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A Feminist Interpretation of The Sun Also Rises

A Thesis Submitted To Foreign Language Department Of College of Information & Business, Zhongyuan University of Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Bachelor of Arts

By Gao Yanping Student ID Number: 201003014116 Supervisor:Chen Xiaoting

April 15th , 2014

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

论 文 摘 要

欧内斯特?米勒尔?海明威(1899-1961)是 20 世纪最著名的小说家之一, 《太阳照样升起》被美国现代图书馆列入“20 世纪中的 100 部最佳英文小说” 中,并对美国文学及 20 世纪文学的发展有极深远的影响。 《太阳照常升起》主要 叙述是像海明威一样流落在法国的一群美国年轻人的独特生活。海明威借助《太 阳照常升起》这部小说的平台,对当时女性的发展,以及女性对于自己的探索提 出了自己的观点和看法, 并且对这种女性争取自己的自由,对自己的身份和价值 进行重新定位的行为给予肯定和支持。正因为如此, 《太阳照常升起》得到文学 界的关注和广大的读者的喜爱。 基于此,本文将从女性主义理论入手,结合第一次世界大战结束之后,女性 的解放运动达到第一次高潮的时代背景, 分析小说中的女性形象-----勃莱特· 阿 什利, 以此揭示女性在男权社会所受的压迫和他们的反抗,探索女性真正走上独 立自主道路的途径,并进一步得出两性的和谐才能让女性更健康的成长的结论。

关键词:女性主义;太阳照常升起;勃莱特·阿什利

Abstract

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

Ernest Hemingway(1899-1961)was one of the most famous writers in 20th century. Hemingway’s first and probably his most accomplished novel The Sun Also Rises was published, which made Hemingway stand out as an international celebrity because he grasped the social changes in America after World War I. The Sun Also Rises talked about the stories of the lost generation and he produced a vivid female images----the main character “Brett Ashley” in his stories, to some extent, conveyed his understanding of women. Because of that, The Sun Also Rises is still popular among the readers and academicians. This thesis hopes to show that with the development of women’s liberation movement, women’s position greatly changed and the traditional versions of masculinity were under acute threat, exploring the outlet of the women’s liberation movement through the respective of the feminist, and it was impossible for women to get real independence. Being harmonious with men can help the healthy growth of women.

Key words: feminist; The Sun Also Rises; Brett Ashley

Table of Contents

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

Abstract (Chinese) ……………….………………………………………………….. Abstract (English) ……………….………………………………………………….. 1. Introduction…………….…………………………………………………………. 2. Feminism and The Sun Also Rise…………………………………………………. 2.1 Feminism.……………………..….…. ………………………. …………………. 2.2 The Sun Also Rise…………………………..….……………. …………………. 3. An Analysis of the Liberation of Women in The Sun Also Rises………………. 3.1 Two Reasons of the Liberation of Women ………………………………………. 3.1.1 Spiritual Dependence on Men……………... …………………... ……………. 3.1.2 Financial Dependence on Men……………………………... ………………..... 3.2 Brett Ashley’s Three Rebellions Actions …………………………………………. 3.2.1 Fight against Traditional Conventions .....……………………………………. 3.2.2 Emphasis on Self-consciousness…………………………... ………………..... 3.2.3 The Pursuit of Love and Happiness …………………………………………… 4. An Analysis of the Outlet of Women in The Sun Also Rises………... ………… 5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………. Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………... Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………

I II

1. Introduction
Ernest Hemingway(1899-1961), the prolific American writer, was awarded Nobel

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

Prize in literature in 1954. In 1926, Hemingway’s first and probably his most accomplished novel The Sun Also Rises was published, which made Hemingway stand out as an international celebrity because he grasped the social changes in America after World War I and succeeded in conveying the exact feeling of the lost generation in written form. The Sun Also Rises talked about the stories of the lost generation and unlike other Hemingway’s works, many tough man roles were created, but in the "The Sun Also Rises", he produced a vivid female images----the main character “Brett Ashley” in his stories, through Brett Ashley, Hemingway interpreted the real world at that time with the understanding of women’s social status and independence. In the 1950s, the study of The Sun Also Rises was in its infancy, and the importance of this work for this period is not enough. The Sun Also Rises was becoming popular in the 1970s , where the image of the "Lost Generation" which people ’s loneliness with alcohol draw much attentions from all kinds of readers. In the 1980s, the study of The Sun Also Rises from the perspective of feminist was not as good as the 1970s, but was still slowly moved forward. Since the 1990s , a few critics tried to interpret the works of Ernest Hemingway with the latest European and American contemporary critical theory. In the 1930s , Hemingway’s works were introduced to China , and gradually become popular among Chinese readers. In fact, in the early 1930s, Chinese scholars have come to conclusion that The Sun Also Rises is the " Lost Generation " masterpiece. So this thesis is mainly talked about that with the development of women’s liberation movement, women’s position greatly changed and the traditional versions of masculinity were under acute threat, explore the outlet of the women’s liberation movement through the respective of the feminist, and it was impossible for women to get real independence. Being harmonious with men can help the healthy growth of women.

2. Feminism and The Sun Also Rise
2.1 Feminism

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

Hundred years ago, women’s social statue was quite low, women was treated as appendage to men, they only had rights of living, their manner, speaking and behavior were regulated by a series of serious rules and discipline. With the education spreading among women and the awakening of the female self-consciousness, they came to realize that they should defend their economic, political and other rights and pursue equal treatment like men. Then there appear feminism. Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, cultural, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. A feminist advocates or supports the rights and equality of women. First-wave feminism was a series of activities during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. In the U.S.and U.K., it focused on promoting equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women. However, by the end of the nineteenth century, activism focused mainly on gaining political power, particularly the right of women’s voting, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women’s sexual and economic rights at this time. Second-wave feminism is a feminist movement beginning in the early 1960s and continuing to the 20th and it coexists with third-wave feminism. Second-wave feminism is largely concerned with issues of equality not only suffrage, but things like ending discrimination. Second-wave feminists treat women’s cultural and political inequalities as its main purposes that to be deal with. During this period, feminist encourage women to understand aspects of their personal lives deeply by means of public promoting. Third-wave feminism is started from 1900 to the present. It arose as a response toward failures of the second-wave and also as a response to the movements created by the second-wave. Third-wave feminism often correct the second-wave’s ideas and movements that are not good for females. It accommodates contradictions; conflict and changes. The third-wave has its origins in the mid-1980. 2.2 The Sun Also Rises The Sun Also Rises is a 1926 novel written by American author Ernest Hemingway

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

about a group of American and British expatriates who travel from Paris to the Festival of San Fermí n in Pamplona to watch the running of the bulls and the bullfights. An early and enduring modernist novel, it received mixed reviews upon publication. It is recognized as Hemingway's greatest work. The novel was published in the United States in October 1926 by the publishing house Scribner's. A year later, the London publishing house Jonathan Cape published the novel with the title of Fiesta. Since then it has been continuously in print. Hemingway began writing the novel on his birthday in 1925, finishing the draft manuscript barely two months later in September. After setting aside the manuscript for a short period, he worked on revisions during the winter of 1926. The basis for the novel was Hemingway's 1925 trip to Spain. The setting was unique and memorable, showing seedy cafélife in Paris, and the excitement of the Pamplona festival, with a middle section devoted to descriptions of a fishing trip in the Pyrenees. Hemingway's spare writing style, combined with his restrained use of description to convey characterizations and action, became known as demonstrating the Iceberg Theory. The novel is a romance; the characters are based on real people of Hemingway's circle, and the action is based on real events. In the novel, Hemingway presents his notion that the "Lost Generation", considered to have been decadent, dissolute and irretrievably damaged by World War I, was resilient and strong. Additionally, Hemingway investigates the themes of love, death, renewal in nature, and the nature of masculinity.

3.An Analysis of the Liberation of Women in The Sun Also Rises
3.1 Two Reasons of the Liberation of Women 3.1.1 Spiritual Dependence on Men Brett Ashley is a strong and independent woman. She has a short , masculine hair and masculine name. To certain extent, men want to control her, but they can not get a full commitment from her. On the surface, this seems men in this novel needed her far more than she needs them. With no goals to guide their lives, they lost so they even attempted to gain

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

physical and spiritual comfort from her. Indeed, Brett’s independence is a problem. Although she refused to commit to any man, she still seemed uncomfortable being alone, trying to find a solution to save herself from her inner world. Thus, to a certain extent, Brett Ashley still dependent on men. She rely on Jack. For example, Jack still gives her emotional support. Although she refused to live with Jack Barnes, because of his incompetence , she still will turn to Jack Brett to looking for comfort and help, because Jack was the only man she can pour her heart out . To forget the pain and suffering caused by the relationship between Jack, Brett may have been intended to find another way to escape from the harsh reality, it is clear that Cohn did not love her , and she hopes this trip with Cohn could comfort her injuries heart. Therefore, she sexual liberation remains a big disadvantage, she still needs a man to feel good about yourself . Finally, although Brett does not like Mike at all , no longer believe in marriage, she decided to marry Mike, and Mike is a constantly drunk Scottish veterans with a terrible temper and went bankrupt. Because when she was tired of drifting , she needs a man to get a traditional form of marriage to get a sense of security . 3.1.2 Financial dependence on men In terms of Brett 's financial position, she never had any money, but she seemed not be very interested in money. In this novel, she refused to go with Count Mippipopolous even if he gave her ten thousand dollars, which is a big amount of money, and then in Paris. More importantly, when she made Romero leave her, Romero tried to give her a lot of money, but she refused his offer, even though she had no single cent on her, because she gave all her money to the bankruptcy Mike. She might think if she accepted Romero 's money, the feelings between them would be stained. However, Brett really need some money to afford her extravagant lifestyle, such as her modern clothes, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and regular travels. She accepted the man’s generosity, which seems to be quite common for her to let the men provide a comfortable life as the economy allows them to buy her a drink or give her hotel room and trave.

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

In this sense, Brett Ashley is a traditional woman, seeking for a safe place from men. She assumed that men should pay for all her staffs and she deserve it. According to the traditional, it was gentlemen duty to pay the bill and the husbands’ responsibility to support their wives . Although Brett pursed independence and equality with men, ironically, her thin income resulted in her dependence on men financially. 3.2 Brett Ashley’s Three Rebellions Actions 3.2.1 Fight against Traditional Conventions After World War I , the female role began to undergo a great transformation, from passive, private, to individualist of new experience. Local ethics were shocked to find that girl’s throwing off their restraints, tossing away their corsets and fleeing their country homes for jobs in cities. Instead of doing chores at home, women began to playing golf, driving a car, smoking, dancing, drinking in the bar. All of these behaviour which challenges traditional social structures can be seen in the behavior of Lady Brett Ashley. Brett’s short hair showed her modernity and her dress expressed her sexuality. Brett rejected the traditional feminine ideals of proper behavior. Moreover, Brett dared to step off the limitation and enter the public place without any reason but relaxation. The bar and the bullfight place were considered the places in which only men can existed and not the appropriate fields where women should stay. Women who came to such places like bars or bullfights would be considered disturbing or without respect. She sparks chaos everywhere, if she came into the bar, the men drink too much and fight. Although Brett knew that coming to those places was not right, she totally rejected such a rule and did whatever she wanted. Once breaking with the traditional moral, Brett found it difficult for her to go back or to find a right way to self-liberation and real independence. What Brett did was for finding the equality and liberty in the society and wanting to be the center of the pubic. Being watched by men, she would feel flattered. It is obvious that Brett no longer defined herself as a domestic being but a new woman. In the story, Cohn, Mike and Jake was surrounding Brett. However, Brett refused to

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

commit to anyone of them,preferring remain independence. She ignored those men’s feelings.She can not be completely faithful to Mike,her fiance. Even though his injury meant they could not be together, she still swore she would love Jake, in fact, she can not help to hurting him by screwing with other men. In order to breaking the traditional morals and finding the real independence, Brett Ashley was unwilling to commit fully to any men who obsessed with her, even though she had affairs with them. As a modern woman, Brett Ashley betrayed the traditional norms and had many affairs with men. She seemed like to enjoy freedom without any restriction. For Brett Ashley, having an affair with a man did not mean that she loved him nor wanted to marry him. Once she found she did not love that man,she would leave him without hesitation. When Jake mentioned again the possibility of them living together, Brett treated him as a kid who was just daydreaming. Maybe, to Brett marriage was a kind of burden that would destroy her independence. 3.2.2 Emphasis on Self-consciousness In the novel, Brett wanted to gain her self-identity, and she totally ignored the traditional morals about women and if she hurt some men, she would not feel anything about it. Jake and Brett deeply loved each other, but Brett refused Jake’s request to live together, because she can not accept the man she loved was impotence. Although Jake was not able to satisfy Brett’s sexual need,Jake still was the only person Brett loved truly in the lost world. For her, Jake was the unreachable thing for her but still fulfill her dreams, so Brett cherished the relationship very much. She refused all the suggestion that made by Jake, because she knew that she was a bad woman and would surely destroy him if they did get together. Although Brett Ashley had tried so hard to defend her self-identity sometimes even at the sacrifice of love, she had been educated in traditional values, which had been rooted in her mind. she found it difficult to wholly free herself of them. She felt horrible for what she had done. Influenced by some traditional morals, Brett Ashley could not give up all traditional concepts while she was thinking or acting. Sometimes she always felt confused about reality and future.

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

The 1920s, a transitional period for women or an age of revolution, was an uneasy time to live for everyone because it was difficult to not only give up the traditional moral code but also put a new code of conduct in its place to observe without confusion and distress. Men and women can not coexist in the real world. Therefore, Brett bravely pursuit her self-identity as a new woman, even though she lived in the scaring reality, and was confusing about what she was doing. At the end of the story, she still chose marriage as a kind of goal of her life, although she did not love the man,and no longer believed in the marriage. In fact, Brett just needed the traditional form to gain the self-identity. 3.2.3The Pursuit of Love and Happiness In the story, Jake Barnes, an American veteran of the First World War maybe the only man Brett loved truly except her first lover who died in the war. But Jake’s impotence resulting from the war lets them fall apart although there was sincere between them. If Brett and Jake lived together, that meant she would giving up sexual intercourse. Although Brett sleeps with many men, it is Jake she loves. When Jake begged Brett to be with him, she told Jake that she would have to go with other men behind Jake’s back, which she knew he would not be able to stand. However, Brett did not want to hurt Jake, because she truly loved Jake, she would like to be with him, and when she really needed some help ,she would come to Jake. It is impossible for Brett to choose Jake although they loved each other as a love without sex was not complete to her. At the end of the story, helpless Brett turned to Jake for help again even though she know they can not really be together,and finally things that happened forced them to face the reality. In contrast to Jake Bams’s physical impotence, bullfighter Romero had a figure of strength. When Brett saw Romero for the first time, she could not take her eyes off him , she was fascinated by Romero’s qualities of masculinity. In Brett’s mind, Romero’s strength, courage and confidence would be able to seduce her weakness and loss. In the relationship with Brett, Romero has followed his rules. He wanted Brett to be his woman, but he had his own expectations for a woman and wanted to changed

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

Brett into a new woman even though he loved her and he would marry Brett if she could fit his naive image of wife. Romero still wanted to keep the traditional gender standards which were just what Brett tried to abandon, and the modernity that Brett believed in was what Romero could not accept. When Brett realized that Romero wanted her to change into a more traditionally feminine woman,she refused to grow her hair to fit Romero's image of an ideal woman. In the end, She realized that they were living in different worlds and it was impossible for them to fulfill the dream of love.

4. An Analysis of the Outlet of Women in The Sun Also Rises
The Sun Also Rises shows the readers some aspects of an incomplete feminist, in order to express Hemingway’s thinking about how to establish harmonious relationships between woman and man. Brett is a gentle and beautiful lady yet a strong modern female. She resists the real life which is imposed by the traditional patriarchal society. She chooses her own life and love bravely. Her remaining traditional femaleness makes her suffering many setbacks and hanging back. Dependents on the male characters constantly and her new femaleness makes her to break away from the domination of the man consistently. The contradiction which existence in her characteristic leads Brett can’t achieve the real harmony with the male characters. Hemingway’s feminist sensitivity demonstrated in the describing of Brett’s image is actually insightful and helpful in arousing people’s awareness of the importance of reconstructing human society in harmony between men and women so as to survive on the planet. According to Hemingway’s portray about Brett, this character is deeply affected by the war. She is the symbol of female lost generation. She was a traditional female with great upbringing. She was a pure and innocent young girl until the war broke out. During the war, Brett becomes a mild and careful nurse who has to meet the dead and wounded soldiers almost time. In the war, she loses her first true lover. Her second husband abuses her all the time because he suffers serious trauma in the war. The only

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

male character in the novel who can understand Brett is Jake. If Jake did not suffer an injury to his genitals, Brett and he would be a perfect couple. Hence, Brett’s ideal love and world values are destroyed by the cruel war. At that time, the women’s movement promotes Brett to transform from a traditional female to a new woman. So Brett just imitates the behavior of the male’s, she does not achieve her own happiness from the lust and dominance. However, at end of the novel The Sun Also Rises, Brett decided to marry to Mike, just because only alcohol could satisfy him and he would not to destroy her freedom and could give her a goal of her hopeless life. All of that made Brett did not want to think about the future marriage life. For her, marriage was not firm and mean nothing to her. It implies that Brett is still hopeful to find the gender-balanced true love. Hemingway with his feminist consciousness describes an issue of gender, the necessity of eliminating inequality between sexes. Hemingway pursues for a harmonious relationship between genders.

5.Conclusion
From what had been discussed above, we can see clearly that the liberation of women and the outlet of women in The Sun Also Rises. In The Sun Also Rises, Brett remained true to herself at all times and rebelled against the traditional morals as a new woman, but she always made compromises with traditional morals. While she desired for complete freedom and equality with men,she did depend on men financially and emotionally. A complete new woman should not have been regretful for her new women’s behavior. However, Brett did not seem to have much happiness from her independence,because she could not completely forget the tradition morals. Being tortured seriously by the inner struggles and sense of guilt,Brett was not able to face the reality and future. Although Brett lived extravagant life, in her mind, her idea about love was very serious and sincere. In the end of the story, Brett returned to the marriage again, although she did not love Mike at all, she still needed the traditions to gain the sense

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

of safety and settlement. In the novel, Brett was unable to win over the male power and get out of male control in patriarchal society. Facing the female movement, the novel suggests that for the new women, it was impossible for women to get real independence from the men. Between men and women, there should not be fights or quarrels but understandings. As the new women, they should be harmonious with men can help the healthy growth of women. It is necessary that eliminate inequality between sexes and pursue for a harmonious relationship between genders.

Bibliography
Albert J. Defazio.(2005).Dear Papa,Dear Hotch.University of Missouri Press.

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

Bertram D.Sarason.(1965).“Lady Brett Ashley and Lady Duff Twysden”.Hemingway Vol.37, No.29.

Review.

Bertram D.Sarason.(1972). “Hemingway and The Sun Set”.Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America. Vol.507, No.19. George Green.(1976). “A Matter of Color: Hemingway's Criticism of Race Prejudice Handling of Race”. Journal of Narrative Technique. Vol.224, No.32. Mark Spilka.(1989). “The Death of Love in The Sun Also Rises”.American Literature: A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography. Vol.245, No.60. LindaWagner-Martin.(1994). “Hemingway's Search for Heroes, Once Again”. Twelve Original Essays on Great American Novels. Linda Wagner-Martin.(2007). “New Essays on The Sun Also Rises” .Studies in the Novel. Linda Wagner-Martin.(1978).“Brett Ashley as New Woman in The Sun Also Rises”.Hemingway Review.Vol.101, No.11. Lorie Watkins Fulton.(2005). “Reading Around Jake’s Narration: Brett Ashley and The Sun Also Rises”. Hemingway Review. Vol.135, No.21. Peter L.Hays.(1993)."Catullus and The Sun Also Rises".Hemingway Review.Vol.115, No.23. Richard P.Adams.(1975).“Sunrise out of the Waste Land”. Ball State University Forum. Sukrita Paul Kumar.(1961).“Woman as Hero in Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises”. Explicator. Vol.15, No.43. 曹明伦,2004, “海明威死亡意识中的宗教因素”, 国外文学第三期。 陈世丹,1998, “两幅不同时代的荒原画卷——海明威和张贤亮的作品比较” , 河南师范大 学学报(哲学社会科学版)第二期。 董衡巽, 1980,《海明威研究》, 北京:中国社会科学出版社。 彭程,2012, “梦之破碎与大地永在——《了不起的盖茨比》与《太阳照常升起》的主题比 较分析” , 青年文学家第二十六期。 石鹏,2012, “现代消费文化视角下的《太阳照常升起》 ” ,辽宁大学学位论文。 覃素红,2007, “两个失落世界里的弃儿——《太阳照常升起》与《支离破碎》的比较究” , 湖北广播电视大学学报第五期。 朱莉,2001, “丰富的内涵,深刻的思想——谈海明威三部长篇小说书名的寓意” ,安工业 大学学报(社会科学版)第一期。

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

Acknowledgements

中原工学院信息商务学院本科毕业论文

I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my supervisor, Chen xiaoting, whose advice, guidance and patience have aided me a lot during my study. Her expertise and skills have helped me greatly during the whole process of completing this paper, without her guidance it would be impossible for me to manage and finish the writing smoothly. Her understanding and trust has endowed me with great power to move forward and keep on improving my paper. Due to her kindly assistance and valuable suggestions during the process of my thesis writing, I have made progress during the research. Her kindness to give her time so generously has been very much appreciated. It is my honor and fortune to be instructed and supervised by her during the eight-month thesis writing. I also want to extend my special gratitude to Professor Zhang yu, whose Academic Essay Writing Courses have bestowed me with a foundation on academic writing and enlightened me with the right way of doing research, Meanwhile, I would like to offer my particular thanks to my friends and family, for their encouragement and support for the completion of this thesis. Without their help and kindness, I would not be able to finish the paper writing or stick to my research.


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