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人教版高一英语必修一Unit2知识点详解


必修 1

Unit2

Part 1. Warming up 1. Do you know that there is more than one kind of English? 你知道有不止一种英语吗? more than 的用法 (1)more than 用在数字前,意为“比......多;超过......”,more than o

ne 意为“不止一个” (含义为复数,但谓语动词用单数)。 More than one question was raised at the meeting.不止一个问题在会上被提出。 (2) more than 用在名词前, 表示程度或加强语气, 意为“不仅仅, 不只是”, 相当于 not only. He is more than a friend to me . He is my English teacher.他不仅仅是我的朋友,他还是我 的英语老师。 (3)more than 分开用在比较状语从句中时,意为“比......更......;与其......倒不如......”(肯 定定前面的内容,否定后面的内容) He is more brave than wise. 他有勇无谋。 The book seems to be more a picture book than a storybook. 这本书与其说是故事书倒不 如说是图画书。 (4)more than +adj.很......非常...... I'm more than glad to help you. 我非常乐意帮助你。 ┏ 知识拓展 ┓ (1)more .....than......的用法: more+adj./n.+than......为一个表示比较级的结构,意为“比。。。” The problem is more complicated than we expected.这个问题比我们预料中要复杂得多。 You've actually given me more help than I need. 你其实没有必要给我那么多帮助。 (2)not more than 意为 "至多,不超过",它相当于 at (the)most. He's only a child of not more than 10. 他仅仅是个不到 10 岁的孩子。 (3)no more ........than .........的用法 ① more than 后面常接数词,表示数量少,相当于 only, 意为“仅仅,只有” no To my surprise, no more than 5 members shared my idea. 令我吃惊的是,只有 5 个成员同意我的观点。 ② more ........than .........意为“和.......一样都不.......”,表示对前后两方面都否定。 no Don't ask him about it. He knows no more than you.别问他这件事了。 他和你一样对此一无 所知 例 China Daily is _____a newspaper. It helps improve our English. A.no more than B.no less tan C.more than D.not more than 2、Which country do you think has the most English learners? Part 2. Pre-reading, reading and comprehending 1、 the end of the 16th century, about five to seven million people spoke English.在 16 世纪末, At 大约有五百万到七百万人说英语。 辨析 at the end of , by the end of, in the end at the end of......... (1)在.........的末端,到........的尽头(表示场所) At the end of the road, you'll find the factory easily.在这条路的尽头你会很容易地找到那 家工厂。 (2)在........结束时,在........末(表示时间) I came across an old friend I hadn't seen for ages at the end of last month.上月底我偶然遇到 了一位多年不见的老朋友。

by the end of +将来某一时间,作时间状语,句子用将来完成时 eg. I will have finished reading the book by the end of next month. +过去某一时间,作时间状语,句子用过去完成时 例 3 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium ________in Beijing. A.would be completed B.was being completed C.has been completed D.had been completed in the end 最后,终于,独立作状语,句子用一般过去时。 2. Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that,English began to be spoken in many other countries. because of, owing to, due to, on account of, thanks to 都有“由于,因为”的意思,都是介词 短语,因此后面不可接从句。其中 due to 一般不置于句首。thanks to 可以表达正面意思,“幸 亏”,也可用于讽刺口吻中(近于讽刺口吻的“感谢”)。 用 because,because of 填空 He was late __________the heavy rain. (2)He was late __________it rained heavily. 3. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don't speak the same kind of English.以英语为母语的人,即使他们所讲的语言不尽相同,也可以互相理解。 even if/though 即使,尽管,用来引导让步状语从句。 Even if I didn't know anybody at the party,I had a good time.尽管在聚会上我谁也不认识, 但仍然玩得很开心。 Even though he has nothing else to do,he won't come to the concert. 即使他没事做,也不 会去听音乐会。 【注意】(1)若主句和从句皆表示将来的情况,则 even if 从句可用一般现在时代替 将来时。 We’ve decided to visit the museum even if/even though it rains tomorrow. (2)even if 从句的内容不肯定;而 even though 从句的内容则是事实。 He will not let out the secret even if he knows it.即使他知道这个秘密,他也不会说出来。 (他是否知道秘密不确定) He will not let out the secret even though he knows it.他虽然知道这个秘密,却不肯说出 来。(他知道这个秘密) 例 The engineers are so busy that they have no time for outdoor sports activities, __________they have the interest. A. wherever B. whenever C. even if D. as if 4. I’d like to come up to your apartment. come up 意为:走近;上来;提出;露出地面,发芽;发生 The sun has come up. 太阳升起来了。 The farmers will come up to Beijing. 那些农民要去北京。 The seeds haven’t come up yet. 种子尚未发芽。 The question hasn’t come up yet. 问题尚未被提出。 归纳总结 come about 发生 come over 顺便来访 come on 赶快,快点;加油 come out 出来,出版 come down 下来,传承 come across 偶遇,碰到 come true 成为现实 come up with 想出,提出 come at 向.......扑来,攻击 come from 来自 例 They______a new proposal for pushing sales (促销)。

A.come up to B.come up with C.come over D.come around 例 用 come 构成的词组填空 (1)The hunter walked through the forest when suddenly a bear_________him. (2)The magazine __________once a month. (3)I wish you can ___________to England on your holiday. (4)He has_________new ways of saving energy. (5)They ___________an old friend in the street this morning. 5、It was based more on German than the English we speak at present.当时的英语更多的是以德 语为基础,而不是我们现在所讲的英语。 ① base........on........把.........建立在........上;be based on ........根据........,以......为基础。 注意: base.......on......短语中,base 用作及物动词, 在 主动语态中,base 后通常有宾语, 否则 base 应以被动的形式出现。 The story is based on/upon the fact.故事是以事实为基础的。 ② present n.礼物;adj.在场的,目前的;vt.赠送 The mountain bike is a birthday present from my parents.这辆山地自行车是父母送给我的 生日礼物。 I am afraid I can't help you at present.恐怕现在我没办法帮助你。 Were you present when the decision was announced?宣布那项决定时你在场? In the present case,I advise you to wait.按照目前的情况看,我建议你等等。 May I present my new assistant to you?请允许我向你介绍我的新助手好吗? 短语拓展 at present 意为:目前,现在 at the present time (=for the present)眼前,暂时 be present at the meeting 出席会议 be present to mind 放在心里;记忆犹新 present sb. with sth.=present sth. to sb.? 把某物赠给某人 注意:present (作前置定语)现在的,当前的;(作后置定语)出席的,到场的 He doesn’t know how to deal with the present situation.(前置定语,现在的,当前的) The people present at he meeting are advanced workers.(后置定语,出席的,到场的) 6.So by the 1600's Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider vocabulary than ever before. 所以到 17 世纪时,莎士比亚所用发的词汇量比以往任何时候都大。 by the 1600's 到 17 世纪时。The 1600's 也可以写成 the 1600s。 make use of 为固定短语,意为“利用”,在名词 use 之前可以加上形容词,表示不同程度 的利用。 Human beings,especially the Chinese, should make full use of their natural resources.人类, 尤其是中国人,应该充分利用自然资源。 注意:make use of 有时可用于被动语态中 短语拓展 make good use of 好好利用 make full use of 充分利用 come into use 开始被使用 in use 正在用 put to use 利用,使用 use up 用完,耗尽 例 If better use is ______your spare time, you'll make good progress in doing your business. A.spent B.made of C.used for D.taken 7、 example, India has a very large number of fluent English speaker.......例如, For 印度拥有许多

讲英语很流利的人.......... a large number of 许多,大量 A large number of students have failed the exam. 许多学生考试不及格。 辨析 a number of ,the number of a number of 后加可数名词复数,当该短语作主语时,谓语动词用复数,意为“许多,大量” the number of 后加可数名词复数,当该短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数第三人称形式, 意为“.......的数量” 例如,A large number of students have failed the exam and the number of them is30.许多学 生考试不及格,数量是 30. 例 The number of foreign students attending Chinese universities _________rising steadily since 1997. A.is B.are C.has been D.have been 8、Only time will tell. 这只能由时间来回答了。 tell vi.(确定地)说出;vt.分辨;区分。 It's too early to tell now.现在进行判断还为时过早。 I really can't tell which is which. 我实在分辨不出哪个是哪个。 知识拓展 (1)tell vt. 告诉。tell sb sth/tell sth to sb 告诉某人某事 He told the news to everybody he saw.他逢人便讲这个消息。 (2)tell vt. 命令;吩咐。tell sb to do sth 命令/吩咐某人做某事。 He was told to sit down and wait. 有人吩咐他坐下等着。 tell a lie 说谎 tell a story 讲故事 tell the difference between A and B 说出 A 与 B 之间的区别 tell (sb.) the truth 对(某人)说实话 例 If anyone happens to drop in while I am out,_________him or her leave a message. A.have B.get C.ask D.tell Part 3. Learning about Language 1.It is not easy for a Chinese person to speak English as well as a native English speaker.对中国 人来说,想把英语说得像英国人一样好,并不是件容易的事。 本句中 it 是形式主语,真正的主语是不定式 to do。该句是句式“It is/was+adj.(+for sb.)+to do...”的具体应用,for sb.表示不定式 to do...的动作是由谁发出的。? 当作表语的形容词是表示不定式逻辑主语的特征, 即形容词用来描述不定式行为发出者 的性格、品行等时,要用“It is/was+adj.+of sb.+to do...”句型。此类形容词常见的有: kind,nice,clever,wrong,right,foolish,wise,stupid,rude,careless,brave,polite 等。 在这种句型中, sb. 可以作句子的主语。 as well as 同级比较,“和....一样好”;还可表示“也,和”,连接主语时谓语动词采用就 远原则。Your elder brother as well as you is kind to me. as well 是副词,相当于 too,一般放在句末。 Mr Liu can speak English. He can speak French as well. might/may(just) as well do sth. 倒不如做。。。吧,还是做。。。的好 We might as well leave at once.我们倒不如立刻离开的好。 2. As we know, British English is a little different from/ than American English. 正如我们 所知道的那样,英式英语与美式英语有点儿不同。(P11) (1) as 在句中作关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句,代替后面整句话的内容,as 在定语

从句中充当动词 know 的宾语。 引导从句表示说话人的看法、 as 态度或给出某种解释或评论。 As is known to all, he is a great writer. 我们都知道,他是一位伟大的作家。 The earth is round, as we all know. 众所周知,地球是圆的。 (2) “a little+ 形容词或副词的原级”意为“有点儿……;稍微……”。 After working, he was a little tired. 工作后,他有点儿累了。 知识拓展 ①“a little+ 不可数名词”意为“少量的……;一点儿……”。 Eg. There is a little water in the bottle. 瓶子里有点儿水。 ②“a little+ 形容词或副词的比较级”意为“较……;稍微……一点儿” Eg. He is a little taller than I. 他比我高一点儿。 ③ 当 a little 修饰形容词、副词原级或比较级时,相当于 a bit,但 not a bit 却与 not a little 含义不同. not a bit 意为“一点儿也不”,相当于 not at all,而 not a little 相当于 very much. Let’s have a rest. I’m a little / bit tired. 我们休息一会儿吧。我有点儿累。 He has given us not a little trouble. 他给我们带来了很多麻烦。 ④“a bit of + 单数名词或不可数名词”意为“一小块……;一点儿……”。 3.Can you find the following command and request from Reading? command “n. /vt. 命令,指令,掌握” (1)in command of 由……指挥 under /in/at the command of sb.在……指挥之下 have (a) good command of 掌握;精通(尤指语言) (2)command sb.to do sth.命令某人做某事 command that...(should) do...命令…… He commanded the soldiers to attack. =He commanded that the soldiers (should) attack.? 他命令士兵们进攻。 I never promised to obey her commands. 作为命令, ( 指令时可数) 我从未答应服从她的命令。 Mr. Smith has (a )good command of spoken English.(作为运用能力,掌握时不可数,但 有时前可加 a) 史密斯先生对英语口语掌握得很好。 request v.& n.请求,要求 request sb.to do sth.要求某人做某事 request that sb (should) do 要求某人做某事 at the request of ab.=at one’s request 应某人的要求 request sth. from sb. 向某人索要某物 用所给词的适当形式填空 ⑴He requested me ________ (write) a letter of recommendation. ⑵He requested that I ________________(write) a letter of recommendation. ⑶The passengers _____________(request) to show their passports. Part 4. Using Language 1. Believe it or not, there is no such thing as standard English. 信不信由你,(世界上)没有什么标准英语。 (1)Believe it or not 在句中通常作插入语,表明说话者的语气或态度。 Eg. Believe it or not, the eight-year-old boy can speak 3 foreign languages. 信不信由你,这个 8 岁的男孩子会说三门外语。 【注意】believe sb 表示“相信某人所说的话”;believe in sb 表示“信任某人的本质”。 巧学妙用

I believe you but I don’t believe in you. 我相信你的话,但我不信任你这个人。 【知识拓展】常用作插入语的还有: judging from/ by 从……判断; generally speaking 一般说来; to tell the truth 说实话; to be sure 确切的说; to be frank 坦率的说; I think/ believe/ suppose 我认为/相信; You know/ see 你知道; To be honest 说实话 (2) such 与 all, no, some, any, few, little, many, much, several 连用时,应位于它们的后面, 但放在 a/ an 的前面。 many such books 许多这样的书 several such songs 几首这样的歌 no such kid 没这种孩子 当名词用表示多少的 many, much, few, little 等修饰时,用 so. so many people 那么多的人 2. This is because in the early days of radio, those who reported the news were expected to speak excellent English. 这是因为在早期的电台节目里,人们期望那些新闻播音员所说的英 语是完美的英语。 expect vt. 期望;指望;预期,在口语中作“以为;料想”讲,后面可接名词、代词、不 定式、带不定式的复合宾语及“that 从句”等。具体用法如下: (1)接名词或代词 She was expecting a phone call from her son. 她在等着儿子的电话。 (2)接不定式 You can’t expect to learn a foreign language in a month. 不要指望一个月就能学会一门外语。 (3) 接带不定式的复合宾语 I expect you to go home early. 我期望你早点儿回家。 (4) 接“that 从句”。 We expected that he would come to the meeting. 我们原以为他会来参加会议的。 (5) 接代词 so 或 not. --Is it going to rain this weekend? 这个周末会下雨吗? --I expect so. 我想会的。 --I don’t expect so. / I expect not. 我想不会的。 3. However, on TV and the radio you will hear differences in the way people speak. 然而,在电 视和收音机里,你也会听出人们说话时的差异。 (1)however adv. 可是,然而,在句中作插入语,常放在句首或句中,也可放在句末, 一般用逗号将其与句子隔开。 Eg. He promised to come. However, he didn’t come. 他答应来。可是,他并没有来。 【知识拓展】 however 也可引导让步状语从句, 一般后接“形容词/副词+主语+谓语动词”。 Eg. However hot it is, he will not take off his coat. 无论天多热,他也不会脱掉外套。 You cannot catch up with a car, however fast you run. 无论你跑多快,也赶不上汽车。 (2)in the way 是“以……方式”的意思,后面省略了定语从句的引导词。在定语从句中, 当先行词是 the way 时,如果在定语从句中作主语和宾语时,常用 that 引导;如果在定语从 句中作方式状语时,则用 that/ in which/ 引导或省略引导词。 This is the way that helps me a lot.这就是对我帮助很大的方法。 I don’t like the way he thought of. 我不喜欢他想出的方法。 I like the way (that/ in which) she organized the meeting. 我喜欢她组织会议的方法。 【短语拓展】 by the way 顺便说说,顺便提起 in a way 有几分,稍微,在某种程度上,有保留地

in the way 阻碍,阻挡,以……方式 on one’s way to 在某人去……的途中 例 you may have, you should gather your courage to face the challenge. A However a serious problem B What a serious problem C However serious a problem D What serious a problem 4. Geography also plays a part in making dialects. 地理位置对方言的产生也有影响。 play a part/role in 意为“在……中起作用,在……中扮演角色”。 Eg. The wheat plays an important part in our life.小麦在我们的生活中起着重要的作用。 He has played a part in the TV play. 他在这部电视剧中扮演一个角色。 5. So people from the mountains in the southeastern USA speak with almost the same dialect as people in the northwestern USA.因此,美国东南部山区的人同美国西北部的人所说的方言 就几乎相同。 (1)本句中的 the same 修饰 dialect,此时 dialect 后面的 as...应看作关系代词引导的定语从句。 (2)使用 as 时,它引导的定语从句中的动词可以省略,但使用 that 时定语从句中的动词不 可省略。 Women received the same pay that men received.女人得到的薪水和男人的一样。 (3)it’s the same with...意为“...也一样”,表示某人或某物的情况也适用于另一个人或物。 John studies well and is always ready to help others. And it is the same with Mike.约翰学习好, 又 乐于助人。迈克也一样。 【知识拓展】 “the same+ n. + as 引导的定语从句”表示同类事物;“the same + n. +that 引导的定语从句”表示同一事物;“the same+ n.+ when / where 引导的定语从句”中 when 和 where 在从句中作状语。 Eg. He wears the same hat that he wore yesterday. 他戴着昨天戴的那顶帽子。 (同一事物) I’d like to buy the same hat as he wears today. 我想买一顶他今天戴的那样的帽子。(同一类食物) The witness led the police to the same place where the robbery had happened. 目击者把警察领到了抢劫案发生的地方。(where 作状语) 【注意】“the same+ n.”之后接定语从句时,引导词的确定一要看引导词在句中充当的成 分,二要看从句所表达的内容是同一事物还是同一类事物。 6. Although many American move a lot, they still recognize and understand each other’s dialects. 虽然许多美国人经常搬迁,但是他们仍然能够辨别并理解彼此的方言。 recognize vt. 辨认出;承认;公认 Eg. She came home so thin and weak that her own children hardly recognized her. 她回家时又瘦又虚弱,连她自己的孩子都几乎认不出她来了。 Lawrence’s novel was eventually recognized as a work of genius. 劳伦斯的小说最后被公 认为天才之作。 【短语拓展】 recognize sb 认出某人 recognize one’s voice 听出某人的声音 recognize…as… 认定/承认……为…… recognize sb/ sth to be… 认为某人/ 某物是…… recognize that…… 承认…… 【辨析】 recognize, realize, know recognize 指原来很熟悉,经过一段时间的间隔或别的原因后又重新认出来。 realize 强调在经过一个过程后的了解。 know 是延续性动词,指相互间十分熟悉、十分了解。 例 用 recognize,realize 和 know 的适当形式填空

(1)Only after you lose your health will you

the importance of health.

(2) I’ve Tom for years. (3) I him as soon as he came in. 7. …, I meant by truck.…… 我的意思是坐卡车。 mean 的用法: ①mean vt. 意思是 What do you mean by saying so? 你这么说是什么意思? ②mean v. 意味着;有……的征兆,后接名词、动名词及“that 从句”,不能接不定式。 Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 赶不上这列火车意味着再等一个小时。 ③mean 后面接不定式作宾语时,意为“打算;意欲”。 I meant to help you. 我打算帮助你。 知识拓展 mean adj.卑鄙的;下贱的;吝啬的;小气的。 His wife's always been mean with money. 他的妻子总是对金钱很吝啬。 例-----You should have thanked her before you left. -------I meant________,but when I was leaving, I couldn't find her anywhere. A.to do B.to C.doing D.doing so 9、So she asks directions and then tells her friends.于是她问路然后告诉她的朋友们。 direction n.方向;指导;指示;用法;说明;作“指示,用法,说明”讲时,常用复数形式。 First you should learn how to ask directions in a strange place. 首先你应学会如何在一个陌 生的地方问路。 I can speak more English under the direction of my teacher. 在老师的指导下我会说更多的 英语了。 Please read the directions before drinking.喝前请先看说明书。 短语拓展 ask and give directions 问路和指路 in all directions/in every direction 向四面八方,向各方面 in/from the direction of...... 朝。。。方向 under the direction of...... 在。。。。指导下 according to one's directions 根据某人的指示 follow/obey/listen to one's direction 听从某人的教导 keep sb's directions in mind 记住某人的指示 10. fun 的用法 ▲构词:funny adj. 有趣的.滑稽的,好笑的;奇特的,古怪的 ▲搭配: ① make fun of 取笑;嘲弄;开某人的玩笑 ② (just)for / in fun = (just) for the fun of it 取乐,非认真地,说/做着玩的 ③ be full of fun…… 很好玩 ④ have fun with sb. 和某人开一个玩笑 ⑤ have (some) fun 玩得(很)高兴,玩得(很)开心 ⑥ It's (great) fun to do sth 干某事很有趣;干某事真是一件趣事;干某事真开心 ⑦ What fun (it is) to do sth! 干某事多么有趣呀! ⑧ have a lot of fun doing sth 干某事玩得很开心


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