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2015年高考英语真题分类汇编 专题20 议论文和说明文类


专题二十 完形填空之议论文和说明文类
1.【2015·广东】完形填空(共 15 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 30 分) 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 1~15 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项,并 在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 How long can human beings live? Most scientists who study old age think that the human body is ___1___ to live no longer than 120 years. However, 110 years is probably the longest that anyone could hope to live —— if he or she is ___2___ healthy and lucky. Some scientists even say we can live as long as 130 years! Yet, our cells simply cannot continue to reproduce ___3___. They wear out, and as a result, we get old and ___4___ die. Even though we can’t live forever, we are living a ___5___ life than ever before. In 1900, the average American life span (寿命) was only 47 years, but today it is 75 years! When does old age begin then? Sixty-five may be out-of-date as the ___6___ line between middle age and old age. After all, many older people don’t begin to experience physical and mental ___7___ until after age 75. People are living longer because more people ___8___ childhood. Before modern medicine changed the laws of nature, many children died of common childhood ___9___. Now that the chances of dying ___10___ are much lower, the chances of living long are much higher due to better diets and health care. On the whole, our population is getting older. The ___11___ in our population will have lasting effects on our social development and our way of life. Some people fear such changes will be for the worse, while some see ___12___, not disaster, many men and women in their “golden years” are healthy, still active, and young in ___13___ if not in age. As the society grows old, we need the ___14___ of our older citizens. With long lives ahead of them, they need to ___15___ active and devoted. 1. A. designed 2. A. completely B. selected B. generally C. improved C. apparently D. discovered D. extremely

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3. A. rapidly 4. A. eventually 5. A. busier 6. A. finishing 7. A. stress 8. A. survive 9. A. problems 10. A. poor 11. A. changes 12. A. dreams 13. A. mind 14. A. protection 15. A. sound

B. harmlessly B. hopelessly

C. endlessly C. automatically

D. separately D. desperately D. happier D. dividing D. failure

B. longer C. richer B. guiding C. waiting B. damage C. decline B. enjoy C. remember B. fears C. worries B. young C. sick B. recovery C. safety D. value D. diseases

D. quiet D. increases D. choices D. movement D. permission D. stay

B. chances C. strengths B. appearance C. voice B. suggestions C. contributions B. appear C. turn

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已经不适合现在的形势了。dividing line 分界线,故选 D。 7.C 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:毕竟,很多老年人直到 75 岁之后才开始经历身体和精神 的衰落。stress 压力,压迫;damage 损坏;decline 衰落,衰弱;failure 失败。根据句意 可知,现在很多老年人是在 75 岁之后身体和精神才开始衰弱的,故选 C。 8.A 考查动词及语境的理解。句意:现在人们活得更长因为更多的人从童年中幸存下来。 survive 幸存;enjoy 喜欢,欣赏;remember 记得;value 价值,估价。根据这一段的内容 和 the chances of living long are much higher due to a better diets and health care 可知,现在的人平均寿命比以前更长的一个原因是人们从童年的疾病中幸存了下来,故选 A。 9.D 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:在现代医学改变了自然的法则之前,很多孩子死于常见的
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儿童疾病。problems 问题;fears 恐惧,害怕;worries 担心;diseases 疾病。根据句意 可知,以前的人们因为很多普遍的儿童疾病而死,所以导致平均寿命比较低。故选 D。 10.B 考查形容词及语境的理解。句意:既然年少夭折的可能性更低了,那么活得更长的机会 就更高了,因为有了更好的饮食和医学护理。poor 穷的;young 年轻的;sick 病的;quiet 安静的。根据这一段的意思可知,以前人们在小的时候就因为生病死去了,dying young 就是 年少死去。故选 B。 11.A 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:人口结构的改变会对我们社会的发展和我们的生活方式 有持续的影响。changes 改变;recovery 恢复;safety 安全;increases 增长,增加。根 据下文中 Some people fear such changes will?可知,我们现在的人口结构改变了,故选 A。 12.B 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:一些人担心这个改变将会带来一些坏处,然而还有一些 人看到的是机会,而不是灾难。dreams 梦想;chances 机会;strengths 力量;choices 选 择。根据句意可知,这句话中的 while 表示对比,即跟前一种人不一样的看法,故选 B。 13.A 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:现在,很多处在“黄金年龄”的男士和女士,身体都非 常健康,仍然积极,心态也很年轻。mind 心态;appearance 外表;voice 声音;movement 移动。根据句意可知,这里应该是说虽然年龄老了,但是心态依然年轻,故选 A。 14.C 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:随着我们的社会老龄化,我们需要这些老年公民们的贡 献。protection 保护;suggestions 建议;contributions 贡献;permission 允许。根据文 意可知,现在的社会逐渐老龄化,因此老年人也要继续给我们的社会做贡献,故选 C。 15.D 考查动词及语境的理解。句意:前面还有很长的寿命,他们需要保持积极的心态和奉献 的精神。sound 听起来;appear 好像;出现;turn 转,变成;stay 保持。根据文意可知, 现在人们的寿命更长了, 因此老年人也要继续保持积极心态, 为我们的社会做贡献。 故应选 D。 【考点定位】社会现象类短文。 【名师点睛】这篇短文是一篇议论文,讨论了人类寿命增加这个话题,主要考查学生名词、 形容词、动词、副词等实词在具体语言环境下的使用和词义辨析,同时考查学生的语篇理解 的能力。学生要在理解短文大意的基础上,对每个题目中设置的选项进行辨析,同时还需要 注意上下文的暗示,选出最符合文意的一项。 2.【2015·重庆】B

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Imagine the first days in a new time zone. Slow to respond to the 28 , your body clock is confused. You’re sleepy all day, but when it’s time for bed, you can hardly fall asleep. Obviously you are 29 jet lag(时差反应). Travelers have traditionally fought this 30 with sleeping pills or alcohol.

There are actually healthier ways that can work just as 31. For example, the moment you get on the airplane, start 32 your biological block .

to the destination’s time. If it’s daytime in your destination, try to stay 33

Walking around the cabin(客舱) can be of help. When it’s nighttime, try to sleep. In that case, eat before the flight, 34 an empty stomach will prevent you from

sleeping. These tips will help you start a new 35of sleep and wakefulness. 28. A. flight 29. A. suffering from 30. A. danger 31. A. briefly 32. A. checking 33. A. awake 34. A. though 35. A. understanding 【解析】 试题分析:本文讲述在旅行中如何调整你的生物钟。 28.B 考查名词辨析。A flight 航班; B change 变化; C demand 要求; D climate 气候; 句意:慢慢地对于变化做出反应,你的生物钟就要混淆。根据语境可知本文是关于对于时差 的反应,故选 B 项。 29.A 考查动词短语辨析 suffer from 遭受战争破坏的 work on 从事于;look into 调查; lead to 导致;根据时区的变化可知很明显会导致时间反应,故选 A 项。 30.B 考查名词辨析。Adange 危险性 B problem 问题在于 C waste 浪费者 D fear 恐惧; 句意:游客会用药片和酒精来处理这个问题。根据语境可知对待时差的问题,故选 B 项。 31.D 考查副词辨析。A briefly 简洁地址 B slowly 慢慢地址 C suddenly 突然地址 D effectively 有效地;句意:这有几种健康的方法,并且很有效。根据语境可知选 D 项。 32.C 考查动词辨析。A checking 检查员 B sending 送到 C adjusting 调整结构 D
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B. change B. working on B. problem B. slowly B. sending B. alone B. so B. cycle

C. demand C. looking into C. waste C. suddenly C. adjusting C. hungry C. whole C. research

D. climate D. leading to D. fear D. effectively D. stopping D. calm D. or D. trend

stopping 停止播送句意: 比如, 在上飞机前, 开始调整你的生物钟到你的目的的的时间。 Adjust to 把。 。调整到, ,故选 C 项。 33.A 考查形容词辨析。A awake B alone C hungry D calm 句意:如果是白天到目的地,试 着保持清醒。Stay awake 保持清醒,故选 A 项。 34.D 考查连词辨析。A Though 虽然如此 B so 因此次 C while 虽然如此 D or 否则;句 意:在这种情况下,提前吃饭,否则,空腹会让阻止你睡。Or 表示转折,故选 D 项。 35.B 考查名词辨析。A Understanding 明白的 B cycle 圈; C research 研究;D trend 趋势;句意:这些建议能帮你开始新生物钟。根据语境可知选 B 项。 【考点定位】日常生活类短文 【名师点睛】本篇完形从日常生活中的细节入手,根据常识能够得出答案如 28,33 空。29 和 31 根据语境得出答案,做此类题目时,考生可以先根据选项来阅读文章,认真筛选甄别,这 样有的放矢,大大提高阅读的效率,不可盲目地跟着感觉来进行解读,文中的每句话都有其 出现的意义,上下文的联系是十分重要的。 3.Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. If you studied pictures that ancient people left on rock walls and you tried to determine their meaning, you would not detect interest in romance among the artists. 51 , you would see plenty of animals with people running after them. Life for ancient people’s earned to center on hunting and gathering wild foods for meals. In modern times, when food is available in grocery stores, finding love is more 52 in people’s lives. The 53 is all around us. It is easy to prepare a list

of modern stories having to do with love. An endless number of books and movies qualify as love stories in popular culture. Researchers are studying whether love, a highly valued emotional state, can be 54 . They ask, what is love? Toothpaste companies want us to think attraction is all about clean teeth, but clean teeth go only so far. Scientists wonder how much the brain gets involved. You have probably heard that opposites attract but that 55

attract, too. One thing is certain: The truth about love is not yet set in stone. First Impression
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To help determine the

56

of attraction, researchers paired 164 college

classmates and had them talk for 3, 6 or 10 minutes so they could get a sense of each other’s individuality. Then students were asked to 57 what kind of relationship

they were likely to build with their partners. After nine weeks, they reported what happened. As it turned out, their 58 judgments often held true. Students seemed to 59

at an early stage who would best fit into their lives. The 60 Knows

Scientists have also turned to nonhumans to increase understanding of attraction. Many animals give off pheromones — natural chemicals that can be detected by, and then can produce a response in, other animals of the same species. Pheromones can signal that an animal is either ready to fight or is feeling In contrast, humans do not seem to be as 62 61 to partnerships.

as other animals at detecting such

chemicals. Smell, however, does seem to play a part in human attraction. Although we may not be aware of chemicals like pheromones consciously, we give and receive loads of information through smell in every interaction with other people.

Face Value Being fond of someone seems to have a number of factors, including seeing something we find attractive. Researchers had people judge faces for 63 . The participants

had 0.013 seconds to view each face, yet somehow they generally considered the images the same as people who had more time to study the same faces. The way we attractiveness seem to be somewhat automatic. When shown an attractive face and then words with good or bad associations, people responded to 65 words faster after viewing an attractive face. Seeing something 64

attractive seems to cause happy thinking. 51. A. Instead 52. A. romantic 53. A. priority 54. A. tested B. Therefore B. stressful B. proof B. impressed C. Moreover C. central C. possibility C. changed D. Otherwise D. artificial D. principle D. created
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55. A. appearances 56. A. illustrations 57. A. predict 58. A. critical 59. A. memorize 60. A. Nose 61. A. open 62. A. disappointed 63. A. emotion 64. A. enhance 65. A. familiar 【解析】

B. virtues

C. similarities

D. passions D. intentions D. recall

B. implications C. ingredients B. investigate B. initial B. distinguish C. diagnose C. random

D. mature D. question

C. negotiate

B. Eye C. Heart B. alert B. amazed

D. Hand C. resistant C. confused D. superior D. gifted D. signals

B. attractiveness B. possess B. plain

C. individuality C. maintain C. positive

D. assess D. irritating

试题分析:古代和现代的人追求不同,现代人追求的是爱,但是科学家依然对爱还不是很清 楚。 51. A 考查副词以及对语境的理解 Instead 意为相反,Therefore 意为因此, Moreover

意为此外, Otherwise 意为否则。观察空格前后的句式结构,可以前面用的是 you would not detect ? ,后面用的是 you would see ,使用的动词不同,结构相同。由于前面有 not,后 面没有,所以可知此处表达为意思相反,所以答案为 A。 52. C 考查形容词以及对语境的理解 romantic 意为浪漫的,stressful 意为压力

的,central

意为中心的, artificial 意为人工的。根据上一句话“life for ancient

people seemed to center on hunting”及本句的“In modern times, finding love is ”, 分析语境,知道这两个句子是把古代和现代的情况进行对比。前一句用了 center ,后一句用 central, 两者的关系是同根重现。 53. B 考查名词以及对语境的理解 priority 意为优先权,proof 意为证明,

possibility

意为可能性,principle 意为原则。后两句的意思是:很容易准备一系列的

有关爱的现代故事。在当前的流行文化中,无数的故事和电影归类为爱情故事。根据这两句, 的意思,结合上下文语境可知道本句的意思就是有很多证明的例子,所以答案为 proof. 54. D 考查动词以及对语境的理解 tested 意为测试,imposed 意为强加,changed 意

为改变, created 意为创造。 根据本段的最后一句话“One thing is certain: The truth about love is not yet set in stone.确定了一件事情是:爱的真理还不确定”可以知道科学家研
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究的是爱是否能够创造,而不应该是测试,改变或者是强加。其中 set in stone 就像中文里 说的“板上钉钉”,表示绝对不变。 55. C 考查名词以及对语境的理解 appearances 意为外表,virtues 意为美德,

similarities 意为相似,passions 意为激情。根据划线部分前面的连词 but 可以判断前后 是转折的意思,而 opposites 意为相反的,所以答案为相似的。 56. C 考查名词以及对语境的理解 illustrations 意为说明,implications 意为含

义;暗示;牵连,卷入;可能的结果,影响,ingredients 意为成分,intentions 意为意 图,目的。根据小标题 First Impression (第一印象)以及后面所描述的实验方法、内容和 结果,可以知道实验的目的是决定吸引力的成分。 57. A 考查动词以及对语境的理解 predict 意为预测,investigate 意为调查,

diagnose

意为诊断, recall 意为回忆。根据 58 题后面的 judgment (判断),可以知道

此处的答案应该是和判断同义的词。又根据该句后面的句子“after nine weeks, they reported what happened.9 周之后,报道发生了什么事情?”可以知道这一些是还没有发生 的事情,也就是预测到的东西。 58. B 的 考查形容词以及对语境的理解 critical 意为 批评的 ,initial 意为原始 ,random 意为随意的, mature 意为成熟的。根据第 57 题预测的东西,那么预

测的东西相对而言就是原始的,最初的判断。 59. B 考查动词以及对语境的理解 memorize 意为记忆,distinguish 意为区别,

negotiate

意为谈判, question 意为疑问。根据前一句话的意思“结果证明他们最初

的判断是正确的”,该句要表达的意思和前一句相同,也就是说“学生似乎能够在早期区别 适合他们的生活人”。

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65. C

考查形容词以及对语境的理解 familiar

意为熟悉,plain 意为普通

的, positive 意为积极的, irritating 意为无礼的。根据最后一句的表达“Seeing something attractive seems to cause happy thinking.看一些吸引力的事情似乎能够导致 快乐的思考。”不能得出答案的表达应该是一种快乐思考,所以答案为 positive 积极的。 【考点定位】 这是一篇说明文,阐述什么是爱? 【名师点睛】这是一篇说明文,没有生词,主要是考查上下文理解和单词理解。需要正确理 解 4 个单词的选项,尤其要注意一些一词多义的地方,如 test, open, question。也要注意 题目与题目直接的关系,如 58 题和 59 题;要关注小标题以及段落的开头和结尾。结合上下 文,留意那些涉及到重现的题目。

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