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高中英语完形填空方法与技巧讲解


Welcome to our class!

Leading-in
Guess the missing words in the song I’m a New Soul.

Brain storming
New Soul I’m a New new soul I came to this strange I’m a

_______ _____ world take hoping I could learn a bit about how to ___ give and_________. But since I came here fear felt the __ joy and the _________ finding myself making _____ every possible ___________ mistake la-la-la-la-la-la-la-la... young soul in this very ______ I’m a ________ strange world fake hoping I could learn a bit about what is ___ true and ________. But why all this hate try to communicate finding trust and love is not always easy to make. la-la-la-la-la-la-la-la...

Cloze test
Methods & Skills

命题特点
1.完形填空主要是在语篇语境中考查 词汇 知识。 2.完形填空的体裁多以 记叙文 为主,偶 有议论文、夹叙夹议的文章或说明文。 3.要求选择填空的词常为实词(如名词、动词、 形容词 、副词等)着重词义辨析能力的考查;代 词、冠词、介词、连词(包括从句的连接词)考 得较少。 4.首句不设空。 5.逻辑链上挖空(原文中有线索词提示)。 6.选项设计:同一词类、同一语法形式。

完形填空的解题步骤
跳过空格,通读全文, 把握大意
结合选项,综合考虑,初定答案 瞻前顾后,先易后难, 各个击破 再读全文,反复检查

三种主要解题技巧: 词汇运用 推理判断 紧抓主旨

一、词汇运用
利用所学词汇,根据文章大意辨析词义,选出 最佳选项,如: The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without _____ his notes. A. bring up B. referring to C. looking for D. trying on 【思路点拨】 B。此题考查短语动词的区别,这 四个短语的基本意义为:bring up“养育,提出, 吐出”, refer to“论及,谈到,参考”,look for“寻找”, try on“试穿”,根据题义:“经理 在商务会议上讲了一个小时没看讲稿”。应选B。

二、推理判断
我们可以从以下几方面进行推理判断: 1、运用“前置信息”与“后置信息”,即 语境 2、运用复现词语 3、运用同义词或近义词 4、运用反义词 5、运用上下义词 6、运用逻辑关系 7、运用生活常识及文化背景知识

1、运用“前置信息”与“后置信息”

充分利用文章的上下文和前后句,找到对选择有提示作 用的词或句。例如:

Stevenson, a Scotsman, had lived ____ for many years. In 1881 he returned to Scotland for a holiday. A. alone C. at home B. next door D. abroad

2、利用复现词语
有时为了表达的需求,在上下文中有同一概念 出现,可以借助这一信息选择正确答案。 All of a sudden I started to feel rather _1__. She wondered why I was looking for this sort of_2_ . I felt even more hopeless when she told me that it would be difficult to get a job without experience. 1. A. encouraged B. dissatisfied C. hopeless D. pleased 2. A. place B. job C. advice D. help

3、利用同义词或近义词
在英语中有时为了避免重复,常用意思相同或 相近的词或解释性的语言来连接上下文。

I remember as a child I said something _______ about somebody, and my father said, “Any time you say something unpleasant about somebody else, it’s a reflection of you.” A. unkind B. unnecessary C. unimportant D. unusual
【思路点拨】 A。近义词复现,从后暗示 unpleasant得知答案。

4、利用反义词 语意的连贯有时通过对比的结构采用反义 复现的手段,或者是以反义的方式对前文 加以解释。应注意分析这类概念复现,从 反义的角度判断正确的选项。 Some parts of the water are very shallow(浅的). But in some places it is very __. A. high B. deep C. cold D. dangerous

5、利用上下义词
上义词是总称词,下义词是被包含的 个体。它们是包含与被包含的关系。如: food是bread, noodle, milk, rice的上义词, 反之bread, noodle, milk, rice是food的下 义词。

1. He taught her how to rely on her other

____, specifically her hearing…(NMET 2010 湖北卷) A. feeling B. organs C. skills D. senses 2. I…dropped all the coins into… “It proved to be a waste of _______,” I thought… A. words B. effort C. space D. money

6、利用逻辑关系

如表示结构层次的firstly, secondly, finally等; 如表示并列关系的and, or, besides, as well (as)等; 表示因果关系的thus, therefore, so等, 表示改变话题的by the way; 表示递进关系的besides, what’s more, further 等, 表示转折关系的however, but, while, on the other hand等 等。 做题时如果能充分利用这些过渡词汇,就可 以迅速理清文章脉络,弄清上下文的关系。

【小试闯关】

1. We arrived in Spain for the first time a few weeks ago. I decided to buy a car because we had sold the one we had in England before____home.
A. leaving B. making C. returning D. getting
【思路点拨】此题考查行文逻辑中的因果关系、时间先后 顺序。从第一句的arrived可知题2选A(leaving)。

2. She was small in figure but strong in ____. A. brain B. wish C. will D. health

根据连词确定选项。

7、运用生活常识及文化背景知识
了解生活常识,确定相关知识

1.It was an early morning in summer. In the streets, sleepy-eyed people were moving quickly, heading towards their____. This was the beginning of another ordinary day in New York City. A. jobs B. homes C. buses D. offices 2.(Immediately)the officers jumped into their cars and rushed to the___ hospital. A. animal B. biggest C. plant D. nearest

三、紧抓主旨 作者往往通过首句或首段揭示文 章的主旨大意,体现文章的题材、 体裁。在做完形填空时,我们要理 清文章思路,把握作者的态度或 思想情感,这对做好一篇完形有着 非常重要的作用,否则可能导致几 个空格的连续选填失误。

Bedtime stories are one of the delights of early childhood. According to Dr. Julie Spreadbury from Queensland University, Parents should not __1___ reading to their children after they enter primary school. 1.A. speed up C. give up B. keep up D. hold up

解题误区
做完形填空时,除了依据所学语言知识和解题技 巧外,还应避免几个误区。 1、单纯求快,忽略语篇理解,只看局部的词义辨析、 搭配和语法结构,试图用语言知识解决所有问题。 2、时间安排不当,做完形填空的时间应控制在15分 钟左右。正确的做法是由易到难。

Task: Use the methods you have learned to analyse your homework.

It has been argued by some that gifted ____ children should be grouped in special classes. The 1 has been on the______ belief that in regular classes these children in their intellectual _____ children are held back intellectual ( ___________________________________ 反义暗示 智力的) growth by 2 situation that are designed for the 3 同一话题(场景)暗示 反义暗示 同一话题暗示 children. gifted There can be little doubt that 4 classes can help the gifted _____________________________ children to graduate earlier ____ and take their place in life sooner. ____ However these 5 out of the regular classes may create However, to take these serious problems. 因果暗示 1. A. principle B. theory C. arguments D. classification 2. A. designing B. grouping C. learning D. living 3. A. smart B. curious C. mature D. average 4. A. regular B. special C. small D. creative 5. A. children B. programs C. graduates D. designs

Practice makes perfect ! 同词(同源词)暗示 NMET 2011 Guangdong Cloze Test

与 gifted 近义暗示
However, to take these 5 out of the regular classes may create serious problems. gifted children I observed a number of 6 children who were taken out of a special class and placed in a 7 class. In the _________________ special class, they showed_________ little ability to use their own judgment, relying 8 on their teachers’ directions. In _________________________________ 反义暗示 因果暗示 the regular class, having no worry about keeping up, _______ they began to reflect 9 on many problems, some of 反义暗示 which were not on the school program. 因果暗示

5. A. children B. programs C. graduates D. designs 6. A. intelligent B. competent C. ordinary D. independent 7. A. separate B. regular C. new D. boring 8. A. specially B. slightly C. wrongly D. heavily 9. A. directly B. cleverly C. voluntarily D. quickly

同词(同源词)暗示 Many are concerned gifted children become _________ that ______ 10 and_____________________ lose interest in learning. However this this 11 is more often from_____________________ parents and teachers than from 近义暗示 students, and 近义暗示 some of these these 12 simply conclude that special classes should be set up for those who 上下义词暗示 are 13 . Some top feel bored ___ students do ____ _____ in class, but why they 14 so so goes far beyond the work they have in school. Studies have shown that to be _____ bored 近义暗示 同词(同源词)暗示 is to be anxious. bored is an _______ The gifted child who is______ 15 child. 同词(同源词)暗示 10. A. doubted B. bored C. worried D. tired 同词(同源词) 11. A. concern B. conclusion 暗示 C. reflection D. interest 12. A. students B. adults C. scholars D. teachers 13. A. talented B. worried C. learned D. interested 14. A. believe B. think C. say D. feel 15. A. outstanding B. intelligent C. anxious D. ordinary

Summary
1. In a cloze, a clue word can be found either before or after a blank. 2. In an article, there are lots of clue words.

Homework
1. Get a better understanding of the basic skills we
have discussed in this class. 2. Finish another Cloze Test in your papers. Do remember to apply the above skills.


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