作文常见的开头形式大致有以下几种： 1.开门见山，揭示主题 文章一开头，，就交待清楚文章的主题是什么。如“how i spent my vacation”(我怎 样度假)的开头是： i spent my last vacation happily. 下面是题为"honesty"(谈诚实)一文中的开头： honesty is one
of the best virtues.an honest man is always trusted and respected.on the contrary, one who tells lies is regarded as a "liar"，and is looked upon by honest people. 2.交代人物、事情、时间或环境开头 在文章的开头，先把人物、事件和环境交待清楚。例如"a trip to jinshan" (去金山 旅游)的开头： the day before yesterday my class went on a bus trip to jinshan. the bus ride there took three hours. the long trip made us very tired, but the sight of the beautiful sea refreshed us. 3. 回忆性的开头 用回忆的方法来开头。例如"a trip to the taishan mountain"(泰山游)的开头是： i remember my first trip to the taishan mountain as if it were yesterday. 4.概括性的开头 即对要在文章中叙述的人或事先作一个概括性的介绍。如“the happiness of reading books”(读书的快乐)的开头： people often say that gold and silver are the most valuable things in the world. but i say that to read books is more valuable than anything else, because books give us knowledge and knowledge gives us power. 5.介绍环境式的开头
即开头利用自然景物或自然环境引出要介绍的事物。如“an accident”(一场事故)的 开头是: it was a rainy and windy morning. the sky was gloomy, the temperature was low, and the street was nearly empty. i was on my way back to school. suddenly, a speeding car came round the corner. 6.交待写作目的的开头。 在文章的一开头就交待写作目的，如通过文章要表扬谁，批评谁，或说明一个什么问题 等。如 "pollution control" (控制污染)的开头： in this article i shall draw your attention to the subject of pollution control.
文章的正文是由若干段落组成的， 段落通常由几个或者更多的句子组成， 有时候一个句子 也能成段。 文章的正文应以文章的开头为线索，具体地叙述、说明或论证文章的主题。文章不论长 短，每个段落都必须为主题服务。像说明文和议论文这一类的文章，一个主题还常分成几个 小主题，每个小主题要用一个段落处理，另起一段时，应是一层新的意思。每一段的开头， 要放一个表示段落小主题的主题句，这样可使文章条理化，易于阅读，便于读者抓住主题。 段内的所有句子应围绕主题句的意义加以阐述或论证， 为中心思想服务。 句子之间应衔结自 然，有条不紊，而且还要合乎逻辑，段落中不能出现任何与主题无关的句子;英语写作比较 重视主题句的作用， 缺少它段落意义就会含糊不清。 主题句也可放在段落的中间和末尾等部 位，但对初学者来说，以放在段首为好。见下列这篇题为"how to be a good student" (怎 样做个好学生)的文章： we students are the builders and masters of the country. it is important for us to know how to be a good student. a good student, i think, should be diligent in his studies. the more he studies, the more he will increase his knowledge. without enough knowledge, we cannot make great contributions to the modernization of our country. to take care of one's own body is another important thing for good student to do. anyone, who hasn't got a strong body, can do nothing for his country, even if he has much knowledge. there was a man, who, when he was student, studied hard but
neglected his health. no sooner did he come to serve the country than he died of poor health. from this we may see that to have a strong body is really very important for a student. lastly, to cultivate one's own virtue is most important. virtue is the essence of a noble and good character. it will greatly help one to be useful and his country heart and soul. when learned people go astray, they do more harm than good to society. we should draw lessons from this. 这篇文章的第一段引出了文章的主题，第二、第三和第四段则是文章的正文，每—段的 第一句即是段落的主题句， 它们既支持了文章中心的观点和思想， 同时又概括了全段的意思。 在同一段落中，其余的句子都围绕主题句所表示的中心展开，同时句子间的衔结也很自然; 各层的意思都很连贯。 分段是文章组织上重要的一步， 但如果写的题目范围很小， 那就无须再将题目分成小的 主题，并分入各个段落去阐述了。像一篇简短的评论;某一事情的简短记载，某一个想法的 说明，对一个人物或一件事情的简要叙述或说明等，就可以只用一个段落来表现主题。 在记叙文中，段的结构有时可以很简单，不需要有主题句，叙事一气呵成，中途没有停 顿。段与段之所以分开，只是为了起修辞作用，以便把某一细节置于显著的地位。 某些测试用的表达题，在题目中就已经说明只需要根据。所给的提示写一个段落，而不 是一篇文章。对于这一类的写作试题，就可以予以简洁的处理，并不是非要扩充成一篇有头 有尾的完整文章。 下面这篇题为“weekend homework”(谈周末作业)的短文，就是用一个段落来论述问题 和表达观点的。 usally saturday night is the time for students to get back to their desks and do their weekend homework. six school days are enough for the students who have many other interests. i think weekend homework should not be given. with homework arranged for saturday night and the whole of sunday, when can he find time to help around the house, play a game of football or see a good film, or just relax? in fact weekend homework is usually put off until sunday night. as a result our homework is done very poorly and we achive no results. if there were no homework on weekends, students would go to school on monday well rested, willing to work. teachers, don't you agree?
在文章的结尾，把含义较深的话放在末尾，以点明主题，深化主题，起到画龙点睛的效果。 如"i cannot forget her" (我忘不了她)的结尾： after her death, i felt as if something were missing in my life. i was sad over her passing away, but i knew she would not have had any regrets at having given her life for the benefit of the people. 2.重复主题句 结尾回到文章开头阐明的中心思想或主题句上，达到强调的效果。如“i love my home town”(我爱家乡)的结尾： i love my home town, and i love its people. they too have changed. they are going all out to do more for the good of our motherland. 3. 自然结尾 随着文章的结束，文章自然而然地结尾。如“fishing”(钓鱼)的结尾： i caught as many as twenty fish in two hours, but my brother caught many more. tired from fishing, we lay down on the river bank, bathing in the sun. we returned home very late. 4.含蓄性的结尾 用比喻或含蓄的手法不直接点明作者的看法， 而是让读者自己去领会和思考。 “a day 如 of harvesting”(收割的日子)的结尾： evening came before we realized it. we put down our sickles and looked at each other. our clothes were wet with sweat, but on every face there was a smile. 5.用反问结尾 虽然形式是问句，但意义却是肯定的，并具有特别的强调作用，引起读者深思。如 "should we learn to do housework?" (我们要不要学做家务?) 的结尾。 everyone should learn to do housework. don't you agree, boys and girls? 6.指明方向，激励读者 结尾表示对将来的展望，或期待读者投入行动。如“let's go in for sports”(让我 们参加体育运动)的结尾：
as we have said above, sports can be of great value. they not only make people live happily but also help people to learn virtues and do their work bettter. a sound mind is in a sound body. let's go in for sports. 文章的结尾没有一定的模式，可以根据表达主题的需要灵活创造。一般的习惯是，一些 记叙文和描写文经常采用自然结尾的方法;但说理性和逻辑性较强的说明文和议论文则往往 都有结束语，以便使文章首尾呼应，结构完整。
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