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三大从句之宾语从句


宾语从句: 在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句。通俗的说就是一个句子做另一个句子的宾语. 主要跟在及物动词和介词之后。一般由“引导词+主语+谓语+其它”构成,其语序是陈 述句语序。 如何判断: 1.可以从整个句式看,宾语从句只能放在主句谓语动词之后。 2.从引导词看。if 充当宾语从句的连接词时,相当于 whether,词义为“是否”,when 充 当宾语从句的连接词时,意为“

什么时候”。 3.从时态看。if 和 when 作连接词时,引导宾语从句要注意:从句的谓语动词的时态应根 据主句的时态作相应的变化。 所以宾语从句的三大要素:时态 前世今生: I know you . you are right.→I know you are right. /I know ? 引导词 ? that (后面是陈述句) ? what which who I believe that you are an honest boy. I don’t know what they are going to do. what are they going to do? whose where whom when Tell me whose PSP it is.(whose PSP is it?) Can you tell me where he lives? where does he live? Why how I know why he was late. (why was he late?) that you are right. 语序 引导词

(特殊疑问句) ? if / whether(一般疑问句/是否) I want to know if Miss Gao is back.

Is Miss Gao back?
? 另外,含 how 的词组也可引导宾语从句。主要有 how old,how many,how much, how long,how often,how far 等。如:Do you know how old he is?

? 语序:宾语从句的连词后要用陈述句语序。 (主谓语句,即引导词后面直接跟主语) Who can tell us ———— over there?

A.what they talk about B.what do they talk about C.what are they talking about D.what they are talking about 注意: what was the matter 这个比较特殊,特殊疑问词在句中做主语时从句不改变语序。

? 时态 ? 主过从过:主句是过去的时态,从句要变成相应的过去的时态。从句动词过去式。
一般现在时→一般过去时;一般将来时→过去将来时;现在进行时→过去进行时;现在完成时→过去完成时

? 主现从随便:主句是一般现在的时态,从句根据句子选择。 She says that she is a policewoman. She says that she will fly to Japan. She said that she She said that she a policewoman. fly to Japan.

? 真理规律永一现:真理、自然规律永远是一般现在时。 The teacher said that the earth moves around the sun.

宾语从句注意事项
? 主句的谓语动词是 say, think, tell, know, hear, see, feel, mean, hope, wish, remember, forget 等时,或主句的谓语动词是由形容词 afraid,glad,sure,sorry 等作表语的系表 结构时,后面常接 that 引导的宾语从句。例如: He says that he wants to speak to the headmaster.他说他想和校长说话。 I think that we need to buy some meat for the party.我认为我们需要为聚会买些肉。 I'm sorry(that)he isn't here right now.对不起,此刻他不在。 ? 从句的引导词 that 能省略吗? that 引导的宾语从句用来陈述事实,that 本身无词义,在从句中不作任何成分,在口语中 常常省略。 I guess (that)somebody else has borrowed it.我猜是别的人把它借走了。 I'm afraid(that) you'll have to wait.恐怕你得等一下。 注意: ? 从句前面有插入语时,引导词 that 不能省略; ? 如果有两个并列的宾语从句,第二个从句的引导词 that 也不能省略。 She may tell you,for example,that she is interested in Chinese.例如,她可能会告诉你,她对汉语感兴趣。 Mr Read said(that)he taught English in a middle schoolin Beijing and that he came from Australia.里德先生说他在北京的一所中学教英语,他来自澳大利亚。 ? 连接代词和连接副词起引导宾语从句的作用,不再重复使用连接词,造成错误。 I can't see that what is over there. (× )此句中应去掉 that。 ? 可用连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句的动词或短语动词有 see,say,tell,ask, answer,know,decide,find out,show,remember, choose 等。如: We can't decide who should go to Beijing first.我们不能决定谁应该先去北京。 Read the story below and find out who Father Christmas is. 读下面的故事,弄清楚圣诞老人是谁。

?

否定前移;及完成反意问句;

主句是 I /We think /suppose /guess /believe imagine / expect 等, 动词后跟宾语从句否定 式时,应转移到主句上去,完成反意问句时,应与从句主/谓保持一致。 (注: 否定前移的条件是,主句主语是第一人称 I .We)

I don't think he is right ,is he? 我认为他是不对的,是吗? I don't believe they have finished their work yet, have they ?
例如:我认为鸡不会游泳。
我相信/认为他们还没有完成那项工作

误:I think chickens can not swim.正:I don't think chickens can swim.
注意:上述情况变成反意疑问句时,附加问句要看从句,如果主句的主语不是第一人称,则附加问句要 看主句。试比较:

I think he is wrong,isn't he?

He thinks he is right,doesn't he?

? 特殊疑问句变宾语从句五注意
一、在引导词上,要将疑问代词或疑问副词变为连接代词或连接副词,引导宾语从句。如:

Whose bike is this?Does anybody know?→ Does anybody know whose bike this is?
二、宾语从句的时态应与主句的时态保持一致。如:

When the train will arrive?He asked me.→ He asked me when the train would arrive.
三、在语序上,要将疑问句语序改为陈述句语序。如:

Which one do you like best?She askedme.→She asked me which one I liked best.
【注意】疑问句中主语之前的助动词若是 do/does /did,变为宾语从句时,要先将其去掉,谓语动词 再根据时态作相应的变化。 四、特殊疑问词在句中作主语,变为宾语从句时语序不变(时态应作相应变化) 。如:

Who can answer the question?The teacher asked. →The teacher asked who could answer the question.
五、特殊疑问句变为宾语从句后,用问号还是用句号完全取决于主句的句式:如主句为陈述句、祈使句, 句末就用句号;如主句是疑问句,句末就用问号。如:

I don't know when we shall start tomorrow.

Do you know when we shall start tomorrow?

? 宾主从句的简化
⑴ 当主句的谓语动词是 hope , agree,wish,choose,decide,promise 等,后面带宾语从句,且主从句 主语相同时,可以简化成不定式结构作宾语。

We hope that we shall see you soon.→We hope to see you soon. She agreed that she would help me with my English. →She agreed to help mewith my English.
⑵ 当主句谓语动词是 know,learn, forget,remember 等词时, 后面带的宾语从句可简化成“疑问词+不定式”结构,此时,主从句主语也须一致。

I really don't know what I should do next.→I really don't know what to do next. She didn't know whether she should go or not.→She didn't know whether to go or not. I have forgotten how I can open the door.→I have forgotten how to open the door.
⑶ 当主句谓语动词是 ask,tell, show,teach 等,后带双宾语,且从句主语和间接宾语一致时, 宾语从句可转化成“疑问词+不定式”结构。

Could you tellme how Ican getto the postoffice? →Could you tell me how to get to the post office? Please tell me where I can find him.→Please tell me where to find him.
但是,如果间接宾语和从句的主语不一致,一般不要把宾语从句简化,否则会产生歧义。

He didn't tell me where he wouldgo.→He didn't tell me where to go.
简化的句子涵义可能有以下两种:“他没有告诉我他将去什么地方。”或“他没有告诉我将去什么地方。” ⑷ 当主句的谓语动词是 order(命令) ,require(需要)等时,如果主句和从句的主语不一致, 宾语从句可转化成“名词(代词)+不定式”结构。

The headmaster ordered that we should start at once. →The headmaster ordered us to start at once. ⑸ 除了以上用不定式简化宾语从句之外,也可以采用另外一些结构。 He insisted that he should go withus.→He insisted on going with us. We found that the box was very heavy.→We found the box very heavy.

?

宾语从句和状语从句的分辩。

当 if 解释为“是否”时,其引导的是宾语从句。遵循宾语从句的时态规则。

He doesn’t know if she will come tomorrow.
当 if 解释为“如果”时,其引导的是条件状语从句。遵循的是“主将从现”的时态规则。

She will come if she has time tomorrow.

? if 和 whether 的区别
一、if 或 whether 引导宾语从句时,作“是否”讲,常放在动词 ask 、see 、say 、know 和 find out 等后 面。一般情况下,两者常可换用,在口语中多用 if。 Nobody knows whether (if) it will rain tomorrow. 没有人知道明天是否下雨。 Lucy asked whether (if) they had a cotton sweater .露西问他们是否有棉制的羊毛衣。 二、if 和 whether 的区别: ⑴ 在动词不定式之前只能用 whether 。 ⑵ 当 whether 与 or not 在一句中时,只能用 whether。 ⑶ 在介词后,只能用 whether。 ⑷ 宾语从句放在句首表示强调时,只能用 whether 。 ⑸ 在及物运动 discuss 后的宾语从句中,只能用 whether。 ⑹ 引导主语从句时,只能用 whether。 ⑺ 引导表语从句时,只能用 whether。 ⑻ 引导同位语从句时,只能用 whether。 例:I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。 例: I don't know whether or not they will come for our help. 我不知道他们是否要来求我们支援。 例: I want to know whether it’s good news or not . 我想知道是否是好消息。 例: His father is worried about whether he lose his work . 他的父亲担心是否会失去工作。 例: Whether they can finish the work on time is still a problem . 他们是否能准时完成这项工作还是个问题。 例:We’re discussing whether we’ll go on a picnic. 我们在讨论是否要去野餐 例:It is unknown whether he will come. 他是否来还不知道。 例:Whether the news is true remains a question. 这个消息是否真实仍然是个问题。 例:What we want to know is whether he will come to speak to us tomorrow. 我们想知道的是他明天是否来给我们讲话。 例:The question is whether they can take our advice.问题是他们是否能接受我们的意见。 ⑼ If 可以用来引导一个否定的宾语从句,whether 不能用来引导否定的宾语从句,因为它表示正反两 方面的选择意义比较强。例如: 例:Tell me if it is not going to rain, please. 请告诉我明天是否不会下雨。 例:He considered if he shouldn't tell her the secret. 他考虑他是否不该告诉她这个秘密。 ⑽ if 除引导宾语从句外,还可以引导条件状语从句,作“是否”解。 在容易引起混淆产生歧义的情况下,就不可用 if,而用 whether。例如: ① Please let me know if you intend to come.这个句子有两种解释: A: “请让我知道你是否想来。 ”把 if 引导的从句看作宾语从句,把动词 know 视为及物动词(vt.); B: “如果你打算来,请让我们知道。 ”把 if 引导的从句当作条件状语从句,把动词 know 看作不及物 动词(vi.)。 在口语中,我们可以通过语调来表示两者的区别;但是,在书面语中,无上下文(如一张便条上写着这句 话),那就含混不清了。 如果我们想表达的第一种含义,就得用 whether 来改写第一句。 ① ~ know whether you ~. 又如: ② Let me know whether he has left for Shanghai. 告诉我他是否已经去上海了。 ③ Let me know if he has left for Shanghai. 如果他去上海,请告诉我一声。

练习: 1.Lucy told me she began to learn swimming. (what, when)

2.I don't know ————he will come tomorrow. (that, if) 3.I want to know ————he has been back. (how soon 多久以后 ,how long 多长时间) 4.I was really surprised at ———— I saw. (when, what)

1.I don't know A.whether B.where

he still lives here after so many years. C.what D.when

2.Could you tell me

the radio without any help? C.how he mended D.what he mended

A.how did he mend B.what did he mend 3.She asked Tom with his car?

A.what the matter was B.what the matter is C.what was the matter D. what is the matter 4.The teacher told us yesterday that December 25 A.is B.was C.has been D.will be he comes, I’ll tell you. Christmas Day.

5.I don’t know A.if; Whether 6.--- I wonder

he will come tomorrow. B.whether; Whether without water.

C.if; That D.if; If --- About a week.

A.how long man can live B.how long can man live C.when man can live D.when can man live

7.--- Will you please show me how to do the role-play exercise? --- Sure. Now let me tell you A.which to do B.how to do first. C.when to do D.what to do

8.She hasn’t decided A.whether

to go to Canada? (或是 when 也可以) ACCADADA

B.if C.why D.where


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