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连词that(不可省略), whether;连 接代词who,whom,whose, whoever,

what,whatever和which;连接副词 when, where, how和why。

? ? ? ? 1. 要使用陈述语

序 2. that 不可省略 3. 根据意思选择恰当的连接词。 4. 主语从句做主语,表语从句做表语,位 于系动词后。


1) 由what等代词引起的主语从句:
What the teacher said today was

quite right.

2) 由连词that引起的主语从句:

That they are badly in need of help is quite clear.
他们急需帮助,这是十分明显的。 但是这类句子在大多数情况下会放到整 个句子的后部去,而用代词it作形式主语。

3) 由连接代词或连接副词以及whether引起的主语从

Whether they will sell the house is not yet decided. 他们是否卖掉这所房子还没有决定。

4) whatever, whoever也可引导主语从句。
Whatever was said here must be kept secret.

Whoever makes mistakes must correct them. 凡犯了错误的人都必须改正。

注意: 有时为了使句子结构平衡, 避免

“头重脚轻”, 常用 it 作形式主语, 而
把从句放在后面。 例如:

It is a pity that she has made
such a mistake.
她犯了这样一个错误, 真是遗憾。


1) It is + adj. / n. +从句 It is a pity/shame that... 遗憾的是…… It is possible that... 很可能…… It is unlikely that... 不可能…… 2) It +不及物动词+从句 It seems/appears that... 似乎…… It happened that... 碰巧……

3) It + be +过去分词+从句 It is said that... 据说…… It is known to all that...

It is reported that... 据报道…… It is believed that...

It is suggested that... 有人建议……

1. _____ you don’t like him is none of my That business. 2. _____ he said at the meeting astonished What everybody present. 3. ________ the 2000 Olympic Games will Whether be held in Beijing is not known yet. 4. ________ we’ll go camping tomorrow Whether depends on the weather. 5. ________ leaves the room last ought to Whoever turn off the lights.

Exercise 1. After Yang Liwei succeeded in circling the earth, ___ our astronauts desire to do is walk in space. A. where B. what C. that D. how
解析: what 引导主语从句,在从句中 做do 的宾语

2. ___ the 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet. A. Whenever B. If C. Whether D. That
答案是C。“2000年奥林匹克运动会是否在北 京举行还不知道。” whether可置于句首引导 主语从句,而if不能。

4. ___ leaves the room last ought to turn off the light. [高考真题] A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D. Who
答案是C。“谁最后离开房间应关灯。”whoever 意为“无论谁”, 引导主语从句, 并在从句中作主语。 若选A或B, anyone或the person 后应用who, 使其成 为由who引导的定语从句, 修饰anyone 或person. 注:这些词还可引导副词性从句。


Lyne is an excellent student.

主语 连系动词


Ⅰ. Definition(定义)
表语是用来说明主语的身份、性质、品 性、特征和状态的,表语常由名词、代 词、数词、动词过去分词、动词的-ing 形式、副词、介词短语、形容词、不定 式和从句等来充当。

Eg. (例子)
① The person stood in front of you just now is my headmaster. 名词充当表语 刚才站在你前面的那个人是我的校长。 ② I didn’t know that it was you at that time. 代词充当表语

③ The door remained closed. 门仍然关着。 ④ Mary’s daily job is cleaning the house. 动词- ing形式充 玛丽的日常工作就是打扫这间房子。



⑤ The house is not only large but also beautiful.
这所房子不仅大而且漂亮。 当我到你家的时候,你不在家。 ⑦ No one was in the dorm, when she arrived. 介词短语充当


⑥ When I went to your house, you were out. 副词充当表语

⑧ My job is to teach you English. 我的工作是教你们英语。

表语 不定式充当表语

⑨ The reason why he came late was that his clock didn’t work. 他迟到的原因是他的闹钟坏了。


Ⅱ. Position (位置)
表语常位于系动词(be等词)之后,与主 语共同构成主--系--表结构 (SubjectPredicative structure) 的句子。

Ⅲ. Linking Verbs (连系动词)
除动词be以外,还有一些后面可接表 语的特殊连系动词,如:look, smell,

taste, sound, feel, fall, come, go(变 成…), become, grow(渐渐地变 化), turn(变成,一般用于颜色), appear, seem, get, keep, remain, stay等。

Ⅳ. Notes
1. 上面提到的动词,不总是用作连系动词。 2. 代词充当表语时,通常用代词的宾格形式。 3. 选择时,区分该用动词过去分词、动词-ing形式还是动词 的不定式充当表语:主语是动作的发出者,并且动作在 持续进行时,用动词-ing形式;主语是承受者时,用动 词过去分词;而当动作是主语要执行的多用不定式。 Eg. She remained


there for a good hour, which

surprised everyone.


A. to stand B. stand C. stood D. standing

Ⅴ. The Predicative Clause(表语从句)
由一个句子充当句子的表语, 这个充当表 语的句子就叫做表语从句。表语从句和主 语指同一内容,它对主语进行解释,是主 语的内容具体化。相当于一个名词。

1. 从属连词: that, whether (是否)引导从句。

Eg. The trouble is that he has never done the work before. 麻烦在于他以前从未做过这样的工作。 The question is whether we should ask them for help. 问题在于我们是否应当向他们求助。

2. 连接代词: who, whom, whose, which, what 等引导从句。 Eg. Guilin is not what it used to be. 桂林已不再是从前的样子。 What she wants to know is which dress she should buy. 她想知道的是该买哪条裙子。

3. 连接副词:when, where, why, how 引导从句时,它 们本身有词义,既起连接从句的作用,又在从句中 充当状语成分,修饰谓语动词。 Eg. That is where Lu Xun used to live. 那里是鲁迅曾经居住的地方。 That is why he didn’t pass the exam. 那是他没有通过考试的原因。

4. 用because,as ,as if /as though 引导,如: Eg. It looks as if it were going to rain. 看起来要下雨了。 It‘s just because he doesn’t know her. 这是仅仅因 为他不认识她。 Things are not always as they seem to be. 事物并 不总是如其表象。 He looks as though he‘s tired. 他好像累了。

5. 表语从句两大要素:

?除that外的所有引导词都有自己 的意义。 ?除that, whether 外的所有引导词 都必须在从句中充当相应的成分。

Exercises 1. —Who is knocking at the door? —It’s C __. A. I B. this C. me D. my 2. He is an old man who looks B __. A. health B. friendly C. friend D. pleasantly 3. They got so D at the good news that they __ burst into cheers. A. excite B. exciting C. excitedly D. excited

4. It is believed that if a book is ___, it will surely D ___the readers. A.interested; interest B. interesting; be interested C. interested; be interesting D. interesting; interest D 5. Go and get your coat. It’s ___ you left it. A.where there B. there where C. there D. where 6. He walked up to the bed, in front of which ___two B strange cases. A. was B. were C. are D. had been D 7. 1. The question is ________ we will have our sports meet next week. A. that B. if C. when D. whether


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