatile, we must keep it in a bottle which has a tight lid. 易挥发的 ◎In the strong wind, the beggar shivered with the terrible cold. 颤抖

? (05 福建卷) Rainforests like the 福建卷) Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming. ? The phrase “ mopping up” in the paragraph means______. ? A. cleaning up 清扫,清理 清扫, ? B. taking in 吸收 ? C. wiping out 彻底消灭,全部摧毁 彻底消灭, ? D. giving out 分发, 分发,被用完





根据自身的直接或间接的经验, 根据自身的直接或间接的经验,或运用自 己已有的常识将生词推测出来。 己已有的常识将生词推测出来。 因此平时 多了解英美国家的风俗习惯,宗教信仰, 多了解英美国家的风俗习惯,宗教信仰, 社会生活等,可以帮助加深对文章的理解, 社会生活等,可以帮助加深对文章的理解, 遇到生词,猜测词义的能力自然就提高了。 遇到生词,猜测词义的能力自然就提高了。

6.根据生词所在的上下文猜测词义 6.根据生词所在的上下文猜测词义
例题: 例题: Tom can’t find his sneakers. A. money B. bowls C. shoes Tom can’t find his white sneakers. . Tom can’t play tennis now because he can’t find his white sneakers.

l)Jane is usually prompt. ) A.late B.on time C.pleased . . . Jane is usually prompt for her classes. Jane is usually prompt for all her classes, but she arrived in the middle of her first class. adj.敏捷的 迅速的 即时的 敏捷的, 迅速的, 即时的adv.准时地 敏捷的 准时地

2)Tom saw an owl last night. A.a bird B.an animal C.the sun Tom saw an owl in a tree last night. . Tom saw an owl last night but it flew away when he got near. .

猫头鹰

The ashes of the Great Wall are falling down. I think the Great wall is now like an 80 years old man. In some places it is still standing, but really unless there is some good medicine, most of it won’t be standing in the next fifty or one hundred years. A. If people don’t take medicine, the Great Wall will fall down. B. The Great Wall is like an 80 year-old man, who needs medical care. C. We must take some measures to protect the Great Wall, or most of the Great Wall will break down in 50 or 100 years D. The Great Wall is falling down, and it will disappear in the future.





所谓“词不离句,句不离章“ 所谓“词不离句,句不离章“讲的就是对 于词语或句子的正确理解依赖于一定的情 所以在猜测生词词义或句意时, 景。所以在猜测生词词义或句意时, 一 定要认真读懂与生词密切相关的前后句子, 定要认真读懂与生词密切相关的前后句子, 对词或句子进行合情合理的推测, 对词或句子进行合情合理的推测,排除肤 浅的表义,选择蕴含在其中的深意。 浅的表义,选择蕴含在其中的深意。

InquiryInquiry-based Activities (I)

探究活动 (1)

1. There are some glaciers moving down the mountain valleys. A glacier is a river of ice. A. 雪山 B. 树枝 C. 冰河 D. 冰

小试身手

2. He is a resolute man. Once he made up his mind to do something, he won’t give it up halfway. A. weak B. firm C. kind D. clever

3. Mr. Brown is now working at Princeton University far away from home. For this reason he has to rent a room near the office where he works. A. 租用 B. 借出 C. 购买 D. 参观

4. The official asked the man what his occupation was. The man told him that he worked as an engineer. A. work B. study C. name D. interest

5. The old woman has a strange habit to keep over 100 cats in her house. Her neighbor all call her an eccentric lady. A. 爱猫的 B. 古怪的 C. 闲不住 D. 动物保护主义者 6. In many countries there are two financial extremes, from penury to great wealth. A. 便士 B. 温饱 C. 非常贫困 D. 虚弱

7. Mrs. Smith is loquacious while her husband is the silent type. A. 活泼的 B. 好动的 C. 多嘴多舌的 D. 可爱的 8. Those new comers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city. A. town B. capital C. countryside D. house 9. This boy is not stupid, on the contrary, no one could be more intelligent. intelligent. A. 勤奋的 B. 愚蠢的 C. 聪明的 D. 情报

10. Children are always boasting. They say things like “My Dad’s car is bigger than your Dad’s,” “My Mom is smarter than ” yours.” and “My family has more money than yours.” The word “boasting” means _____. “boasting”
A. 骄傲 B. 吹牛 C. 顽皮 D. 幼稚

InquiryInquiry-based Activities (II)

探究活动 (2)

Passage 1 Tens of thousands of baby penguins face starvation after two giant icebergs broke off the Antarctic ice sheet and blocked their parents’ road to the feeding areas. Adeline and emperor penguins nesting on the Ross island rookeries are now forced to walk long distances over the icebergs to obtain food for their chicks, born during the November-December breeding season. What does the underlined word “obtain” probably mean? A. eat B. get C. sell D. buy B

Passage 2 A man’s position among the black-tent people depends on his ancestors, relatives, and fellow tribesmen. If they are honored, he is also honored. If they are disgraced, he too is disgraced. Therefore one carefully guards the honor of his family, his lineage(宗系 and his tribe. 宗系), 宗系 The word “disgrace” means _________ in this text. A. honor B. endanger C. proud D. shame D

Passage 3 The ruler had been so cruel and dishonest that after the revolution he was banished. A few members of the Senate(参议院 opposed this 参议院) 参议院 decision, but the majority voted that the ruler should leave the country for ever. The underlined word “banished” mean_______. “banished” B A. killed by stoning B. sent away C. imprisoned D. punished by whipping

Passage 4 My first job was to drive the oxen that ploughed the cane fields. I would walk behind an ox, guiding him with a broomstick. For $ 1 a day, I worked eight hours straight, with no food breaks. It was very tedious work, but it prepared me for life and taught me many lasting lessons. Because the plantation owners were always watching us, I had to be on time every day and work as hard as I could. What does the underlined word “tedious” probably “tedious” mean? A. interesting B tiresome C. relaxing D. challenging B.

Passage 5 Although he often had the chance, Mr. Brown was never able to steal money from a customer. This would endangered his position at the bank, and he did not want to jeopardize his future. The word “jeopardize” means _____ in this text. “jeopardize” A. protect B endanger C. continue D. stop B.

Passage 6 After a four-year relationship with a major fortune 100 company beginning as a sales trainee and ending as a regional sales manager, I left the company at the height of my career. Many people were astounded that I would leave after earning a six-figure income. And they asked why I would risk everything for a dream. The underlined word “astounded” means ____. “astounded” A. very sad B. very sorry D greatly surprised C. very pleased D.

Passage 7
? The biggest finding in brain research in the last ten years is that the brain at any age is highly plastic. If you ask your brain to learn, it will learn.(07四川卷) ? By saying “the brain at any age is highly plastic”, the writer means the brain can be _____. A.used B. mastered C. developed D. researched

Enjoy English, Enjoy life! Bye-bye!


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