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必修四unit2知识点


一.重点单词 1. hunger(n.& v.)饥饿,欲望;(使)饥饿 【拓展】hungry adj.饥饿的;渴望的 If crops are destroyed, thousands of people may go hungry. 2. sunburnt (adj.) 晒黑的 3. expand (vt.& vi.) 【拓展】 伸展,使变大

/>(1)expand into 把……扩展(发展、膨胀) expand on/upon 阐述,详谈 (2)expansion n.扩大,扩张,扩展 expansive adj.广阔的,易扩张的,易膨胀的 【即学活用】 (1)A child’s vocabulary ______________________(通过阅读得到扩大). (2)Why not try to __________________________(把你的故事扩展成小说)? (3)You mentioned the need for extra funding.__________________________(详细谈谈好吗)? 答案:(1)expands through reading (2)expand your story into a novel (3)Would you expand on that 【辨析】expand, extend, spread, stretch “展开,扩大”,不仅尺寸的增加,还可指范围和体积的扩大。 expand extend spread “伸出,延伸”,指空间范围的扩大,以及长度、宽度的朝外延伸,也可指时间的 延长。 “伸展,传播”,一般指向四面八方扩大传播的范围,如疾病传播,散布信息等。

“伸展,拉长”,一般指由曲变直、由短变长的伸展,不是加长。 stretch 4. freedom (n.) 自主,自由 5. export (vt.& vi.) 输出,出口 6. chemical (adj.) 化学的 【常用搭配】the chemical industry 化学工业 chemical weapon 化学武器 【拓展】chemist n.药剂师;化学家 chemistry n. 化学 chemistry teacher 化学老师 7. confuse (vt.) 使迷惑,使为难 【拓展】 (1) confuse A and (with)B 把 A 和 B 混淆了 be/get confused with…对…感到困惑 confused adj.迷乱的,感到迷惑的 confusing adj.难以理解的,不清楚的,莫名其妙的 (2)confuse 指“使……混乱,糊涂”,强调使人混淆而迷乱。 puzzle 是“使……迷惑”,多指某一复杂的事件或困难的问题“使……迷惑”。 【即学活用】 (1)Don’t give me so much information-________________________________(你都把我搞糊 涂了). (2)Waking up in strange surroundings __________(把她都搞糊涂了). (3)I’m always __________________________(分不清约翰和保罗) -which one is John? (4)That argument’s completely irrelevant-__________________(你把问题都搞乱了).

(5)She __________________(感到迷惑)when she heard his __________________(莫名其妙的 言辞). 答案:(1)you’re confusing me (2)confused her (3)confusing John and/with Paul (4)you’re confusing the issue(5)felt confused;confusing remarks 8. mineral (n.) 矿物,矿石 9. reduce (vt.) 【拓展】 减少,减缩

(常用于被动语态) (1)reduce sth.to...减少到…… reduce sth.by...减少了…… (2)reduction n.缩小;减少 make a reduction 减价 【即学活用】 (1)He ________________________ (陷入了绝望)at the sight. (2)The reform ____________________________________(把我们都降为公务员了). (3)She ________________________(体重减轻了 6 公斤). (4)The output of cotton this year ____________________________(减少了百分之二十). (5)She successfully __________________________(体重减轻到 40 公斤). 答案:(1)was reduced to despair (2)has reduced us to servants of the State (3)reduced her weight by 6 kilos (4)has been reduced by 20 percent (5)reduced her weight to 40 kilos 10. level (n.) 水平,程度 11. whatever (adv.) 无论什么 12. summary (n.) 摘要,总结,概要 13. exchange (v.) 交换 14. certain (adj.) 确定的 15. output (n.) 产量,输出 16. circulate (vt.& vi.) 循环,流传 【常用搭配】circulate about 在…附近流传 circulate among 在…中流传 【拓展】circulation n. 流通;循环;发行量 in circulation 在流通;在运行 out of circulation(书、货币等)不再发行 put…into circulation 使…流通(发行) 17. struggle (vt.& vi.) 斗争;拼搏,努力 【常用搭配】struggle for sth. 为争取…而斗争/奋斗 struggle against 为反对….而斗争 struggle to do sth.努力做某事 struggle to one’s feet 挣扎着站起来 【即学活用】 (1)They had to ____________________________________(与气候和野兽抗争). (2)They had to ____________________________________(和各种各样的困难作斗争). (3)She ___________________________(挣扎着想摆脱那个袭击她的人). (4)____________________(经过长期努力),the old woman gained control of her business. 答案:(1)struggle against weather and wild animals

(2)struggle with/against all kinds of difficulties (4)After a long struggle 18. grain (n.) 谷物,粮食,颗粒 19.suitable(adj.) 合适的 20.equip (vt.& vi.) 装备,配备 (1)be equipped with... =equip...with...用……装备…… equip sth.on...在……上装备某物 to be specially equipped 装备独特 equip sb.for...使某人具有…… be well/poorly equipped 装备精良地/差地 (2)equipment n.[U]设备,器材

(3)struggled to get away from her attacker

a useful piece of equipment for...一件有用的……设备 【即学活用】 (1)Our classroom __________________________________(配有一台电视机和一台录音机). (2)A good education ____________________(能受用终生). (3)Our school has been given some __________(新设备). (4)It was a modern,bright,____________________(设备精良的医院). 答案:(1)is equipped with a TV set and a taperecorder(2)should equip you for life (3)new equipment (4)well equipped hospital 21. super adj. 特级的;超级的;极好的 【拓展】super star 超级明星 super model 超级模特 super power 超级大国 22. regret vt.遗憾;惋惜 n.遗憾;懊悔 【常用搭配】 (1)regret doing sth.后悔做了某事 regret to do sth.(常和 tell,say,inform 等词连用)对将要做某事表示遗憾 regret that... 遗憾…… (2)with great/deep regret 很遗憾 (much)to one’s regret 让某人感到(很)遗憾的是 It is to be regretted that... 使人遗憾的是…… 【拓展】 remember to do sth.记得去做某事 remember doing sth 记得做过某事 mean to do sth. 打算做某事 mean doing sth.意味着做某事 try to do sth. 尽力做某事 try doing sth. 试着做某事 【活学即用】 (1)If you don’t do it now,__________________(你一定会后悔的). (2)He bitterly ______________________________(懊悔提起那件事). (3)She ______________________ (表示失望)the decision. (4)__________________(我遗憾地告诉你) that you haven’t passed the examination.

(5)________________(让她深感遗憾的是),she missed the good chance. 答案:(1)you’ll only regret it (2)regretted ever having mentioned it (3)expressed her regret at (4)I regret to tell you (5)Much to her regret 23.production n. 生产;产量;制造 【常用搭配】production costs/process 生产成本/过程 go into (full) production 开始(大量)生产/投产 【辨析】production, product, produce production 作不可数名词时指生产过程,通常是在人的帮助下或在工厂中进行;作可数名词 时指供剧院、电视台或广播台等上演或播放的戏剧、电影等。 product 作可数名词时常指工厂制造的用来出售的产品,或用来出售的自然产物,如木材、 煤等。 produce 作不可数名词时指销售时未经多大改变的农产品。 Demand for products like coal and steel is declining. Local people come to the market each day to sell their produce. 24.comment n.议论;评论 v.表达意见;作出评论 【常用搭配】make comments 表达意见;评论 comment on/upon 就…表达意见/作出评论 二.重点词组 1. rid...of 摆脱;除去 【拓展】get/be rid of 免除;摆脱 rob sb.of sth.抢劫某人某物 remind sb.of sth.提醒某人某事 inform sb.of sth.通知某人某事 cure sb.of a disease 医好某人的病 (1)You should __________________________(改掉那个坏习惯). (2)You are supposed to ____________________(克服粗心的毛病). (3)Please __________________ (提醒我一下这个约会)at this time tomorrow. (4)The lady ________________________(手提包遭抢劫) when she was walking in the street. (5)The doctors said they could not ________________________________(治好怀特先生的这种 怪病). 答案:(1)rid yourself of that bad habit (2)get rid of carelessness (3)remind me of the date (4)was robbed of her handbag(5)cure Mr.White of this strange disease 2.thanks to 幸亏,由于;因为 Thanks to your help, we finished the task ahead of time. 【拓展】 thanks to 可表达正面意思,也可以表达讽刺意味。它构成的短语在句中作状语时, 大多放在句首。 Thanks to his kindness, more than twenty people can stay with their families now. Thanks to the bad weather, the match had been cancelled. 3. be satisfied with….对…感到满意 【拓展】be satisfied to do sth.对做某事感到满意 be satisfied that…(某人)确信… to one’s satisfaction 使某人满意的是 with satisfaction 满意地 4. would rather 宁愿;宁可;最好

would rather 没有人称和数的变化,它通常用以以下三种句型: (1) would rather+动词原形 You would rather stay at home and do some reading this evening. (2) would rather do…than do…/would do…rather than do…宁愿做…不愿做.. I would rather stay at home than go out on Sunday. (3) would rather(that) sb. did sth./had done sth.宁愿某人做某事(从句的谓语动词用虚拟语气) 5. with the hope of…带着…的希望 【拓展】in the hope of doing…希望做… in the hope that 希望;期待 with the purpose of 怀有…的目的 with the intention of 有…的意向 6. make a difference 有作用;有影响 【拓展】make no difference 没有作用;没有影响;不重要 make a difference between 区别对待,不同样对待 7. be related to…与…有关系/联系 【拓展】 “与…有关系”的短语还有:be connected with, be concerned with 8. lead to 导致;造成(后果);通往,通向(to 为介词) 【常用搭配】 lead sb.to do sth.使某人做某事 lead/live/have a...life 过着……样的生活 lead sb.into 带某人进入 lead the way 引路,带路 (1)All roads ________________(通罗马). (2)What ________________(使你这么想)? (3)The cigarette end ______________(引起了这场火灾). (4)With the boy ______________(带路),we found the place easily. (5)He decided ____________________________________(把女孩领进经理办公室). 答案:(1)lead to Rome(2)led you to think so(3)led to the fire(4)leading the way(5)to lead the girl into the manager’s office 9. in need of 需要 【拓展】in need 在危难中,在危急中 there is no need to do sth.没有必要做某事 10. focus on 集中(注意力、精力等)于; (使)调节焦距 【拓展】concentrate on 集中于,专注于 put one’s heart into 全神贯注于 fix one’s eyes/attention on/upon 集中目光/注意力于 11. keep… free from/of 使…免受(影响、伤害等) ;使….不含(有害物) 三.重点句子 1. What do you think would happen if tomorrow there was suddenly no rice to eat? 如果有一天突然没有大米吃了,你认为会发生什么事? What do you think would happen…? 一句所使用的句型是一种复杂的特殊疑问。其结构是: 特殊疑问词+do you think+陈述结构,从语法角度看,do you think 是插入语。 When do you suppose they’ll be back? Which way do you imagine he went?

2. Indeed, his sunburnt face and arms and his slim, strong body are just like those of millions of Chinese farmers, for whom he has struggled for the past five decades.的确, 他那被太阳晒得黝黑 的面庞和手臂,以及他那瘦削而结实的身躯,就跟其他千百万中国农民一样,过去 50 年来, 他一直在努力帮助他们。 (1)those 为 that 的复数形式,用来指定特定的人或事物。 The demand of the girls is quite different from that of the boys. (2) for whom he has struggled for the past five decades, 这是一个由“介词+关系代词”引导的定 语从句,修饰前面的名词 Chinese farmers。 (3) for the past five decades 意为“在过去的 50 年里”,此短语常跟现在完成时连用,这种说 法还可以表示为:over/during/in the past/ last five decades. 3. Using his hybrid rice, farmers are producing harvests twice as large as before. 用他的杂交水稻种子,农民们种出了比以前的收成多一倍的粮食。 倍数的表达法: A is +倍数+比较级+than B A is +倍数+as+adj.+as B A is +倍数+the+名词(size, length, width, height, depth, weight 等)+of B Asia is three times larger than Europe. Asia is four times as large as Europe. Asia is four times the size of Europe. 4. Their output of grain and other crops, however, is still the same, which makes it possible for them to use the remaining farmland for planting trees. 然而, 他们的谷物和其他农作物的产量仍和以前一样, 这就使得他们能够用剩余的农田种树 了。 Which makes it possible…为非限定性定语从句, 其中 it 为形式宾语, 真正的宾语是 or them to use the remaining farmland for planting trees. 5. They often change the kind of crop in each field every few years, for example, growing corn or wheat and then the next year peas or soybeans. 在同一块地里,他们经常每隔几年就换种农作物。例如:种玉米或小麦后来年再改种豌豆或 大豆。 every few years 意为“每隔几年”。Every 与数词连用,表示“每….,每隔…”表示时间或空间的 间隔。具体用法如下: every + 基数词 +复数名词 every + 序数词 + 单数名词 every + other + 单数名词 every + few + 复数名词 every four years=every fourth year 每四年(每隔三年) every other day/year/line…每隔一天/年/行… 【辨析】for example, such as, namely for example 作为独立成分插入句中,位置灵活 such as 用来列举(一类)事,放在被列举的事物与前面的名词之间,as 之后不能有逗号(列 举部分事例) 。 The money is used to buy basic foods such as flour, rice, and pasta. namely 用来列举全部事例,放在列举事物的前面。 6. Some organic farmers prefer planting grass between crops to prevent wind or water from

carrying away the soil, and then leaving it in the ground to become a natural fertilizer for the next year’s crop.还有一些有机耕作者喜欢在农作物之间种草,以防止水土流失,并且把草留在地 里,从而成为来年农作物的天然肥料。 (1)prefer 意为“更喜欢” 【常用搭配】prefer to do/doing sth.更喜欢做某事 prefer…to…与…比较起来更喜欢… prefer to do…rather than do…宁愿做…也不做… prefer sb. to do sth.更愿意/喜欢某热门做某事 四.主要语法 动词-ing 形式(I) 1.动词-ing 形式的用法 (1)-ing 形式直接作主语,通常直接置于句首。 Reading aloud is a good way in learning languages. Smoking does harm to your health. (2)在 “There be no+…”结构中作主语。 There is no use doing…做….无用 There is no point doing 做…无意义 【注意】There is no need to do sth.做某事没必要 【拓展】当动名词作主语时,其逻辑主语由形容词性物主代词或名词所有格构成 My sister’s being ill made me worried. His coming added to our pleasure. (3)常用动名词作宾语的动词 consider, suggest, look forward to, excuse. Admit, delay, avoid, practice, deny, finish, quit, appreciate, can’t help, mind, escape, risk, imagine 2.动名词的复合结构 Would you mind my opening the door? 3.动名词的时态和语态(以动词 write 为例) 一般式 完成式 主动语态 writing having written 被动语态 being written having been written

其否定形式在 doing 前加 not 五.写作导与练 英语的惯用句型(1) 在英语中,有很多惯用句型和结构,而高考又要求用它们来写作,为此从本单元起,“写作 步步高”将介绍一些英语的惯用句型和结构。 句型 1 It must be pointed out that...必须指出的是…… It must be pointed out that it is one of our basic State policies to control population growth. 必须指出的是:控制人口增长是我国的一项基本国策。 句型 2 It must be kept in mind that...必须记住的是…… It must be kept in mind that there is no other secret of success but hard work. 必须牢记:除了艰苦劳动,成功没有别的秘密。 句型 3 As is known to all...大家都知道…… As is known to all,knowledge is power.

大家都知道,知识就是力量 句型 4 It is hard to say...很难说…… It’s hard to say whether the plan is practical. 很难说这个计划是否实用。 句型 5 There is no doubt that...毫无疑问…… There is no doubt that you will be helped by others if you have any difficulties. 毫无疑问,如果你有困难,你会得到别人的帮助。 句型 6 To tell the truth...说实话…… To tell the truth,many mistakes we made could have been avoided. 说实话,我们犯的很多错误本来是可以避免的。 句型 7 As we know...我们知道…… As we know,it was not until recently that the problem was solved. 我们知道,直到最近这个问题才得以解决。 句型 8 As far as we know...就我们所知…… As far as we know,it took him more than a year to write the book. 就我们所知,他写这本书花了一年多的时间。 句型 9 It has been proved that...已经证实…… It has been proved that his theory is right. 已经证实他的理论是正确的。 句型 10 Have you considered doing...? 你有没有考虑过做……? Have you considered going abroad to study? 你有没有考虑过出国留学? 用上述句型翻译下列句子。 1 . 必 须 指 出 的 是 : 英 语 是 我 们 所 学 学 科 中 的 一 门 重 要 学 科 。 _________________________________ 2.必须记住:失败乃成功之母。 ________________________________________________________________________ 3.大家都知道,有志者事竟成。 ________________________________________________________________________ 4.很难说这个理论是否正确。 ________________________________________________________________________ 5.毫无疑问,只有通过这种方法,我们才能按时完成任务。 ________________________________________________________________________ 6.说实话,我本来是可以来早一点的。 ________________________________________________________________________ 7.我们知道,新中国是 1949 年成立的。 ________________________________________________________________________ 8.就我们所知,他为人民的解放,耗费了他一生的精力。 ________________________________________________________________________ 9.已经证实这个计划是可行的。 ________________________________________________________________________ 10.你考虑过就如何学英语给我一些建议吗? _______________________________________________________________________


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