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论文第二稿新


大理学院毕业设计(论文)

初中英语复习课的实效性策略探究
A Research into the Effective Strategies of Middle School English Review Courses

学 专

院: 业:

外国语学院 英语专业 10 级 2 班 2012523101 杨云洪

年级班级: 学生学号: 学生姓名: 指导教师: 起止日期:

制表日期:

A Research into the Effective Strategies of Middle School English Review Courses

Yang Yunhong

English 2010-1
(Lecturer) November12,2012 ,





随着新课改的深入贯彻,在面临新教材内容增多、教学要求提高和课堂时间 越来越少的情况下, 如何改革传统的初中英语复习课模式已成为初中英语教师的 当务之急。 本选题从初中英语复习课的意义和类别出发,对初中英语教师在上初 中英语复习课时应遵循的相关原则进行逐一剖析, 并提出提高初中英语复习课实 效性的策略, 以期为初中英语教师达到预期的教学效果、 提高整个教育教学质量、 提高学生对英语的综合运用能力提供借鉴和参考。

关键词:初中英语; 复习课;时效性;策略

Abstract
As the new curriculum reform has been carried out thoroughly, how to reform traditional modles of review courses has now become an ungent affair for middle school English teachers. This paper sets out from the significance and categories of middle school English review courses, analyses the current situation of middle school English review courses, and probes into the principles followed in middle school English review courses. Some strategies are put forward to improve the effectiveness of middle school English review courses. The purpose is to help achieve the desired teaching effect for middle school English teachers to improve students' abilities of comprehensive application.

Key words: middle school English; review courses; effectiveness; strategies

Contents
Introduction……………………………………………………..…………….. 1. Categories and significance of review courses…...............................
1.1 Categories of review courses …………………………………. ……….. 1.2 Significance of review coursses ..……………………………………….. 1.2.1 Help Students learn knowledge and skills……………...………... 1.2.2 Help Students review the learned knowledge and abilities….…. 1.2.3 Help Students develop good study habits……………………….. 2. Analysis of the current methods used in review courses………… 2.1 Knowledge and syntax model……………………………………………. .. 2.2 Practice and integration model….………………………………………. 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 12

3.Principles followed in the review courses…………………………….
3.1 Making plans and setting targets……………………………………....... 3.2 Being systematic and comprehensive………………………………..….. 3.3 Being interesting and instructive…………………………………………. … 3.4 Being able to consolidate and improve…………………………………..

4. Strategies to improve effectiveness………………………………... ….. …..
4.1 Being intensely close to curriculums and teaching materials…………. …. 4.2 Making Scientific analysis and reasonable arrangements……………… …….. 4.3 Repeating and alternating review materials…………………………….. …4.4 Grasping the depth of contents…………………………………………… 4.5 Using modern audio-visual means……………………………………….. 4.6 Helping students find a good learning method………………………….. …… 4.7 Concerning Nonintellectual factors………………………………………

4.8 Establishing good feedback channels ….…………………………………. 13

Conclusion ………………………………………….…………………………. Note…………………………………………………………………… Bibliography………………………………………….……………. ………… Acknowledgements…………………………………………. ……………….

13 14 15 16

Introduction
In the reform of the new curriculum and high school entrance examination, middle school English teaching is facing great challenges. With the class size increased and the teaching time decreased, how to improve English review courses’ efficiency has become an important topic which waits for us to explore. Whether middle school English teachers use effective, appropriate, and reasonable review methods or not has a great effect on students' abilities of the English comprehensive application. As English teachers, their work is to guide, enlighten and focus on transformation. So teachers should use suitable review strategies, truly reflect the students’ dominant position and inspire students' interest, confidence, happiness, and a sense of accomplishment. This article discusses how to improve the effectiveness of middle school English review courses.

1. The categories and significance of middle school English review Courses
1.1Categories of review courses Middle school English review courses can be divided into many forms, such as unit review, midterm review and final review, etc. According to the content of the review, it can be divided into specific review courses and comprehensive review courses. Teachers should make clear its categories in middle school English review courses , which are helpful for teachers to organize review materials, improve review efficiency in the limited time, and it is also beneficial for teachers to grasp the depth, breadth and density of the contents.Therefore, the preparatory work of teachers is to clearly recognize the categories of middle school English review courses.

1.2 Significance of review courses 1.2.1 Helping students review the learned knowledge and skills Reviewing what have been learned and understanding what is going to be learnt is an effective means to acquire knowledge and skills. According to this concept of
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education, we can know the meanings of middle school English review courses from two aspects. First of all, as for teachers, good review courses play an important role to help students learn knowledge and skills. However, as for students, whether they could review and explore what they have learned in time after class plays a key role in mastering the learned knowledge and skills. So it’s helpful for students to put learned knowledge into practical activities, thus truly coming to the unification of practice and theory.

1.2.2 Help Students review the learned knowledge and abilities Teacher is a guide who trains students' comprehensive abilities.They should adopt many different methods to cultivate students' comprehensive abilities. So helping Students review the learned knowledge and abilities also has an effect on middle school English courses. Firstly, teachers should let students' main positions truly be embodied in the review courses, and leave time for students to think, so that teachers could train their quick thinking ability, cultivate a sense of language. Secondly, learning English and learning other subjects have great similarities and it needs students to learn to organize and generalize what they have learned so as to form a good knowledge structure or knowledge system. In addition to the teachers’ systematic and comprehensive review programs, students also try to make their knonwledge comprehensive and integrated. For example, students learn to organize their errors and mistakes so as to consolidate the grammatical points in time.Sometimes after the review courses, teachers are not very careful about the mistakes that students have made. Many students think they have listened to the same knonwledge point for many times, but after a period of time, they are confused why they commit the same mistake again. To overcome this problem, teachers always require students to prepare a notebook for correcting their errors and mistakes.Then, how to guide students to take the notes about correcting errors? Teachers consciously make students aware of which errors are the purely memory problems,which belong to the comprehension questions, which are due to the psychological stress caused by the examination, then students could make a classification.At the same time, teachers remind students not to copy the corrected
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errors again, but make a careful analysis of the subjects, and try to find some similar exercises to strengthen the understanding and memories. Lastly, teachers encourage students to interact and exchange their correction notes to enlighten and learn from each other. 1.2.3 Helping students develop good study habits Good study habits are one of the aims teachers want their students to develop to achieve excellent academic performances.Teachers regard review courses as one of the main ways to cultivate students' good learning habits. Firstly, teachers give students arranged tasks before the review. Preview not only helps cultivate students' abilities of autonomic learning and independent thinking, but also helps students to form good study habits. Secondly, class efficiency determines the extent of understanding, mastering and absorbing the content of review courses. Finally, timely review is also an important part in students' good learning habits. In this process, of course, teachers pay attention to the students’ psychological characteristics, understand their learning habits, and give them positive encouragement and guidance. The guidance on the method is directly related to the effectiveness of the review. For example, students feel difficult for the learning of the English words, as words are difficult to be remembered and the forgetting rate is high. Teachers ask students not to memory words through rote learning, but firstly make efforts from the sound, form, class and meaning, then from their usage in the sentence and article so that students can remember firmly, overcome the wrong ways to memory words only from the form, meaning without concerning the sound and class. Learning English words are the basis of reading, while reading and reciting are the good ways to remember the words. So they are complementary to each other, students do not neglect the one or another.For the choice and cloze, the methods of exclusion, syntax analysis and the judgment to sentence meaning are available for students. For the reading comprehension, students can firstly look at the questions to know the purpose, and then search for the answer or related information from the text, lastly carefully judge each of them. The students who know how to study are the masters of learning, they can arrange the learning time, set their goals, make plans, and adjust learning states. Teachers help students develop different learning methods according to different learning individuals. Cultivation of execellent review competence is

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far-reaching for the student's life-long learning. Therefore, teachers could make appropriate guidance according to specific circumstances in the review courses.

2. Analysis of the current methods used in review courses
2.1 Knowledge and syntax model How to improve the effectiveness of middle school English review courses has been the subject of a lot of English teachers’ study. For knowledge and syntax review model, teachers always stand on the platform with continuous speaking, and students are always kept quiet to listen to the teacher. Students passively memorize words , dialogues, texts and grammar rules according to the teachers’ memory in the review courses.Teachers always use the method of "spoon-fed" to review the contents lacking in diversity and novelty. Moreover without knowledge broadened and deepened.This kind of teaching method makes students to lose confidence, enthusiasm, initiative and interest in the review courses.Certainly the atmosphere of the classroom is so tiresome that students feel bored, even sick. 2.2 Practice and integration model In order to improve this situation, it is suggested that middle school English teachers adopt the practice and integration review model. ‘This kind of review model embodies the intrinsic characteristics of pragmaticness, comprehensiveness and practicableness of knowledge, which could supplement and promote each other’1. Practice and Integration review model is not only beneficial to bring the students' initiative and enthusiasm into full play, but also helps to train and cultivate students' comprehensive abilities, thinking ways and correct values. This review model focuses on flexible and various review forms and methods, thus it can draw attention to individual differences in students, cultivate students' creative and practical spirit, and improve students’ practical and social abilities. So there are some demands for English review courses. First of all, middle school English review courses should reflect the students' initiative and enthusiasm. This initiative is embodied in self–planning, self–adjustment and self–strengthening of review content. Secondly, middle school English review courses should reflect the
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inquiry to discover problems and positively take measures to find solutions. Finally, middle school English review courses should also reflect the concept of cooperation.

3. Principles followed in the review courses
3.1 Making plans and setting targets Firstly, teachers make feasible review plans based on the content and time of the review courses.Secondly, teachers write a teaching plan in detail with noticing the systemic of the review. Thirdly,teachers systematically classify the knowledge that has already been learned. For example, teachers arrange the confused grammars, vocabularies and other points presented in the text. ‘Generally grammatical contents break up the whole article into several parts. But teachers can assemble these parts into a whole in the review courses’2, such as putting some verb tenses together to compare, which is helpful for students to perceive similar grammatical structures, e.g. the present tense and the simple future tense,the past future tense and the future perfect tense, etc. A planned review course requires teachers to grasp the overall situation, carry out the review content, forms, progress and requirements for each review course, highlight the key and difficult points, and take practical and effective measures. The target of the review courses requires teachers to focus on the weaknesses of the students and the errors or mistakes easily committed. Teachers combine the general review with the specific review. “A general review refers to repeat what has learned so as to help students memory,while a specific review refers
3 to highlight the easily confused or perplexed knowledge points for students” , such as

the differences between the present tense and the present progressive tense. 3.2 Being Systematic and comprehensive Educational psychology thinks that "knowledge structure system is the concepts and ideas of a knowledge field.Based on some principles and structural arrangements, it reveals the objects and phenomena of this kind of domain in the motion process of the essence and rules, so it formes the knowledge system of one field ".
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In middle

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school English review courses, teachers try to systematically classify the knowledge points to let students master the inner links of knowledge system so as to form the systematic knowledge structure.In addition to the systematic knowledge, teachers pay attention to the comprehensiveness of knowledge.The comprehensiveness of knowledge is embodied in two integrated aspects of the content and form. That is the review courses regard the text as the center, organically combine the pronunciation, vocabulary, sentence pattern, reading comprehension and writing together so as to improve the students' comprehensive understanding and applying ability of the target language. For example, English proverb says, "A good beginning is half the battle."(A good beginning is half done). So teachers pay attention to the leading of the new course. According to the teaching content, teachers can set a suspense to attract students or throw out questions to seize the thought of the students. Teachers can also begin from the visual teaching aids and demonstration. Teachers are good at using the students and objects in the classroom, setting scenes and using the visual teaching aids, such as pictures, charts, and simplified paintings. Sinse language is always together with scenes, only with the scenes and combination of the sound and form can make the language impressive for students so as to make students accurately grasp the language points. 3.3 Being Interesting and instructive The essence of artistic teaching is embodied on the word ----"fun". Einstein said: "Interest and hobbies are the power of acquiring knowledge ". Interest is the power of learning, the most realistic and active ingredient in the enthusiasm of learning. In the review courses, teachers understand the students' needs and interest and make full preparation for the review content, stimulating students' interest in learning process. In addition, teachers follow the heuristic principle so as to stimulate the initiative of students, inspire them to think independently and develop their ability to think logically. Through making them to study by themselves to cultivate their ability to solve problems independently,reflect the democracy of the review courses,and encourage them to bravely put forward questions about the content that the teacher is
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reviewing. Students also want to be able to show the images with rich facial expressions, body languages, gestures and intonation to create the language environment. According to the characters that students love to show and are good at imitation, teachers can let students play roles to create a strong learning atmosphere.These actions can make them to communicate in English with great enthusiasm, help them to improve the ability of speaking, hearing and performance.In this process, students cannot only correctly identify the grammatical errors of the team’s members in the performance, also find their own mistakes being more modest. The errors and mistakes they committed are impresseive and not easy to be forgotten. Such teaching activities not only make the atmosphere active, but also make students have more opportunities to use English. 3.4 Being able to consolidate and improve The principle of consolidation depends on the features of the regularities of the students’ cognitive activities.The result is to guide students to firmly grasp knowledge and skills on the basis of understanding, which is especially implemented and executed in the middle school Englishreview courses. It requires teachers to review what has been learned clearly and profoundly, help students master the memory rules and methods, organize the further review for the quite difficult points , and cultivate good study habits of their learned knowledge.The acquisition of knowledge not only depends on the consolidation of the learned knowledge, but also the development of knowledge.Therefore in the middle school English review coursess, teachers try to expand and develop the new knowledge of students. So the acquisition of knowledge is a complex combination of the old and new knowledge. The initiative of students could be inspired in the review courses. Teachers enable students to study by themselves and use the method of group cooperation with exerting the leading role of the excellent students. Through group learning, students can summarize, share the learning methods and successful experience, and finish together the review task that the teacher arranged. This is a very effective method.Teachers usually select a team leader being responsible for supervising and
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leading in a group with several members, e.g. students pass the first part through the method of dictation words and basic sentence patterns and then teachers supervise the students who are not quite good at learning.So teachers will reduce the burden to pay more attention to other review contents. According to the concrete review project, teachers can arrange students to discuss and summarize in group, for example, when reviewing the comparative form of adjectives and adverbs, firstly the team leader organizes to discuss in the group, and then gives a public demonstration for the outcomes in the classroom.By this method,teachers can give full expression to the learning initiative of the students and reflect their positions, changing the passive state to the active one, making their knowledge more impressive.

4. Strategies to improve effectiveness
4.1 Being intensely closed to curriculums and teaching materials ‘Teachers should be intensely close to the curriculum standards, and teaching materials. Before the review courses, teachers place great emphasis on the study of the new English curriculum standards, profoundly understand its essence, and figure out the words, phrases, grammars, and other content, which the curriculum standard requires students to master, knowing which parts are important or not.’5 This will not only allow teachers to be more confident and sure to take well the review courses, but also makes students experience the pleasure and relaxed feeling of the review courses.For example, before the class, teachers can tell a joke or proverb with the English that students understand or mostly understand according to the teaching content. Or teachers require students to have a three— minute English conversation practice, free speech, free talk or sing an English song before starting the class. Thus teachers not only intensely close to the teaching materials, also create an active atmosphere and arouse the students' interest.The text is an important basis for the review. The review is the text-based. Teachers emphasis on the training of the basic knowledge and skills of students,and the ability of the comprehensive application. For example, subject-verb agreement, tense, the subjunctive mood, the usage of there be sentence pattern,etc. Only on the basis of understanding of the learned knowledge
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could students use English better, faster, and more efficiently.

4.2 Making Scientific analysis and reasonable arrangements Teachers should analyze scientifically and arrange reasonably the review content based on the types of the class. Whether the unit review, midterm review or final review, it should reflect the thoughts of "fullness, thoroughness, and deepness ". Teachers must take into account these three aspects of analysizing and arranging the review courses. Fullness is aimed at generalizing and summarizing the review content, and remembering the words, phrases, grammars, sentence patterns and other content that requiremed to be mastered. Thoroughness is classifying the important phrases and sentence patterns that have learned before, presented in the text. And translating English into Chinese or English into English so as to let students speak fluently, and use easily from memories. Deepness refers to that teachers should supplement some difficult exercises for students with requiring them to finish independently.Then according to the situation of the students’ completion of these exercises, teachers give a thorough analysis and comment so as to further improve their abilities of using language.

4.3 Repeating and alternating review materials Nowadays, repeat review and transform review have an important influence on middle school English review courses. There are some conceptual differences between the two kinds of review form. ‘Repeat review mainly depends on the amount of mechanical training.It strengthens the memory traces. Transform review mainly depends on the accumulation of knowledge and the of migration through association.’6 Both the two kinds of review methods contain some mechanical memory components.Therefore we should use them alternatively to consolidate mechanical memories. In the review process, although some parts of the language points need to be repeated by mechanical training, such as the past tense,past participle and grammatical rules,etc of some special verbs, students alternate the review methods mainly depending on their understand.So they can achieve the effect of consolidating the mechanical memory.Therefore, teachers in middle school English
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review courses focus on the strategy in which alternately use the repeate review and transform review. Teachers can optimize the evaluation and analysis method to enhance the classroom efficiency. In the evaluation and analysis process, teachers can apply these steps : at first, teachers adhere to the combination of the detailed analysis and rough analysis, especially for the frequent errors, teachers make a detailed analysis. Teachers also guide students to analyze what is their correct answer, inspire students to think, and associate the test knowledge points with what are similar to.For the answers which are less false, teachers can analyse less.Secondly, though teachers play the leading role and students the secondary one in the analysis process, teachers can consciously inspire students to demonstrate their answers. At the same time, teachers can find the existing problems of solving by listening to the students' evaluation and analysis, and then teachers correct the problems in time according to students' answers.Thirdly, teachers insist on the combination of the collective evaluation and individual evaluation: for the problems questioned by a tiny minority, teachers help them with more patient. Especially after the review courses, teachers put forward specific learning requirements to guide students to generalize the knowledge points so that the ability of students to analyze and solve problems will be improved.

4.4 Grasping the depth of contents Reviewing what has been learned is just like teaching what is going to learn.They both emphasize the density, breadth and depth of the content. But the review courses aim to strengthen memory, consolidate knowledge, and train skills, so teachers accord to student's knowledge and cognitive levels to make adequate preparations for the density,breadth and depth of the review content.Teachers are familiar with the requirements of the syllabus.Through the requirements of the teaching program, teachers could measure what is the proportion of the review contents in the section, unit, book even teaching contents.In the review process, only grasping the density, breadth and depth of the review content could we really breakthrough difficult points, avoid blindness, not leak language points, and achieve expected results.

4.5 Using modern audio-visual means
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With the rapid development of science and technology, modern education technology has penetrated into our educational field. Any country’s education is closely linked with the modern education technology.The level of development of the modern education technology affects the degree of the education of the whole country. Mr. Chen Zhili once said: "Modern education technology is the commanding height and the breakthrough of the education reform and development. ”7Therefore, modern education technology occupies a very important position in middle school English review courses. Modern audio-visual means are an effective strategy to improve the entire efficiency of the review courses, because they create strong audio–visual and oral scenes, and change the boring status of traditional English review courses. By playing videos, slides or recordings, it creates a relaxed, pleasant language environment, which not only helps students remember fast, also cultivate students' sense of language, ability of thinking, and communicative competence about foreign language.For the teachers in middle school, the modern audio-visual means have become one of the effective stratigies to take well the English review courses.

4.6 Helping students find a good learning method Teachers pay attention to the guidance of students' learning methods, make students learn to explore a variety of effective learning methods. As an English teacher, how to help students find a good way to learn in middle school English review courses? Firstly, English teachers should enrich the review content and use heuristic review methods. In the review courses, teachers use the vivid teaching methods and quite interesting, logical, and strong systematic review contents to attract students, which make they feel interested, relish, odd and inductive to the review content. Let them truly experience the interest of the review courses, and gradually explore the diverse learning methods from the review courses.Secondly, English teachers should help students find a good learning method through the review activities with clear targets.Teachers design review activities with certain aims and directions, which are helpful for students to find practical learning methods and improve the effects of reviewing. Finally, teachers guide students with inquiry-based
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review methods to help them find a good way to learn through independent study.In middle school English review courses, many students often ignore the importance of the "review study"due to a lack of initiative and independence.So teachers make effective guidance in time for these phenomena in the review courses, and make them aware of their inadequacies or defects. On the other hand, students always feel the singleness and failure for the review methods. Then, it is necessary for teachers to help students to find an effective way to learn through review courses to achieve the expected effect. These three aspects mentioned help students to find effective learning methods in the middle school English review courses.And these three aspects are blended into each other with promoting and transforming to each other. 4.7 Concerning Nonintellectual factors Teachers should help students to establish a positive emotional attitude towards middle school English review courses, to overcome the fear of the review class. Fully mobilizing students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, so that students are really interested in the review courses and change the passive learning attitudes into positive ones. Teachers use effective methods to pay attention to the nonintellectual factors of students.Since everyone is eager for success, students also have certain expectations of the success of learning.Teachers create a relaxing atmosphere for students with a courteous and amicable manner so as to get along with students in harmony, and encourage their desire of learning.Of course, teachers try to praise more, criticize less to let students be in an active state, actively learn, and enhance the self-confidence of learning. Students always have difficulties focusing their attention in class, so teachers teach them difficult points with easy materials and ways, expecting to achieve the best results within a short time. For example, when students are shy and afraid of opening their mouth, teachers try to create a happy classroom atmosphere and use some moderately difficult problems to ask them.After reading the text for many times, teachers require students to write the sentences that they are sure on the blackboard. When students answer correctly, teachers give them positive evaluations in time.So

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concerning nonintellectual factors is one of the practical strategies teachers have well English review corses.

4.8 Establishing good feedback channels In the review process, teachers grasp the accurate information of students, knowing whether the students have achieved the expected results, how the effect is, and what the state is.Teachers can obtain various kinds of information through establishing the feedback channels: (1) the subject’s representative channel.Let the class’ representative be a "little teacher" and maintain the close relations with

students to understand students' ideas; (2) the classroom channel.With the help of questioning in class and the classroom practice,teachers can understand students; (3) the homework and tests channel. Homework is used to check the effect of the teaching. Test is used to check the effect of a period time’s learning, with ensuring the quantity is enough and entire; (4) the life channel.Making friends with students to concern and move them; (5) the information channel. Through setting boxes in the teachers' office, it is helpful for students to fully express their own views. Then teachers deal with these information and give feedbacks to the students in time to ensure the effectiveness of the review.At the same time, teachers also write the teaching reflection so as to improve their own teaching methods.

Conclusion
In short, in order to improve the efficiency of the review courses, teachers have sufficient preparation before the class, play the role the teacher's guidance,arouse the students' intrinsic interest in learning.Teachers create a harmonious and relaxing learning atmosphere for students to let them have more research time, space, performance opportunities and successful feelings in the classroom.In this atmosphere, their attentions and thinking potential can be fully developed, their intelligence and abilities can be fully played.Then what the students have learned can be fully consolidated and used.The result is the English level can be improved obviously.If we

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do so, our English review courses will no longer be dull as ditch water, but are filled with fun and vitality.

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Note
(1):P1,姜通辉,怎样提高初中英语的复习效率[J] ,教书育人, 2011。

(2) 5,房梅琴,初中英语复习课教学反思[J],中国论文网,2011。 :P

(3) P5,房梅琴, : 初中英语复习课教学反思[J], 中国论文网, 2011。

(4):P6,《教育心理学》中知识学习的类型。

(5):P8,中华人民共和国教育部:《全日制义务教育普通高级中学 英语课程标准 (实验稿) 北京, 》 北京师范大学出版社, 2001。

(6):P9,尹世寅,赵艳华《新课程:中学英语课堂教学如何改革与 创新》[M],成都:四川大学出版社,2005。

(7):P11,陈至立,《有关初中教育方式及内容的改革》[M],北京师 范大学出版社。

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Bibliography
[1]陈小丽,如何进行初中英语复习课[J],英语学习网,2011。 [2]方兴,李文高,现代教育技术基础[M],北京:北京师范大学出版社,2011。 [3]黎大海,英语复习课教学浅见[J] ,学生之友 (初中版) 上,2010,5 (29)。 [4]姜通辉,怎样提高初中英语的复习效率[J] ,教书育人,2011。 [5]潘友刚,钱立群,教育学[M],华东师范大学出版社,2006。 [6]彭聃龄,普通心理学[M],北京:北京师范大学出版社,2002。 [7]彭聃龄,语言心理学[M],北京:北京师范大学出版社,2002。 [8]房梅琴,初中英语复习课教学反思[J],中国论文网,2011。 [9]全国中小学教师继续教育教材,计算机辅助学科教学丛书编委会编《计算机 辅助英语学》。邵宗杰,教育学[M],华东师范大学出版社,2006。 [10]全国中小学教师继续教育教材,英语基础学科教学丛书编委会编《英语基础 教学》[M]。 [11]尹世寅,赵艳华《新课程:中学英语课堂教学如何改革与创新》[M],成都: 四川大学出版社,2005 [12]英语复习课的创新[J] ,学英语网,2012。 [13]周镇和,提高初中英语复习课的效率的思考[J],中学英语教育学网,2011。 [14]周克兴,初中英语学习能力培养,中国教育技术装备,2010,13 (56)。 [15]中华人民共和国教育部: 《全日制义务教育普通高级中学英语课程标准(实 验稿)》北京,北京师范大学出版社,2001。

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Acknowledgements
I would like to thank the following people for their invaluable assistance in the preparation of this paper. Firstly, I am very grateful to my tutor,Hong Guangzhong, for his valuable suggestions on the development of the ideas in this paper, for his enlightening guidance during the preparation of this thesis, as well as for his generosity in spending her time revising it meticulously. Secondly, my heartfelt thanks go to lecturer Zhong Ni, who helped me to develop my knowledge of grammars. I am also greatly indebted to my French teacher Li Yun, who gives me many useful suggestions about my study. Last but not least, my thanks should be given to all teachers who help me to study English well. In all, this paper is the result of combined efforts of all of them.

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