Unit 1 John Snow was a famous doctor in London —— so expert, indeed, that he attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician. But he became inspired when he thought about helpi
ng ordinary people exposed to cholera. This was the deadly disease of its day. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. John Snow wanted to face the challenge and solve this problem. He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found. John Snow suspected that the second theory was correct but he needed evidence. So when another outbreak hit London in 1854, he was ready to begin his enquiry. As the disease spread quickly through poor neighbourhoods, he began to gather information. In two particular streets, the cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people died in ten days. He was determined to find out why. Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused. Although he had tried to ignore them, all his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. They believed God had made the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre of the solar system. Unit 2 First there was England. Wales was linked to it in the thirteenth century. Now then people refer to England you find Wales included as well. Next England and Wales were joined to Scotland in the seventeenth century and the name was changed to “Great Britain”. Happily this was accomplished without conflict when King James of Scotland became King of England and Wales as well. Finally the English government tried in the early twentieth century to form the United Kingdom by getting Ireland connected in the same peaceful way. However, the southern part of Ireland was unwilling and broke away to form its own government. So only Northern Ireland joined with England, Wales and Scotland to become the United Kingdom and this was shown to the world in a new flag called the Union Jack. Worried about the time available, Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London. Her first delight was going to the Tower. It was built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066. Fancy! This solid stone, square tower had remained standing for one thousand years. Although the buildings had expanded around it, it remained part of a royal palace and prison combined. To her great surprise, Zhang Pingyu found the Queen’s jewels guarded by special royal soldiers who, on special occasions, still wore the four-hundred-year-old uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth I. Unit 3 I still cannot believe that I am taking up this prize that I won last year. I have to remind myself constantly that I am really in AD 3008. Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days. As a result, I suffered from “time lag”. This is similar to the “jet lag” you get from flying, but it seems you keep getting flashbacks from your previous time period. So I was very nervous and uncertain at first. However, my friend and guide, Wang Ping, was very understanding and gave me some green tablets which helped a lot. Well-known for their expertise, his parents’ company, called “Future Tours”, transported me safely into the future in a time capsule. At first my new surroundings were difficult to tolerate. The air seemed thin, as though its combination of gases had little oxygen left. Hit by a lack of fresh air, my head ached. Just as I tried to make the necessary
adjustment to this new situation, Wang Ping appeared. “Put on this mask,” he advised. “It’ll make you feel much better.” He handed it to me and immediately hurried me through to a small room nearby for a rest. I felt better in no time. Soon I was back on my feet again and following him to collect a hovering carriage driven by computer. These carriages float above the ground and by bending or pressing down in your seat, you can move swiftly. Wang Ping fastened my safety belt and showed me how to use it. Soon I could fly as fast as him. However, I lost sight of Wang Ping when we reached what looked like a large market because of too many carriages flying by in all directions. He was swept up into the centre of them. Just at that moment I had a “time lag” flashback and saw the area again as it had been in the year AD 2008. I reali zed that I had been transported into the future of what was still my hometown! Then I caught sight of Wang Ping again and flew after him. Unit 4 what do I need to remember when I go out to cover a story? You need to be curious. Only if you ask many different questions will you acquire all the information you need to know. We say a good journalist must have a good “nose” for a story. That means you must be able to assess when people are not telling the whole truth and then try to discover it. They must use research to inform themselves of the missing parts of the story.Well, you have to listen for detailed facts. Meanwhile you have to prepare the next question depending on what the person says. But how can I listen carefully while taking notes?That is a trick of the trade. If the interviewee agrees, you can use a recorder to get the facts straight. It’s also useful if a person wants to challenge you. You have the evidence to support your story.I see! Have your ever had a case where someone accused your journalists of getting the wrong end of the stick?Yes, but it was a long time ago. This is how the story goes. A footballer was accused of taking money for deliberately not scoring goals so as to let the other team win. We went to interview him. He denied taking money but we were skeptical. So we arranged an interview between the footballer and the man supposed to bribe him. When we saw them together we guessed from the footballer’s body language that he was not telling the truth. So we wrote an article suggesting he was guilty. It was a dilemma because the footballer could have demanded damages if we were wrong. He tried to stop us publishing it but later we were proved right. Unit5 1 Remove clothing using scissors if necessary unless it is stuck to the burn. Take off other clothing and jewellery near the burn. 2 Cool burns immediately with cool but not icy water. It is best to place burns under gently running water for about 10 minutes. (The cool water stops the burning process, prevents the pain becoming unbearable and reduces swelling.) Do not put cold water on third degree burns. 3 For first degree burns, keep cloths cool by putting them back in a basin of cold water, squeezing them out and placing them on the burned area over and over again for about an hour until the pain is not so bad. 4 Dry the burned area gently. Do not rub, as this may break any blisters and the wound may get infected. 5 Cover the burned area with a dry, clean bandage that will not stick to the skin. Hold the bandage in place with tape. Never put butter, oil or ointment on burns as they keep the heat in the wounds and may cause infection. 6 If burns are on arms or legs, keep them higher than the heart, if possible. If burns are on the face, the victim should sit up. 7 If the injuries are second or third degree burns, it is vital to get the victim to the doctor or hospital at once.
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