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有关高中美术素描 绘画基本功教学探讨中英文对照


有关高中美术素描 绘画基本功教学探讨中英文对照

About the high school art sketch painting to explore contrast in both Chinese and English basic skill teaching
学好素描,就像蹒跚学步的孩童,要扎实的走好每一步,脚印要清晰可见,素描作为造 型

艺术的基础, 是学好美术的重要条件, 因此任何人要学好美术, 都要把这蹒跚的步履走好。 我认为,要让学生学好素描,一是教师自身应具备良好的专业技能,二是应有科学的教学方 法,三是要将方法和技能用语言充分的表达出来,使技法和理论有机地融合在一起。 Learn sketch, like a toddler child, should seriously walk every step, the footprint is clearly visible, as the basis of plastic arts, sketch is an important condition to learn art, so anyone want to learn art, sends the tottering steps go well. I think, should let students learn sketch, one is that teachers themselves should have good professional skills, 2 it is to should have a scientific teaching method, three is to change the method and skills fully expressed in words, make the technique and theory organically fuses in together. 一、素描教学是基础教学,应以培养学生掌握好基础知识和技能为目的 Sketch teaching is the foundation teaching, should be good to train students to master basic knowledge and skills for the purpose 不管什么风格的基础素描, 它的基本要求是一致的, 只是对素描造型诸要素各有不同的 侧重而已。我认为在基础素描教学中应本着现实主义的原则,尤其是对于初学者,要求用写 实的手法表现对物象的真实感受。作品应以客观物象为依据,在教师的指导下,让学生根据 对物象的认识和感受, 艺术地表现一定环境与光影下的具体物象。 学生的主观感受应依据客 现物象并受制于客观物象,但也不能一刀切,要求千篇一律,因为每个人对美的欣赏与理解 没有固定的格式,要有一定的差异,如果要求必须一致,那么美术作品就会失去"生命",也 会夺去艺术个体的个性展现,所谓"艺术地表现"是指概括、取舍、加强、减弱等艺术处理, 但要讲求个性,因为个性是艺术的生命。 No matter what style is the basis of the sketch, it is the basic requirement of consistent, just to sketch design all elements have different focus. I believe in the basic sketch teaching should be based on the principle of realism, especially for beginners, request performance to realistically of object's true feelings. Work should be based on objective image, under the guidance of teachers, let the students according to the object's understanding and feelings, art to a certain environment and under the light of the specific object. Students' subjective feeling should be based on the objective object and subject to the objective image, but also can't one size fits all, require the same, because everyone has no fixed format of beauty appreciation and understanding, have certain differences, if requirements must be consistent, then art will lose "life", will also take art show

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individual character, the so-called "art performance of" refers to generalization, trade-offs, strengthening and weakening of artistic processing, but should be particular about personality, because personality is the art of life. 素描教学训练要以培养学生对物象的认识能力、 观察能力、 表现能力和审美能力为目的, 即要达到基础训练所必须具备的各项要求,掌握好基础知识和技能。同时,又应指导学生以 客观物象为依据,表现物象的真实,以写实的手法表现对物象的真实的个人感受。 Sketch teaching training to foster student understanding of object ability, observation ability, expression ability and aesthetic ability, for the purpose of the foundation to achieve the requirements must be provided by training and mastering basic knowledge and skills. At the same time, we should guide students based on objective image, performance object in the real, in realistic real personal experience of the object. 二、在素描基础教学上应抓住两个主要环节,保证学生不脱离严格训练的轨道。 Second, on the basis of the sketch teaching should seize the two main link, ensure that students are not out of the orbit of strict training. 这两个环节是:轮廓准确和注意整体。要求轮廓准确是克服造型似是而非的主要办法, 造型似是而非是初学者最普遍的毛病。 要求轮廓准确, 可以培养学生在学习上严格的作风和 求实的态度。 这里所说的轮廓准确并不是说要在素描的第一阶段就细抠轮廓。 我认为第一阶 段打轮廓时能做到构图恰当、比例准确、要点鲜明、形象明了,就应该说是轮廓准确了。注 意整体是观察物象和处理画面的一种方法,这个方法掌握得是否恰当直接影响着作品的质 量。因此,教师在向学生传授技法时,更要重视引导学生学会正确观察物象的方法,它与学 习成绩的优劣和进度的快慢有着直接的联系。 This two link is: contour accuracy and attention to the whole. Accurately contour is a main way to overcome the modelling specious, modelling is specious beginners the most common problems. Contour accurately, can cultivate students in learning rigorous style of work and the realistic attitude. This outline is not accurate to say to want to in the first phase of the sketch is fine pick contours. I think the first phase of the contour can appropriate composition, proportion of accurate, distinct points, image is clear, you should outline is accurate. Attention is to observe object as a whole and a method of processing image, the method to acquire proper directly affects the quality of the work. Therefore, when teachers teach students the skills, should attach importance to guide the student to learn more correct observation object, the method of the pros and cons of it and learning performance and the progress of the speed has a direct link. 整体观察是造型艺术的根本法则, 它的实质是便于比较。 学生能否把所要刻画的物象整 个地控制在自己的视域之内, 在处理局部时能否考虑到整体, 是教师在教学中需要不断提示 和强调的重要方面, 要让学生养成自觉地进行整体观察的习惯。 与此同时也要在教学中注意 引导学生的集体主义观念,把德育教育渗透其中,使学生明白,自己就是整体中的一员,要 服从整体要求。

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The overall observation is the fundamental rule of plastic arts, the essence of it is easy to compare. Students can control the object to describe the whole land within their own vision, when dealing with local whether considering the whole, is a teacher in the teaching need to be continually hints and emphasizes the important aspects of, to make students form the habit of consciously to carry on the overall observation. At the same time also should pay attention to guide students in the teaching concept of collectivism, the moral education infiltration among them, to make the students understand, oneself is a member of the whole, are subject to the overall requirements. 三、"由浅入深、由表及里、由简到繁、循序渐进" Three, "distinguished, situated in, by Jane to numerous, step by step" 应本着"由浅入深、由表及里、由简到繁、循序渐进"的原则进行素描训练,不仅要有长 远的总目标,而且要有分段实现的具体目标和要求。在不断循序渐进和适当重复的过程中, 才能牢固掌握造型规律及其有关知识和技能,才能得心应手地表现各种环境下的复杂事物。 为了打好坚实的基础,习作应以长期作业为主,这样便于领会教师的指导,便于深入理解、 反复校正和进行探索。 教学上的严格要求也主要体现在长期作业中, 教师要向学生说明长期 作业的重要性,对各种不良倾向要及时加以纠正。同时,也要布置一些短期作业作为辅助, 使写生与构图相结合,记忆、想象和速写相结合,以避免学生在长期作业中容易出现的观察 力迟钝以及画面板、腻的缺点。习作的优劣还取决于观察事物的深度和知识面的广度,取决 于艺术修养和技术水平的高低。因此,教师对学生的"画外功夫"要正确引导,鼓励学生多掌 握一些课外知识,如文学、美学、历史等方面的知识,使他们多了解不同素描流派产生和发 展的过程以及它们的主张和特点。这样能够使学生扩大知识面、开扩眼界,有助于提高绘画 水平。 Should be in line with "1, situated in, by Jane to numerous, step by step" principle sketch training, not only should have the overall goal of the long term, and has segmented the specific goals and requirements. In the process of gradual and appropriate repetition, to firmly grasp the modelling rule and its relevant knowledge and skills, can be appropriately to performance under various environmental complexity. In order to lay a solid foundation, studies should give priority to with long term assignments, it is easy to grasp the guidance of teachers, facilitating a deep understanding, repeated correction and explore. Strict requirements on the teaching is mainly reflected in the long-term operation, the teacher wants to tell students the importance of long-term operation of all kinds of bad tendency should be corrected in a timely manner. At the same time, also want to some short-term assignments as auxiliary, the combination of painting and composition, memory, imagination, and sketches, to avoid students prone to observation in the long-term operation board, the shortcomings of be bored with dull and picture. The pros and cons of paper also depends on the depth and breadth of knowledge, observe things depends on the art accomplishment and technical level of high and low. Therefore, the teacher to student's "kung fu" songs to guide correctly, students are encouraged to learn some extra-curricular knowledge, such as knowledge of literature, aesthetics, history, etc, to make them know more about different sketch style production and the development process and their ideas and characteristics. It can make students in expanding knowledge, expanding horizons, helps to raise the level of painting.

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四、在教学中,教师应要求学生善始善终。 Four, in the teaching, teachers should require students to begin to end well. 有的学生开始画的时候积极性很高, 新鲜感强, 观察力也比较敏锐, 但经过一段时间后, 观察力多少有些迟钝, 不能保持一种清醒和整体的感觉来检查画面的表现效果。 有些学生则 急于求成,时间一长就有种画烦了的感觉。这时,教师应及时提醒学生,不要轻易地把调整 修改这一步看做是作业结束时的修饰,而应认真对待,感到有不妥当的地方,一定要找出原 因,下决心把它修改过来。 Some students started to draw when enthusiasm is high, strong freshness, observation is keen, but after a period of time, observation is somewhat slow, can't maintain a sober and overall feeling to check the performance effect of picture. Some students have to rush, over time, have a kind of bored feeling. At this moment, the teacher should remind students in time, don't adjust easily to change at the end of this step as a homework, and should be taken seriously, feel inappropriate place, be sure to find out why, make up my mind to modify it. 调整修改应本着整体的原则,反复分析研究,反复比较,理解形与神的关系。要用第一 眼看到物象时那种新鲜强烈的感觉来检查画面效果, 找出画面与物象之间的差距, 检查物象 与物象之间的组织结构、 形体比例是否准确, 质量、 空间关系是否恰当, 主次虚实是否有序。 这些因素的调整,主要是通过反复的校对和比较,能够更深入地研究对象和表现对象。 Modify should be based on the principle of overall, repeated analysis and research, and compare and understand the relationship between shape and spirit. To use first saw object when that kind of intense fresh sense to check the picture, find out the gap between image and object, check the ratio between the object and the object of organization structure, form are accurate and proper quality and spatial relationships, whether false or true primary and secondary order. The adjustment of these factors, mainly through repeated checking and comparing, able to more deeply research object and performance. 五、在素描训练中,要注意培养学生的表现能力。 Five, in a sketch training, pay attention to develop the students' ability of performance. 学生进行素描训练,不仅是描摹现象,而且是艺术地再现;所画的那部分不仅是物象的 一部分,也是构成画面的有机组成部分;不仅要看这部分是否画对了,而且还要看它是否有 表现力。要求表现就是要讲究线条,讲究黑、白、灰,讲究概括,讲究画面的构成和组织, 要力求形神兼备,要像写文章那样讲究文采、像戏剧那样讲究韵味,要通过表现使素描基本 功成为创作性的艺术活动。因此,教师在教学中应注意发挥学生的个性特点。由于同一班的 学生受教师的影响比较大,要求他们做到风格多样是不可能的。所以,教师不要要求学生的 风格必须和自己一样,而应正确地引导、培养那些个性不同的学生,要跟他们共同探讨适合 于他们自身的表现方法以及发展的方向。同时,也要提醒他们,在基础未打好时就过分地热 衷于"个性"会给自己在一定程度上造成偏食的坏习惯,不利于今后的发展。

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Students sketch training, not only is to depict the phenomenon, and it is art reproduction; Painted that part is not only a part of the object, is an organic part of composition; Not only depends on whether this part of the picture by the way, but also whether it is expressive. Required performance is to pay attention to the lines, black, white, grey, and pay attention to sum up, pay attention to the picture composition and organization, to strive to win, to exquisite gift, like drama, like writing an article pay attention to lasting appeal, to make sketches the basic skills of creative art performance activities. Therefore, teachers in teaching should pay attention to play to the students' individual character characteristic. Due to the same class of students is influenced by teacher is bigger, asking them to do style diversity is impossible. So, the teacher don't require students to must be the same as your style, but should correctly guide and cultivate the personality of different students, to discuss with them for their own performance method and the direction of development. At the same time, also want to remind them, in the foundation is not good as overly keen to "personality" can cause oneself to a certain extent, the habit of partial eclipse, not conducive to the development in the future. 素描教学看似单调,实质趣味横生,更重要的是,他是美术的入门学科,无论将来怎样 发展,造型这一关都要从素描开始,只要我们掌握了科学的方法,就会收到理想的成效;而 学好了素描,对于进一步学好美术,就打下了扎实的基础,其意义是深远的。 Sketch teaching seem monotonous, real fun, more importantly, he is an introduction to art discipline, no matter how the future development, modelling this sketch will be start, as long as we master the scientific method, will receive the ideal effect; And to learn the sketch, for further learn art, has laid a solid foundation, its significance is profound.

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