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高考英语语法复习-名词性从句[课件]


Grammar
Noun clauses as the object and predicative 名词性从句 宾语从句 表语从句

名词性从句相当于名词,可分别作 主句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因 此,名词性从句可分为主语从句、表语 从句 、宾语从句和同位语从句。

宾语从句
宾语从句在复合句中起宾语作用,可以作 动词的宾语,也可以作介词的宾语。引导宾语 从句词有:

连词that,if,whether;
连接代词who,whose,what,which;

连接副词when,where,how, why等。

The Object Clause
e.g. 1) I think (that) women can reach very

high achievements in many fields of
science.

2) I wonder whether/if she remembered
how many babies she had delivered.

3) Do you know who/whom Jack was speaking to? 4) He asked whose car it was. 5) Pay attention to what the doctor said. 6) Please tell me when the earthquake took place. 7) Will you tell me how I can keep fit and healthy?

The Object Clause
做动词的宾语 (1)大部分宾语从句直接跟在动词后:

e.g.
He doesn't know where the post office is.

(2)有些宾语从句前要有间接宾语:
e.g. He told me what I should read.

The Object Clause
(3)如果宾语从句后面有宾语补足语,要使用
形式宾语 it 而将从句放到补足语后面;

e.g. I thought it strange that he failed to
call me. 我觉得奇怪:他没给我打电话。

(4)在think, believe, suppose, expect等动 词之后的宾语从句中,如果从句谓语是 否定含义,则不用否定形式,而将主句谓 语动词think等变为否定形式;

e.g. I don’t think you are right.
我想你是不对的。

The Object Clause
(5) 在think,believe,imagine,suppose, guess,hope等动词以及 I’m afraid 等后, 可用 so 代替一个肯定的宾语从句,还可用 not代替一个否定的宾语从句:

e.g. —Do you believe it will clear up?
你认为天气会转晴吗?

—I believe so. 我认为会这样。
I don't believe so.(或I believe not.)

我认为不会这样。

The Object Clause
做介词的宾语

(1)一般情况下,宾语从句直接跟在谓语 后; e.g. Did she say anything about how we should do the work? (2) that引导的宾语从句只有在except, in, but, besides等少数介词后偶尔可能用到;

e.g. Your article is all right except that
it is too long. (3)有时在介词和其宾语从句的中间加

形式宾语 it;
e.g. I’ll see to it that everything is

ready.

表语从句 在从句中作表语的从句称作表语从句。

1. that 引导的表语从句 that 仅起连接作用,无意义,在句中不 作任何成分,通常不可省略。这种从句 往往是对主句主语的内容起进一步解释 的作用。 e.g. The chance is that one smoker in four will die from smoking.

2. whether 引导的表语从句 连接词whether起连接作用, 意为 “是否、究竟、到底”(注意:if不能引 导表语从句) 在句中也不作任何成分。

e.g. The question is whether what man
will turn up in time.

The Predicative Clause
3. what, which, who, whom, whose引 导的表语从句

连接代词what, which, who, whom, whose 除在句子中起连接作用外,
还可在从句中从当主语、表语、定

语,且各有各的词义。

e.g. Tom is no longer what he used to be. The question is which of us should come first. The problem is who is really fit for the hard job. The important thing is whose name

should be put on the top of the list.

The Predicative Clause
4. where, when, why, how引导的表语从


连接副词where, when, why, how除 在句中起连接作用外,在从句中还

充当时间、地点、方式、原因状语,
本身具有词义。

e.g. That’s where I can’t agree with you. This is why Sara was late for the meeting. This is how they overcome the difficulties. My strongest memory is when I attended an American wedding.

The Predicative Clause
5. 其他连词as if, because, as, as though 引 导的表语从句 because 引 导 表 语 从 句 通 常 只 用 于 “This/That/It is because…”结构中。 as if/though 引导的表语从句常置于连 系动词look, seem, sound, be, become等 后面,常用虚拟语气,表示不存在的 动作或状态。

e.g. It sounds as if/though somebody was knocking at the door. My anger is because you

haven’t written to me for a
long time.

Exercises

1. Go and get your coat.It's_______you left it. A.there

B.where B
C.there were D.where there

2.The problem is_______ he has enough time. A.if B. whether B

C./
D. that

3.He made a promise_______ he
would help me. A.what

B.when
C.that C D.which

4.I remember_______ this used to be a quiet village. A.how

B.when B
C.where D.what

5.It is generally considered unwise to give a child_______ he or she wants. A.however

B.whatever B
C.whichever D.wherever

高考链接
1.---Are you still thinking about yesterday's game?

A . (2003北京春季) ---Oh, that's_______
A. what makes me feel excited B. whatever I feel excited about

C. how I feel about it
D. when I feel excited 解析: 这是由what 引导的一个表语从句,在从句中充当 主语,这句话的意思为:那是使我感到兴奋的事。故答 案为A。

2.---I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

A you had a few days off? ---Is that_______
(NMET1999)

A.why B.when C.what D.where
解析:这是一个由why引导的表语从句,表 示原因.这句话的意思是"这就是你离开 的原因吗?"。故答案为A。

3.Perseverance is a kind of quality and A that’s _______ it takes to do anything well.

( 2002上海春季)
A. what B. that C. which D. why

解析 :what 在表语从句中作 takes 的宾语 , 构 成"It takes sth. to do sth."的句型。答案为 A。

4.When you answer questions in a job interview, please remember the golden rule: Always give the monkey exactly_______ A he wants . (2002上海春季)

A.what B.which

C.when D.that

解析 : 这是一个宾语从句 ,wants 后面缺少 宾 语 ,Always give the monkey exactly what he wants是一句谚语 , 意思是 " 永远 给予他人他确实想要的东西"。故答案为 A。

Grammar
Noun clauses as the subject 名词性从句 主语从句 名词性从句相当于名词,可分别作主 句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因 此,名词性从句可分为主语从句、表 语从句 、宾语从句和同位语从句。

主语从句:

做主语用的名词性从句,因其在复合句中 做主语,又称主语从句,引导主语从句的 有连词that ,whether, 连接代词who , what ,which, 连接副词when,where, how, why等。

1.连接词: 1)从属连词:that, whether等. that 引导主语从句只起引导作用,本 身无实际意义,在主语从句中不充当 任何成分,但不能省略。
That she left him cut him to the heart.

由whether及其他连词引导的主语 从句放在句首,句后都可。
Whether it will please them is not easy to say.

2)连接代词who ,what ,which, whatever, whichever, whoever
What seems easy to some people seems difficult to others.

3)连接副词when,where, how, why等。
Why he did it remains a mystery.

2.位置: 主语从句可以前置,也可以 后置。用it做形式主语,而把主语从句, 在句末,常用下面几种句型。
1)It + be + 表语 +主语从句

表语:(名词, 形容词,过去分词)

It is a fact (a shame, a pity, good news…) that…
It is still uncertain whether he is coming or not.

2)It+不及物动词+主语从句 It seemed (happened, doesn’t matter, has turned out) that…
It happens that they were absent.

3) It +及物动词(被动语态)+主语从句
It has been decided that the exhibition will not open on Sundays.

注意:
1)主语从句在句首时,必须由连接词 引导,不能省略这些连接词;但是如果 用it做形式主语,而把主语从句放在句 末时,从属连词that可以省略。

误:They should like each other is natural. 正:That they should like each other is natural. 正:It is natural that they should like each other.

2)如果主语从句放在句首,不能用if引 导,但是如果用it 做形式主语,而把主 语从句放在句末时,也可以用if引导.
误:If Mary really heard him is really doubtful. 正:It was doubtful if Mary really heard him.

高考链接
1.I have always been honest and straightforward, and it doesn‘t matter ______that I’m talking to. A. who is it B. who it is C. it is who D. it is whom
【试析】这个句子是一个由and连接的并列句。 And后是一个含有主语从句的结构,其主句部 分是it doesn’t matter, 主语从句则是who it is that I’m talking to.而在主语从句中,又有一个 定语从句,修饰who. Who既是一个引导词,也 在it is中作表语.如果再细一点,说who是 (talking) to的介词宾语也可以。

2. It is pretty well understood ___ controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today. A. that B. when C. what D. how

【试析】主语从句中缺少做主语的成分,故选C.

3. _____ made the school proud was______ more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities. (2003上海春季)
A. What; because B. What ; that

C. That ; what D. That ; because 【试析】what 在此作连接代词,引导主语 从句,并在从句中作主语。that引导主语 从句时,只起引导作用,不作任何成分。

Grammar

The Noun Clauses as the appositive. (1)连接词 ① 从属连词:that, whether等。
that引导的同位语从句,that在从句中不充当成分, 只起连接作用。

e.g. He told me the news that he would come home from aboard soon. 他告诉我一个消息,他马上要从国外回国。
连 接 词 whether 引 导 的 同 位 语 从 句 , 只 用 whether引导,不用if。 e.g. I insisted upon an answer to my question whether he was coming or not. 我坚持要求他回答我的问题:他来还是不来。

②连接代词:what, who, which等。

what/which/who 引导的同位语从 句在从句中充当成分。 e.g. The question who should go abroad hasn’t been decided yet.

谁会出国这个问题还未决定。(主语) I have no idea which one I should choose. 我不知道该选哪个。(定语) Next comes the question what you want to put in the box.
其次就是这个问题:你要在盒子里放些什么。 (宾语)

③连接副词:how, why,when, where等。 e.g. It is difficult to answer your question about how black holes came into being.
黑洞是怎样形成的,你的这个问题很难回答。
(2) 同位语从句与定语从句的

区别:① 定语从句对先行词起修饰、限制的作用;
同位语从句具体说明它前面的名词的内容。

e.g. The news that you have heard is not true. (定语从句) 你听到的消息不真实。

The news that our team has won is true. (同位语从句) 我们队获胜的消息是真的。

②that 在定语从句中担任句子成分,
是关系代词;在同位语从句中不担

任句子成分,是从属连词。 e.g. The fact that we talked about is very important.
(定语从句) 我们所谈论的事实是非常重要的。 The fact that we succeeded pleased everybody.

(同位语从句)

我们成功了,这一事实让大家很高兴。

③ 举例分析
Example1:Information has been put forward ____ more middle

school graduates will be admitted
into universities.(NMET2001上海)

A. while
C. when

B. that
D. as

答案为B。more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities是 Information的内容,且Information不在从句 中作成分,所以该句为同位语从句。应将该句 区别于: It is said that more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities,this is the information ____ has been put forward. A. what B. that C. when D. as
答 案 为 B 。 that has been put forward 为 information 的修饰性定语,且 information 在从 句中作主语,所以该句为定语从句。

Example2:She heard a terrible noise,____ brought her heart into her mouth.(MET91) A. it B. which C. this D. that
答案为 B。分析语境含义、句子结构和句子成分可知,该句 为非限制性定语从句,先行词为a terrible noise,且它在从 句中作主语。应将该句区别于:

I can't stand the terrible noise ____ she is crying loudl A. it B. which C. this D. that
且the terrible noise不在从句中作成分,所以该句为同位语
从句。

答案为D。she is crying loudly是the terrible noise的内容,

The news that there are 活学活 用 no lives on the moon is known to us all. 同位语从句 The news that you heard is not true. 定语从句 Have you any idea who he went with? 同位语从句 Is there any hope that they will be home 同位语从句 in time? The problem that you referred to 定语从句 doesn’t exist at all.

Useful Structures and grammar exercises

Now please turn to page 34 and find three sentences (The Noun Clause) from the reading passage. ?The idea that they would cross the whole continent was exciting. ?The idea that you can cross Canada in less than five days is just wrong. ?The fact that ocean ships can go there surprises many people.

Match the parts of the
sentences in thefollowing exercise.
The possibility that the world is flat The idea pleased the Canadians. that more and more was exciting. people settle down in Canada that the weather in winter is not scientific. would be warmer

The hope

The fact
The belief

that we could go to France that there will be an earthquake

terrifies many people.
surprises me.

Note: Some of them may be used in different ways. Ensure the sentences are logical.

Consolidation exercises
① The fact ____ she works hard is well known to us all. A. that B. what C. why D. which ② The fact ____ he was successful proves his ability. A.that B. what C. which D. why ③ The news ____ he was kidnapped surprised us greatly. A.what B. that C. why D. when

④ His suggestion ____ the meeting be delayed was turned down. A. which B. that C. / D .it ⑤ I have no idea ____ he will start. A. when B. that C. what D./
⑥ I've come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won't be held tomorrow. A. if B. that C. whether D. which ⑦ The thought ____ he might fail in the exam worried him. A. when B. which C. what D. that

⑧ The order ____ the prisoner be set free arrived too late. A.which B. whether C. that D. what ⑨ The nurses are trying their best to reduce the patient's fear ____ he would die of the disease. A. that B. as C. of which D. which ⑩ He often asked me the question ____ the work was worth doing. A. whether B. where C. that D. when


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